Microbial Contamination and Food Safety

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 48796

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF-Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina–Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Interests: food microbiology; food safety; food quality; food biotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microbial contamination is one of the food chain's main challenges, from farm to fork/plate. According to WHO, the consumption of contaminated food kills 420 thousand people every year and can cause more than 200 harmful diseases. Furthermore, microbial contamination of foods causes a huge economic impact due to loss of product, increased insurance costs or consumer confidence loss. Since microbial contamination can occur at any step of the food chain, the implementation of effective food safety strategies is needed throughout production, postharvest handling, processing, distribution, and consumer handling to control and eliminate potential microbial hazards.

This Special Issue will collect comprehensive manuscripts dedicated to topics focused on food safety strategies, models that predict microbial behavior, and the monitoring and prevention/elimination of microbial contamination along the farm to fork/consumer chain. New approaches and innovative technologies are welcome.

Dr. Joana Barbosa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food contamination
  • food safety practices
  • microbial inactivation
  • microbial safety
  • microbiological hazards

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (22 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

14 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Inactivation Kinetics of Foodborne Pathogens in Carrot Juice by High-Pressure Processing
by Chiu-Chu Hwang, Chung-Saint Lin, Yun-Ting Hsiao, Ya-Ling Huang, Feng-Lin Yen, Yi-Chen Lee and Yung-Hsiang Tsai
Biology 2023, 12(11), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12111383 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In this study, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes were separately inoculated in sterilized carrot juice and subjected to various types of high-pressure processing (HPP) at 200–600 MPa for 0.1–15 min to observe the effects of HPP on the inactivation kinetics [...] Read more.
In this study, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes were separately inoculated in sterilized carrot juice and subjected to various types of high-pressure processing (HPP) at 200–600 MPa for 0.1–15 min to observe the effects of HPP on the inactivation kinetics of foodborne pathogens in carrot juice. The first-order model fits the destruction kinetics of high pressure on foodborne pathogens during the pressure hold period. An increase in pressure from 200 to 600 MPa decreased the decimal reduction time (D values) of S. Typhimurium, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes. Under pressure ≥ 400 MPa, the D values of E. coli were significantly higher than those of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, indicating that E. coli had greater resistance to high pressures than the others. The Zp values (the pressure range that causes the D values to change by 90%) of E. coli, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes were 195, 175, and 170 MPa, respectively. These results indicated that L. monocytogenes and E. coli were the most and least sensitive, respectively, to pressure changes. Additionally, the three bacteria were separately inoculated into thermal-sterilized carrot juice and subjected to 200–600 MPa HPP for 3 min. The treated carrot juices were stored at 4 °C for 27 d. Following S. Typhimurium and E. coli inoculation, the bacterial counts of the control and 200 MPa treatments remained the same during the storage duration. However, they decreased for the 300 and 400 MPa treatment groups with increasing storage duration. During the storage period, no bacterial growth was observed in the 500 and 600 MPa treatments. However, the bacterial number for the control and pressure treatment groups increased with prolonged storage duration following inoculation with L. monocytogenes. Therefore, following HPP, residual L. monocytogenes continued growing stably at low temperatures. Overall, HPP could inhibit and delay the growth of S. Typhimurium and E. coli in carrot juice during cold storage, but it was ineffective at inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes. There was a risk of foodborne illness despite the low-temperature storage of juice. The innovation of this preliminary study is to find the impact of high pressure on the inactivate kinetics of three food pathogens in carrot juice and its practical application in simulated contaminated juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 906 KiB  
Article
Multidrug Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Cheese and Capable of Producing Benzalkonium Chloride-Resistant Biofilms
by Acácio Salamandane, Gomes Cahango, Belo Afonso Muetanene, Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira and Luísa Brito
Biology 2023, 12(10), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12101353 - 22 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate enterococci recovered from eight Portuguese cheeses made with raw ewe’s milk, regarding antibiotic resistance, virulence genes, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), biofilm formation capacity, and biofilm eradication (MBEC) by BAC. Antimicrobial resistance against seven antibiotics [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate enterococci recovered from eight Portuguese cheeses made with raw ewe’s milk, regarding antibiotic resistance, virulence genes, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), biofilm formation capacity, and biofilm eradication (MBEC) by BAC. Antimicrobial resistance against seven antibiotics of five groups was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. The presence of the genes that encode resistance to the antibiotics penicillin (blaZ), erythromycin (ermA, ermB, and ermC), vancomycin (vanA and vanB), aminoglycoside (aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia), and β-lactam (pbp5) and the genes that encode virulence factors, frsB, cylA, gelE, esp, and agg, were investigated via multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of planktonic cells to BAC was evaluated by the MIC and MBC values of the isolates, using the broth microdilution method. To assess the biofilm-forming ability and resistance of biofilms to BAC, biofilms were produced on stainless steel coupons, followed by exposure to BAC. The results showed a high resistance to the antibiotics vancomycin (87.5%), erythromycin (75%), tetracycline (50%), and penicillin (37.5%). Multidrug resistance was observed in 68.8% of the isolates. Genes encoding the virulence factors FrsB (frsB) and gelatinase E (gelE) were detected in all isolates. The esp and cylA genes were found in 56.3% and 37.5% of the isolates, respectively. All isolates exhibited a biofilm-forming ability, regardless of incubation time and temperature tested. However, after 72 h at 37 °C, E. faecium and E. faecalis biofilms showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Although most isolates (62.5%) were susceptible to BAC (MIC ≤ 10 mg/L), biofilms of the same isolates were, generally, resistant to the higher concentration of BAC (80 mg/mL) tested. This study using Enterococcus isolates from a ready-to-eat food, such as cheese, reveals the high percentages of vancomycin resistance and multidrug resistance, associated with the presence of virulence genes, in isolates also capable of producing biofilms resistant to BAC, an important active ingredient of many disinfectants. These results emphasize the need for effective control measures to ensure the safety and quality of dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2298 KiB  
Article
The Impact of HPP-Assisted Biocontrol Approach on the Bacterial Communities’ Dynamics and Quality Parameters of a Fermented Meat Sausage Model
by Norton Komora, Cláudia Maciel, Joana Isidro, Carlos A. Pinto, Gianuario Fortunato, Jorge M. A. Saraiva and Paula Teixeira
Biology 2023, 12(9), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12091212 - 06 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Traditional foods are increasingly valued by consumers, whose attention and purchase willingness are highly influenced by other claims such as ‘natural’, ‘sustainable’, and ‘clean label’. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a novel non-thermal food processing method [...] Read more.
Traditional foods are increasingly valued by consumers, whose attention and purchase willingness are highly influenced by other claims such as ‘natural’, ‘sustainable’, and ‘clean label’. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a novel non-thermal food processing method (i.e., HPP-assisted biocontrol combining mild high hydrostatic pressure, listeriophage Listex, and pediocin PA-1 producing Pediococcus acidilactici) on the succession of bacterial communities and quality of a fermented sausage model. A comparative analysis of instrumental color, texture, and lipid peroxidation revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in these quality parameters between non- and minimally processed fermented sausages throughout 60-day refrigerated storage (4 °C). The microbiota dynamics of biotreated and untreated fermented sausages were assessed by 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing, and the alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed no dissimilarity in the structure and composition of the bacterial communities over the analyzed period. The innovative multi-hurdle technology proposed herein holds valuable potential for the manufacture of traditional fermented sausages while preserving their unique intrinsic characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1435 KiB  
Communication
Effectiveness and Durability of a Quaternary Ammonium Compounds-Based Surface Coating to Reduce Surface Contamination
by Teresa Bento de Carvalho, Joana Bastos Barbosa and Paula Teixeira
Biology 2023, 12(5), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12050669 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
Foodborne diseases are of major concern as they have a significant impact on public health, both socially and economically. The occurrence of cross-contamination of food in household kitchens is a serious threat and the adoption of safe food practices is of paramount importance. [...] Read more.
Foodborne diseases are of major concern as they have a significant impact on public health, both socially and economically. The occurrence of cross-contamination of food in household kitchens is a serious threat and the adoption of safe food practices is of paramount importance. This work aimed to study the effectiveness and durability of a commercial quaternary ammonium compound-based surface coating which, according to the manufacturer, retains its antimicrobial activity for 30 days, and is suitable for all types of hard surfaces for the prevention and/or control of cross-contamination. For that, its antimicrobial efficacy, killing contact time and durability on three different surfaces—polyvinyl chloride, glass, and stainless-steel—against three pathogens—Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Acinetobacter baumannii ESB260 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A—were tested according to the current antimicrobial treated surfaces efficacy test (ISO22196:2011). The results showed that the antimicrobial coating was effective against all pathogens with a reduction of >5.0 log CFU/cm2 in less than one minute for the three surfaces, but its durability was less than one week on all surfaces cleaned in the usual manner. Additionally, trace amounts (≤0.2 mg/kg) of the antimicrobial coating, which may migrate into food when contacting the surface, did not show cytotoxicity to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The suggested antimicrobial coating has the potential to significantly reduce surface contamination, ensure surface disinfection and reduce the likelihood of cross-contamination in domestic kitchens, although it is less durable than suggested. The use of this technology in household settings is an attractive complement to the existing cleaning protocols and solutions that are already in place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3295 KiB  
Article
Diminishing the Pathogenesis of the Food-Borne Pathogen Serratia marcescens by Low Doses of Sodium Citrate
by Maan T. Khayat, Samar S. Elbaramawi, Shaimaa I. Nazeih, Martin K. Safo, El-Sayed Khafagy, Mohamed A. M. Ali, Hisham A. Abbas, Wael A. H. Hegazy and Noura M. Seleem
Biology 2023, 12(4), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12040504 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
Protecting food from bacterial contamination is crucial for ensuring its safety and avoiding foodborne illness. Serratia marcescens is one of the food bacterial contaminants that can form biofilms and pigments that spoil the food product and could cause infections and illness to the [...] Read more.
Protecting food from bacterial contamination is crucial for ensuring its safety and avoiding foodborne illness. Serratia marcescens is one of the food bacterial contaminants that can form biofilms and pigments that spoil the food product and could cause infections and illness to the consumer. Food preservation is essential to diminish such bacterial contaminants or at least reduce their pathogenesis; however, it should not affect food odor, taste, and consistency and must be safe. Sodium citrate is a well-known safe food additive and the current study aims to evaluate its anti-virulence and anti-biofilm activity at low concentrations against S. marcescens. The anti-virulence and antibiofilm activities of sodium citrate were evaluated phenotypically and genotypically. The results showed the significant effect of sodium citrate on decreasing the biofilm formation and other virulence factors, such as motility and the production of prodigiosin, protease, and hemolysins. This could be owed to its downregulating effect on the virulence-encoding genes. An in vivo investigation was conducted on mice and the histopathological examination of isolated tissues from the liver and kidney of mice confirmed the anti-virulence activity of sodium citrate. In addition, an in silico docking study was conducted to evaluate the sodium citrate binding ability to S. marcescens quorum sensing (QS) receptors that regulates its virulence. Sodium citrate showed a marked virtual ability to compete on QS proteins, which could explain sodium citrate’s anti-virulence effect. In conclusion, sodium citrate is a safe food additive and can be used at low concentrations to prevent contamination and biofilm formation by S. marcescens and other bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Dissolved Carbon Dioxide: The Lifespan of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis in Bottled Carbonated Mineral Water
by Michael Schalli, Sabine Platzer, Rainer Schmutz, Petra Ofner-Kopeinig, Franz F. Reinthaler and Doris Haas
Biology 2023, 12(3), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12030432 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
During the process of mineral water production, many possible contamination settings can influence the quality of bottled water. Microbial contamination can originate from different sources, for example, the ambient air, the bottles, the caps, and from the bottling machine itself. The aim of [...] Read more.
During the process of mineral water production, many possible contamination settings can influence the quality of bottled water. Microbial contamination can originate from different sources, for example, the ambient air, the bottles, the caps, and from the bottling machine itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (3.0 g/L, 5.5 g/L, and 7.0 g/L; 20 bottles each) in bottled mineral water on the bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis). The examined mineral water was artificially contaminated before capping the bottles inside the factory. After a specific number of days, water samples were taken from freshly opened bottles and after filtration (100 mL), filters were placed on Columbia Agar with 5% Sheep blood to cultivate S. aureus and Slanetz and Bartley Agar to cultivate Ent. faecalis. The respective colony-forming units (CFU) were counted after incubation times ranging from 24 to 120 h. Colony-forming units of S. aureus were not detectable after the 16th and 27th day, whereas Ent. faecalis was not cultivable after the 5th and 13th day when stored inside the bottles. The investigation of the bottles that were stored open for a certain amount of time with CO2 bubbling out showed only single colonies for S. aureus after the 5th day and no CFUs for Ent. faecalis after the 17th day. A reduction in the two investigated bacterial strains during storage in carbonated mineral water bottles means that a proper standardized disinfection and cleaning procedure, according to valid hygiene standards of industrial bottling machines, cannot be replaced by carbonation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 895 KiB  
Article
Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence Gene Detection, and Biofilm Formation in Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Fish and Humans in Egypt
by Dalia El-Hossary, Asmaa Mahdy, Eman Y. T. Elariny, Ahmed Askora, Abdallah M. A. Merwad, Taisir Saber, Hesham Dahshan, Nora Y. Hakami and Rehab A. Ibrahim
Biology 2023, 12(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12030421 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
The genus Aeromonas is widely distributed in aquatic environments and is recognized as a potential human pathogen. Some Aeromonas species are able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases, mainly gastroenteritis, skin and soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. The aim of the current [...] Read more.
The genus Aeromonas is widely distributed in aquatic environments and is recognized as a potential human pathogen. Some Aeromonas species are able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases, mainly gastroenteritis, skin and soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in raw fish markets and humans in Zagazig, Egypt; identify the factors that contribute to virulence; determine the isolates’ profile of antibiotic resistance; and to elucidate the ability of Aeromonas spp. to form biofilms. The examined samples included fish tissues and organs from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, n = 160) and mugil (Mugil cephalus, n = 105), and human skin swabs (n = 51) and fecal samples (n = 27). Based on biochemical and PCR assays, 11 isolates (3.2%) were confirmed as Aeromonas spp. and four isolates (1.2%) were confirmed as A. hydrophila. The virulence genes including haemolysin (hyl A) and aerolysin (aer) were detected using PCR in A. hydrophila in percentages of 25% and 50%, respectively. The antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas spp. was assessed against 14 antibiotics comprising six classes. The resistance to cefixime (81.8%) and tobramycin (45.4%) was observed. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranged between 0.142–0.642 with 64.2% of the isolates having MAR values equal to 0.642. Biofilm formation capacity was assessed using a microtiter plate assay, and two isolates (18.1%) were classified as biofilm producers. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring and controlling the multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. and especially A. hydrophila in marine foods consumed in our country to protect humans and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2313 KiB  
Article
Salmonella Phage CKT1 Effectively Controls the Vertical Transmission of Salmonella Pullorum in Adult Broiler Breeders
by Ketong Cui, Peiyong Li, Jiaqi Huang, Fang Lin, Ruibo Li, Dingguo Cao, Guijuan Hao and Shuhong Sun
Biology 2023, 12(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020312 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Phage therapy is widely being reconsidered as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, including salmonellosis caused by Salmonella. As facultative intracellular parasites, Salmonella could spread by vertical transmission and pose a great threat to both human and [...] Read more.
Phage therapy is widely being reconsidered as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, including salmonellosis caused by Salmonella. As facultative intracellular parasites, Salmonella could spread by vertical transmission and pose a great threat to both human and animal health; however, whether phage treatment might provide an optional strategy for controlling bacterial vertical infection remains unknown. Herein, we explored the effect of phage therapy on controlling the vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum), a poultry pathogen that causes economic losses worldwide due to high mortality and morbidity. A Salmonella phage CKT1 with lysis ability against several S. enterica serovars was isolated and showed that it could inhibit the proliferation of S. Pullorum in vitro efficiently. We then evaluated the effect of phage CKT1 on controlling the vertical transmission of S. Pullorum in an adult broiler breeder model. The results demonstrated that phage CKT1 significantly alleviated hepatic injury and decreased bacterial load in the liver, spleen, heart, ovary, and oviduct of hens, implying that phage CKT1 played an active role in the elimination of Salmonella colonization in adult chickens. Additionally, phage CKT1 enabled a reduction in the Salmonella-specific IgG level in the serum of infected chickens. More importantly, the decrease in the S. Pullorum load on eggshells and in liquid whole eggs revealed that phage CKT1 effectively controlled the vertical transmission of S. Pullorum from hens to laid eggs, indicating the potential ability of phages to control bacterial vertical transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1495 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Bacterial Community of Mustard Pickle Products and Their Microbial and Chemical Qualities
by Hung-I Chien, Yu-Fan Yen, Yi-Chen Lee, Pi-Chen Wei, Chun-Yung Huang, Chih-Hua Tseng, Feng-Lin Yen and Yung-Hsiang Tsai
Biology 2023, 12(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020258 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
We assessed the microbial and chemical qualities and microbiomes of 14 mustard pickle products coded sequentially from A to N and sold in traditional Taiwanese markets. The results showed that the aerobic plate count and lactic acid bacteria count of commercially available mustard [...] Read more.
We assessed the microbial and chemical qualities and microbiomes of 14 mustard pickle products coded sequentially from A to N and sold in traditional Taiwanese markets. The results showed that the aerobic plate count and lactic acid bacteria count of commercially available mustard pickle products were 2.18–4.01 and <1.0–3.77 log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in any of the samples. Analysis of the chemical quality showed that the sulfite content of all samples exceeded 30 ppm, which is the food additive limit in Taiwan. Furthermore, the mean contents of eight biogenic amines in the mustard pickle product samples were below 48.0 mg/kg. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant bacterial genera in sample A were Proteus spp. (25%), Vibrio (25%), and Psychrobacter (10%), in sample C they were Weissella (62%) and Lactobacillus (15%), in sample E it was Lactobacillus (97%), and in sample J it was Companilactobacillus (57%). Mustard pickle product samples from different sources contained different microbiomes. The dominant bacterial family was Lactobacillaceae in all samples except for sample A. In contrast, the microbiome of sample A mainly consisted of Morganellaceae and Vibrionaceae, which may have resulted from environmental contamination during storage and sales. The result of this work suggests it may be necessary to monitor sulfite levels and potential sources of bacterial contamination in mustard pickle products, and to take appropriate measures to rule out any public health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Foliar Roughness and Water Content Impact on Escherichia coli Attachment in Baby Leafy Greens
by Stefania Truschi, Ada Baldi, Piero Bruschi, Ilaria Cacciari, Massimiliano Marvasi and Anna Lenzi
Biology 2023, 12(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010102 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Understanding the relation between the susceptibility of different leafy greens to human pathogen contamination and leaf traits can contribute to increase the food safety of the fresh vegetable industry. The aim of this research was to evaluate the susceptibility to E. coli ATCC [...] Read more.
Understanding the relation between the susceptibility of different leafy greens to human pathogen contamination and leaf traits can contribute to increase the food safety of the fresh vegetable industry. The aim of this research was to evaluate the susceptibility to E. coli ATCC 35218 attachment in 30 accessions of baby leaves, and to identify leaf traits potentially involved in the contamination. The accessions were surface inoculated with a bacterial suspension containing 1 × 107 cells/mL and the attachment was measured 1.5 h after inoculation. Significant differences in attachment were detected between the accessions for p ≤ 0.05. The three most and the three least susceptible accessions were selected and characterized for leaf micro-morphological traits (stomata density and size, surface roughness) and water content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyse the stomatal parameters. Roughness was measured by an innovative portable 3D digital microscope. No significant correlation between the attachment of E. coli ATCC 35218 and stomatal parameters was detected, while the attachment was positively correlated with roughness and water content. The E. coli ATCC 35218 population in surface-inoculated leaves was also measured after a UV treatment, which was found to be less effective in reducing bacterial contamination in the rougher leaves. This result suggested that roughness offers UV protection, further highlighting its impact on the microbiological safety of baby leafy greens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Safety and Quality of Meals and Work Surfaces in Collective Catering Systems in Central Italy: A Five-Year Monitoring Study
by Alessia Lupattelli, Sara Primavilla, Rossana Roila, Andrea Felici and Miriam Tinaro
Biology 2023, 12(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12010064 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Ready-to-eat (RTE) meals produced and served by the catering system still represent one of the major causes of foodborne outbreaks, especially for susceptible consumers. Despite the great progress in food hygiene and safety, the systematic monitoring of microbial contamination of foodstuff is the [...] Read more.
Ready-to-eat (RTE) meals produced and served by the catering system still represent one of the major causes of foodborne outbreaks, especially for susceptible consumers. Despite the great progress in food hygiene and safety, the systematic monitoring of microbial contamination of foodstuff is the most effective tool to ensure food safety and protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough assessment of the microbial safety and quality of meals and work surfaces of collective catering systems in central Italy, over a five-year period (2014–2018). In total 11,012 microbiological analytical determinations were performed in food matrices (80.1%) and environmental samples (19.9%). The results obtained show a low level of non-conformities ranging from 2.2% to 6.3% of total samples, concerning both hygiene and safety parameters. A decreasing trend of non-conformities during the years was also highlighted (p-value < 0.05), especially for environmental samples. This study suggests that the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and the proper definition of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans, combined with a thorough evaluation of microbiological monitoring, are able to ensure high levels of food safety and hygiene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1946 KiB  
Article
Modification of Antibiotic Activity by Fixed Oil of the Artocarpus heterophyllus Almond against Standard and Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Strains
by Cícera Janayne Ferreira Dias, António Raposo, Cícera Dayane Thais de Sousa, José Bezerra de Araújo-Neto, Saulo Relison Tintino, Cícera Datiane de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Isaac Moura Araújo, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Mayra Garcia Maia Costa, Cleidiane Gomes Lima, Mairlane Silva de Alencar, Conrado Carrascosa, Ariana Saraiva and Erlânio Oliveira de Sousa
Biology 2022, 11(12), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11121835 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) is an evergreen tree distributed in tropical regions and is among the most studied species of the genus Artocarpus. The jackfruit almond has been highlighted in relation to phytochemical studies, biological properties, and application in the development of food [...] Read more.
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) is an evergreen tree distributed in tropical regions and is among the most studied species of the genus Artocarpus. The jackfruit almond has been highlighted in relation to phytochemical studies, biological properties, and application in the development of food products. This study aimed to analyze jackfruit fixed oil regarding chemical components, antibacterial property alone, and in association with antibiotics against standard and MDR bacteria strains. In the analysis of the oil by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), a high content of saturated fatty acids (78.51%) was identified in relation to unsaturated fatty acids (17.07%). The main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (43.01%), myristic acid (11.10%), palmitic acid (6.95%), and oleic acid (15.32%). In the antibacterial analysis, broth microdilution assays were used. The oil presented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 1024 μg/mL in antibacterial analysis for standard and MDR bacterial strains. The oil showed synergistic effects in the association with gentamicin, ofloxacin, and penicillin against MDR strains, with significant reductions in the MIC of antibiotics. The results suggest that the fixed oil of A. heterophyllus has fatty acids with the potential to synergistically modify antibiotic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5093 KiB  
Article
Origanum dubium (Cypriot Oregano) as a Promising Sanitizing Agent against Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on Tomato and Cucumber Fruits
by Panayiota Xylia, Antonios Chrysargyris, Panagiota Miltiadous and Nikolaos Tzortzakis
Biology 2022, 11(12), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11121772 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
In recent years, the use of natural products such as essential oils (EOs) and other plant extracts for the preservation of fresh produce has attracted much interest from the food industry. Many endemic medicinal and aromatic plants, such as Cypriot oregano (Origanum [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of natural products such as essential oils (EOs) and other plant extracts for the preservation of fresh produce has attracted much interest from the food industry. Many endemic medicinal and aromatic plants, such as Cypriot oregano (Origanum dubium), present a plethora of properties that can be utilized by the fruit and vegetable sectors of the food industry. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of O. dubium EO and hydrosol (at different concentrations and durations of dipping application) for the preservation of tomato and cucumber fruit quality, and their effectiveness as sanitizing agents against two foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica). The results of this study indicated that increased concentrations of EO, combined with a longer duration of application, resulted in less marketable fruit compared to hydrosol application. Interestingly, EO application at lower concentrations and shorter durations of application (i.e., 0.01% for 5 min) increased fruit antioxidant, ascorbic acid and carotenoid levels (for tomato fruit), suggesting an increase in the nutritional value of the treated fruit, compared to the control. EO and hydrosol were able to decrease the bacterial populations (both bacteria) on fruits. Both products were especially effective against L. monocytogenes, even seven days after their application and storage at 11 °C (up to an approx. 3 log reduction with the EO application). Overall, the results of this study suggest that the use of O. dubium EO and hydrosol could be considered as alternative sanitation means for tomatoes and cucumbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4112 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Adhesion to Skin Keratinocytes and Underlying Mechanisms
by Mariana Lizardo, Rui Miguel Magalhães and Freni Kekhasharú Tavaria
Biology 2022, 11(9), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091372 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
The effects of probiotics on the skin are not yet well understood. Their topical application and benefits derived thereafter have recently been investigated. Improvements in different skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis, acne, eczema, and psoriasis after their use have, however, been reported. [...] Read more.
The effects of probiotics on the skin are not yet well understood. Their topical application and benefits derived thereafter have recently been investigated. Improvements in different skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis, acne, eczema, and psoriasis after their use have, however, been reported. One of the mechanisms through which such benefits are documented is by inhibiting colonization by skin pathogens. Bacterial adhesion is the first step for colonization to occur; therefore, to avoid pathogenic colonization, inhibiting adhesion is crucial. In this study, invasion and adhesion studies have been carried out using keratinocytes. These showed that Escherichia coli is not able to invade skin keratinocytes, but adhered to them. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus and Propioniferax innocua decreased the viable counts of the three pathogens under study. L. rhamnosus significantly inhibited S. aureus adhesion. P. innocua did not inhibit pathogenic bacteria adhesion, but when added simultaneously with S. aureus (competition assay) a significant adhesion reduction (1.12 ± 0.14 log10CFU/mL) was observed. Probiotic bacteria seem to use carbohydrates to adhere to the keratinocytes, while S. aureus uses proteins. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus showed promising results in pathogen inhibition in both in vitro and ex vivo experiments and can potentially be used as a reinforcement of conventional therapies for skin dysbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Quality Improvement in Mackerel Fillets Caused by Brine Salting Combined with High-Pressure Processing
by Chih-Hsiung Huang, Chung-Saint Lin, Yi-Chen Lee, Jhih-Wei Ciou, Chia-Hung Kuo, Chun-Yung Huang, Chih-Hua Tseng and Yung-Hsiang Tsai
Biology 2022, 11(9), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091307 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of brine salting and high-pressure processing (HPP) on the microbial inactivation and quality parameters of mackerel fillets. Mackerel fillets were immersed in 3% and 9% sodium chloride brine for 90 min at refrigerator [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of brine salting and high-pressure processing (HPP) on the microbial inactivation and quality parameters of mackerel fillets. Mackerel fillets were immersed in 3% and 9% sodium chloride brine for 90 min at refrigerator temperature, and then treated at 300, 400, 500, and 600 MPa pressure for 5 min. The microbial counts and physicochemical qualities of the fish were examined. In comparison with fish fillets treated with brine or high pressure alone, those treated with the combination of brine salting and HPP showed significantly reduced aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC). The hardness and chewiness of salt-brined fillets were obviously lower than those of the unsalted fillets under the same pressure condition. Thus, brine salting imparted mackerel fillets a softer texture, which compensated for the HPP-induced increased hardness and chewiness of the fillets. The L* (lightness) and ΔE (colour difference) values of the fillets increased with increasing pressure, with or without brine salting. Conversely, a* (redness) values decreased with increasing pressure. The samples treated with 3% brine in combination with 300 or 400 MPa pressure had a* values similar to those of the samples processed under similar HPP conditions alone but showed lower ΔE values than the other groups. Therefore, as a very high pressure would adversely affect the texture and colour of the fish fillets, this study suggests that immersion in an appropriate brine concentration (3%) and treatment with HPP at 400 MPa for 5 min improved or maintained the colour and texture relatively well and produced a synergistic bactericidal effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Meat from Ostriches Raised and Slaughtered in Bavaria, Germany: Microbiological Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance
by Philipp-Michael Beindorf, Oksana Kovalenko, Sebastian Ulrich, Hanna Geißler, Rüdiger Korbel, Karin Schwaiger, Samart Dorn-In and Irene Esteban-Cuesta
Biology 2022, 11(7), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11070985 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Ostrich meat is characterized by high nutritional value; however, it remains an exotic product in most countries worldwide. In Europe, only few data are available regarding its microbial contamination, prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and safety. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the microbiological [...] Read more.
Ostrich meat is characterized by high nutritional value; however, it remains an exotic product in most countries worldwide. In Europe, only few data are available regarding its microbial contamination, prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and safety. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the microbiological quality and safety of ostrich meat samples (n = 55), each from one animal, produced in Bavaria, Germany. The provided microbiological status of ostrich meat included mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteria, and mesophilic yeast and molds. In terms of food safety, all meat samples were negative for Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. Additionally, meat samples and a further 30 stool samples from 30 individuals were investigated for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli genes, with two meat samples that were qPCR-positive. Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium strains were from meat and stool samples also analyzed; 13 potentially resistant Enterobacteriaceae (meat samples) and 4 Enterococcus faecium (stool samples) were isolated, and their susceptibility against 29 and 14 antimicrobials, respectively, was characterized. The results of this study provide an overview of microbial loads and food safety aspects that may be used as baseline data for the ostrich meat industry to improve their hygienic quality. However, the implementation of monitoring programs is recommended, and microbiological standards for ostrich meat production should be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1938 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus aureus from Different Food Sources in Bangladesh
by Fatimah Muhammad Ballah, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Liton Rana, Farhana Binte Ferdous, Rokeya Ahmed, Pritom Kumar Pramanik, Jarna Karmoker, Samina Ievy, Md. Abdus Sobur, Mahbubul Pratik Siddique, Mst. Minara Khatun, Marzia Rahman and Md. Tanvir Rahman
Biology 2022, 11(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11070949 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a major foodborne pathogen. The ability of S. aureus to produce biofilm is a significant virulence factor, triggering its persistence in hostile environments. In this study, we screened a total of 420 different food samples and human hand swabs to [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a major foodborne pathogen. The ability of S. aureus to produce biofilm is a significant virulence factor, triggering its persistence in hostile environments. In this study, we screened a total of 420 different food samples and human hand swabs to detect S. aureus and to determine their biofilm formation ability. Samples analyzed were meat, milk, eggs, fish, fast foods, and hand swabs. S. aureus were detected by culturing, staining, biochemical, and PCR. Biofilm formation ability was determined by Congo Red Agar (CRA) plate and Crystal Violet Microtiter Plate (CVMP) tests. The icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, and bap genes involved in the synthesis of biofilm-forming intracellular adhesion compounds were detected by PCR. About 23.81% (100/420; 95% CI: 14.17–29.98%) of the samples harbored S. aureus, as revealed by detection of the nuc gene. The CRA plate test revealed 20% of S. aureus isolates as strong biofilm producers and 69% and 11% as intermediate and non-biofilm producers, respectively. By the CVMP staining method, 20%, 77%, and 3% of the isolates were found to be strong, intermediate, and non-biofilm producers. Furthermore, 21% of S. aureus isolates carried at least one biofilm-forming gene, where icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, and bap genes were detected in 15%, 20%, 7%, 20%, and 10% of the S. aureus isolates, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed highly significant correlations (p < 0.001) between any of the two adhesion genes of S. aureus isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Bangladesh describing the detection of biofilm-forming S. aureus from foods and hand swabs using molecular-based evidence. Our findings suggest that food samples should be deemed a potential reservoir of biofilm-forming S. aureus, which indicates a potential public health significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2056 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effects of High-Hydrostatic-Pressure Processing on Growth and Histamine Formation of Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Yellowfin Tuna Meat during Storage
by Chih-Hsiung Huang, Ching-Yu Hsieh, Yi-Chen Lee, Tsung-Yin Ou, Tien-Hsiang Chang, Shih-Hsiung Lee, Chih-Hua Tseng and Yung-Hsiang Tsai
Biology 2022, 11(5), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050702 - 03 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
In the research, we evaluated the effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the growth and histamine formation of histamine-forming bacteria (HFB) in yellowfin tuna meat during storage. Tuna meat samples inoculated with the individual HFB species Morganella morganii and Photobacterium phosphoreum were subjected [...] Read more.
In the research, we evaluated the effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the growth and histamine formation of histamine-forming bacteria (HFB) in yellowfin tuna meat during storage. Tuna meat samples inoculated with the individual HFB species Morganella morganii and Photobacterium phosphoreum were subjected to HPP treatment at 250, 350, 450, and 550 MPa for 5 min, and the changes in bacterial count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content, pH, and histamine content during storage at 4 and 15 °C were analyzed. The results indicate that the bacterial counts of the HFB species decreased significantly with increasing pressure, and HFB became undetectable in the samples treated at 450 and 550 MPa. At a storage temperature of 15 °C, the bacterial counts of both HFB species in the control group and samples subjected to HPP treatment at 250 and 350 MPa increased significantly with storage time. The bacterial counts of M. morganii in the samples stored at 4 °C decreased, whereas those of P. phosphoreum increased gradually owing to its psychrophilic nature. HPP treatment (>250 MPa) inhibited the increases in pH and TVBN content of the samples stored at 15 °C and delayed histamine formation in the samples during storage; these effects were more significant as the pressure during HPP treatment was increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4104 KiB  
Article
A New Few-Shot Learning Method of Bacterial Colony Counting Based on the Edge Computing Device
by Beini Zhang, Zhentao Zhou, Wenbin Cao, Xirui Qi, Chen Xu and Weijia Wen
Biology 2022, 11(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11020156 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4301
Abstract
Bacterial colony counting is a time consuming but important task for many fields, such as food quality testing and pathogen detection, which own the high demand for accurate on-site testing. However, bacterial colonies are often overlapped, adherent with each other, and difficult to [...] Read more.
Bacterial colony counting is a time consuming but important task for many fields, such as food quality testing and pathogen detection, which own the high demand for accurate on-site testing. However, bacterial colonies are often overlapped, adherent with each other, and difficult to precisely process by traditional algorithms. The development of deep learning has brought new possibilities for bacterial colony counting, but deep learning networks usually require a large amount of training data and highly configured test equipment. The culture and annotation time of bacteria are costly, and professional deep learning workstations are too expensive and large to meet portable requirements. To solve these problems, we propose a lightweight improved YOLOv3 network based on the few-shot learning strategy, which is able to accomplish high detection accuracy with only five raw images and be deployed on a low-cost edge device. Compared with the traditional methods, our method improved the average accuracy from 64.3% to 97.4% and decreased the False Negative Rate from 32.1% to 1.5%. Our method could greatly improve the detection accuracy, realize the portability for on-site testing, and significantly save the cost of data collection and annotation over 80%, which brings more potential for bacterial colony counting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 10020 KiB  
Article
A Time-Course Study on a Food Contact Material (FCM)-Certified Coating Based on Titanium Oxide Deposited onto Aluminum
by Alessandro Di Cerbo, Andrea Mescola, Giuseppe Rosace, Valentina Trovato, Roberto Canton, Ramona Iseppi, Roberta Stocchi, Shakira Ghazanfar, Stefano Rea, Anna Rita Loschi and Carla Sabia
Biology 2022, 11(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11010097 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Aluminum is the second most widely used metal worldwide. It is present as an additive in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, and food contact materials (FCM). In this study, we confirm the bactericidal effect of a special anodizing method, based on TiO2 nanoparticles (DURALTI [...] Read more.
Aluminum is the second most widely used metal worldwide. It is present as an additive in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, and food contact materials (FCM). In this study, we confirm the bactericidal effect of a special anodizing method, based on TiO2 nanoparticles (DURALTI®) deposited on aluminum disks with different roughness and subjected to two sanitizing treatments: UV and alcohol 70%. Consequently, we perform a time-course evaluation against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to better frame the time required to achieve the best result. Approximately 106 CFU/mL of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 1402; Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27588; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212; Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Listeria monocytogenes NCTT 10888 were inoculated onto each aluminum surface and challenged with UV and alcohol 70% at 0, 15”, 30”, 1′, 5′, 15′, 30′, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h. DURALTI® coating already confirmed its ability to induce a 4-logarithmic decrease (from 106 to 102 CFU/mL) after 6 h. Once each sanitizing treatment was applied, an overall bacterial inhibition occurred in a time ranging from 15′′ to 1′. The results are innovative in terms of preventing microbial adhesion and growth in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
First Survey about Current Practices of Environmental Monitoring Programs within French Agri-Food Industries
by Juliana De Oliveira Mota, Pauline Kooh, Emmanuel Jaffrès, Hervé Prévost, Thomas Maignien, Nathalie Arnich, Moez Sanaa, Géraldine Boué and Michel Federighi
Biology 2022, 11(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11010089 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Food safety is a constant challenge for stakeholders in the food industry. To manage the likelihood of microbiological contamination, food safety management systems must be robust, including food and environmental testing. Environmental monitoring programs (EMP) have emerged this last decade aiming to validate [...] Read more.
Food safety is a constant challenge for stakeholders in the food industry. To manage the likelihood of microbiological contamination, food safety management systems must be robust, including food and environmental testing. Environmental monitoring programs (EMP) have emerged this last decade aiming to validate cleaning–sanitation procedures and other environmental pathogen control programs. The need to monitor production environments has become evident because of recent foodborne outbreaks. However, the boundaries of environmental monitoring are not only limited to the management of pathogens but also extend to spoilage and hygiene indicators, microorganisms, allergens, and other hygiene monitoring. Surfaces in production environments can be a source of contamination, either through ineffective cleaning and disinfection procedures or through contamination during production by flows or operators. This study analyses the current practices of 37 French agri-food industries (small, medium, or large), reporting their objectives for EMPs, microbial targets, types, numbers and frequency of sampling, analysis of results, and types of corrective actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Growth and Expression of Virulence Genes of Listeria monocytogenes during the Processing of Dry-Cured Fermented “Salchichón” Manufactured with a Selected Lactilactobacillus sakei
by Irene Martín, Alberto Alía, Alicia Rodríguez, Francisco Gómez and Juan J. Córdoba
Biology 2021, 10(12), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121258 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The effect of the dry-cured fermented processing of “salchichón” inoculated with a selected strain of Lactilactobacillus sakei (205) on the growth and transcriptional response of three virulence genes (plcA, hly, and iap) of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. For this, three different [...] Read more.
The effect of the dry-cured fermented processing of “salchichón” inoculated with a selected strain of Lactilactobacillus sakei (205) on the growth and transcriptional response of three virulence genes (plcA, hly, and iap) of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. For this, three different batches of “salchichón” were analyzed: batch B (inoculated only with L. sakei), batch L (inoculated only with L. monocytogenes), and batch L + B (inoculated with both microorganisms). Sausages were ripened for 90 days according to a traditional industrial process. The processing of “salchichón” provoked a reduction in L. monocytogenes counts of around 2 log CFU/g. The downregulation of the expression of the three genes was found at the end of ripening when the water activity (aw) of “salchichón” was <0.85 aw. The combined effect on the reduction in L. monocytogenes counts together with the downregulation in the expression of the virulence genes throughout the “salchichón” processing could be of great interest to control the hazard caused by the presence of this pathogenic bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Contamination and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop