Functionalization of Dental Materials towards Improved Interaction with the Oral Environment

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 6936

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital, LMU, 80336 Munich, Germany
Interests: structure–property relationship in dental materials; characterization of materials; strategies for simplified restorative concepts; novel monomer; filler systems for dental materials
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Guest Editor
Oral Microbiology and Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Interests: surface characterization of materials; mutual interactions of dental materials with oral biofilms; bioreactors for in vitro oral biofilm formation; bioactive materials for secondary caries prevention; hard tissue remineralization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, developments in dental restorative materials have primarily focused on their mechanical properties, dimensional stability, fatigue and aesthetics. Their further development in terms of favorable interactions with the oral microenvironment featuring the host and biofilms permanently colonizing this ecological niche represents a fairly novel field of research that still requires much systematic investigation. A paradigm shift in the perspective of current research is represented by studies of dental materials and their properties aiming at controlling and modulating oral biofilm formation rather than trying to achieve the highest killing activity.

This Special Issue on “Functionalization of Dental Materials towards Improved Adaptation to the Oral Environment”, therefore, aims to focus on original research papers and comprehensive reviews dealing with innovative developments in dental materials for improved adaptation to the oral environment, the elucidation of interaction mechanisms between dental materials and the biofilm, modulation of dental biofilm formation through surface functionalization and the control of the amount and type of release of bioactive principles. Topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Mechanisms of biofilm control through interactions with dental materials;
  • Advanced experimental techniques for characterizing oral biofilm formation;
  • Surface functionalization of dental materials to modulate biofilm formation;
  • Toxicity of dental materials;
  • Behavior of dental materials under simulated oral conditions;
  • Accelerated aging protocols.

Prof. Dr. Nicoleta Ilie
Prof. Dr. Andrei Cristian Ionescu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • resin composites
  • bioreactors
  • oral biofilms
  • microbial adherence
  • biofilm formation
  • bioactivity
  • controlled release
  • toxicity
  • surface texturing
  • surface characterization
  • aging
  • accelerated aging

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 15466 KiB  
Article
Cellulose Nanocrystals Show Anti-Adherent and Anti-Biofilm Properties against Oral Microorganisms
by Antonella Panio, Andrei C. Ionescu, Barbara La Ferla, Luca Zoia, Paolo Savadori, Gianluca M. Tartaglia and Eugenio Brambilla
Bioengineering 2024, 11(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11040355 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are cellulose-derived nanomaterials that can be easily obtained, e.g., from vegetable waste produced by circular economies. They show promising antimicrobial activity and an absence of side effects and toxicity. This study investigated the ability of CNCs to reduce microbial adherence [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are cellulose-derived nanomaterials that can be easily obtained, e.g., from vegetable waste produced by circular economies. They show promising antimicrobial activity and an absence of side effects and toxicity. This study investigated the ability of CNCs to reduce microbial adherence and biofilm formation using in vitro microbiological models reproducing the oral environment. Microbial adherence by microbial strains of oral interest, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, was evaluated on the surfaces of salivary pellicle-coated enamel disks in the presence of different aqueous solutions of CNCs. The anti-biofilm activity of the same CNC solutions was tested against S. mutans and an oral microcosm model based on mixed plaque inoculum using a continuous-flow bioreactor. Results showed the excellent anti-adherent activity of the CNCs against the tested strains from the lowest concentration tested (0.032 wt. %, p < 0.001). Such activity was significantly higher against S. mutans than against C. albicans (p < 0.01), suggesting a selective anti-adherent activity against pathogenic strains. At the same time, there was a minimal, albeit significant, anti-biofilm activity (0.5 and 4 wt. % CNC solution for S. mutans and oral microcosm, respectively, p = 0.01). This makes CNCs particularly interesting as anticaries agents, encouraging their use in the oral field. Full article
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21 pages, 5349 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxic, Elastic-Plastic and Viscoelastic Behavior of Aged, Modern Resin-Based Dental Composites
by Nicoleta Ilie
Bioengineering 2023, 10(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10020235 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The development of resin-based composites (RBCs) is a delicate balance of antagonistic properties with direct clinical implications. The clear trend toward reducing filler size in modern RBCs solves esthetic deficiencies but reduces mechanical properties due to lower filler content and increases susceptibility to [...] Read more.
The development of resin-based composites (RBCs) is a delicate balance of antagonistic properties with direct clinical implications. The clear trend toward reducing filler size in modern RBCs solves esthetic deficiencies but reduces mechanical properties due to lower filler content and increases susceptibility to degradation due to larger filler–matrix interface. We evaluated a range of nano- and nano-hybrid RBCs, along with materials attempting to address shrinkage stress issues by implementing an Ormocer matrix or pre-polymerized fillers, and materials aiming to provide caries-protective benefit by incorporating bioactive fillers. The cytotoxic response of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells after exposure to the RBC eluates, which were collected for up to six months, was analyzed using a WST-1 assay. The microstructural features were characterized using a scanning electron microscopy and were related to the macroscopic and microscopic mechanical behaviors. The elastic-plastic and viscoelastic material behaviors were evaluated at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The data were supplemented with fractography, Weibull analysis, and aging behavioral analysis. The results indicate that all RBCs are non-cytotoxic at adequate exposure. The amount of inorganic filler affects the elastic modulus, while only to a limited extent the flexural strength, and is well below the theoretical estimates. The nanoparticles and the agglomeration of nanoparticles in the RBCs help generate good mechanical properties and excellent reliability, but they are more prone to deterioration with aging. The pre-polymerized fillers lower the initial mechanical properties but are less sensitive to aging. Only the Ormocer retains its damping ability after aging. The strength and modulus of elasticity on the one hand and the damping capacity on the other are mutually exclusive and indicate the direction in which the RBCs should be further developed. Full article
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17 pages, 2597 KiB  
Article
Adhesion Forces of Oral Bacteria to Titanium and the Correlation with Biophysical Cellular Characteristics
by Katharina Doll-Nikutta, Andreas Winkel, Ines Yang, Anna Josefine Grote, Nils Meier, Mosaieb Habib, Henning Menzel, Peter Behrens and Meike Stiesch
Bioengineering 2022, 9(10), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9100567 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Bacterial adhesion to dental implants is the onset for the development of pathological biofilms. Reliable characterization of this initial process is the basis towards the development of anti-biofilm strategies. In the present study, single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), by means of an atomic force [...] Read more.
Bacterial adhesion to dental implants is the onset for the development of pathological biofilms. Reliable characterization of this initial process is the basis towards the development of anti-biofilm strategies. In the present study, single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), by means of an atomic force microscope connected to a microfluidic pressure control system (FluidFM), was used to comparably measure adhesion forces of different oral bacteria within a similar experimental setup to the common implant material titanium. The bacteria selected belong to different ecological niches in oral biofilms: the commensal pioneers Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii; secondary colonizer Veillonella dispar; and the late colonizing pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as fimbriated and non-fimbriated Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The results showed highest values for early colonizing pioneer species, strengthening the link between adhesion forces and bacteria’s role in oral biofilm development. Additionally, the correlation between biophysical cellular characteristics and SCFS results across species was analyzed. Here, distinct correlations between electrostatically driven maximum adhesion force, bacterial surface elasticity and surface charge as well as single-molecule attachment points, stretching capability and metabolic activity, could be identified. Therefore, this study provides a step towards the detailed understanding of oral bacteria initial adhesion and could support the development of infection-resistant implant materials in future. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 2098 KiB  
Review
Latest Findings of the Regenerative Materials Application in Periodontal and Peri-Implant Surgery: A Scoping Review
by Simone Gallo, Maurizio Pascadopoli, Matteo Pellegrini, Federica Pulicari, Mattia Manfredini, Paolo Zampetti, Francesco Spadari, Carlo Maiorana and Andrea Scribante
Bioengineering 2022, 9(10), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9100594 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Regenerative dentistry represents a therapeutic modern approach involving biomaterials and biologics such as mesenchymal stem cells. The role of regenerative dentistry is promising in all branches of dentistry, especially in periodontology and implantology for the treatment of bony defects around teeth and implants, [...] Read more.
Regenerative dentistry represents a therapeutic modern approach involving biomaterials and biologics such as mesenchymal stem cells. The role of regenerative dentistry is promising in all branches of dentistry, especially in periodontology and implantology for the treatment of bony defects around teeth and implants, respectively. Due to the number of different materials that can be used for this purpose, the aim of the present review is to evidence the regenerative properties of different materials both in periodontitis and peri-implantitis as well as to compare their efficacy. Clinical trials, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies have been considered in this review. The outcome assessed is represented by the regenerative properties of bone grafts, barrier membranes, and biological materials in the treatment of intrabony and furcation defects, peri-implantitis sites, alveolar ridge preservation, and implant site development. Based on the studies included, it can be stated that in the last years regenerative materials in periodontal and peri-implant defects treatments have shown excellent results, thus providing valuable support to surgical therapy. To achieve optimal and predictable results, clinicians should always consider factors like occlusal load control, prevention of microbial contamination, and wound dehiscence. Further evidence is required about the use of enamel matrix derivative in alveolar ridge preservation, as well as of stem cells and bone morphogenetic proteins-2 in furcation defects and peri-implantitis sites. Considering the high amount of research being conducted in this field, further evidence is expected to be obtained soon. Full article
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