Brewing Technology – Innovations in Raw Materials, Processing and Products

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710). This special issue belongs to the section "Malting, Brewing and Beer".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 18760

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
Interests: malt; yeast; wort; brewing; fermentation; metal ions

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
Interests: brewing; yeast; lactic acid bacteria; mashing; fermentation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Beer and beer-like beverages are among the most popular beverages around the world. Traditionally, beer has been produced from barley malt and/or other cereals, hops, and/or other herbs and fermented with brewer’s yeast and/or other microorganisms. For many decades, new technical solutions have been implemented and improved, process parameters have been optimized, and many auxiliary materials developed in order to maintain constant quality, good storage stability, and maximize economical results. Many studies have been conducted on new raw materials, brewhouse processing, and fermentation performance.

You and your team are welcome to publish your research papers and/or reviews on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Various raw materials used in brewing and beer-like beverage production;
  • Compounds influencing the sensory quality of beverages in fermentables and hops;
  • Processing techniques and their effects on processes and quality of the beverages produced in brewery;
  • Application of new analytical techniques in quality control in the brewing industry;
  • Development of new fermented beverages;
  • Antioxidant and health benefits of teas, herbal teas, and their bioactives.

Prof. Dr. Aleksander Poreda
Dr. Aneta Ciosek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • malt
  • hops
  • yeast
  • wort
  • brewing
  • mashing
  • filtration
  • fermentation
  • maturation
  • stabilization
  • quality control

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Craft Brewery Wastewater Treatment in a Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell Stack
by Olivia Zapata-Martínez, Denys Villa-Gomez, Raul Tapia-Tussell, Jorge Dominguez-Maldonado, Galdy Hernández-Zárate, Elda España-Gamboa, Rubí Valdez-Ojeda and Liliana Alzate-Gaviria
Beverages 2024, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10010020 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Craft breweries release wastewater into the environment, posing serious environmental concerns. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an attractive technology that has been used in industrial wastewater treatment. This study used a scalable system of nine MFCs (stacked) to treat 150 L of craft [...] Read more.
Craft breweries release wastewater into the environment, posing serious environmental concerns. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an attractive technology that has been used in industrial wastewater treatment. This study used a scalable system of nine MFCs (stacked) to treat 150 L of craft brewery wastewater (CBW). The CBW had 1831 ± 85 mg COD (chemical oxygen demand) L−1. The hydraulic retention time was 5 days, with a COD removal percentage of 93 ± 1.8%. The total internal resistance of the stack was 204.8 ± 5.2 Ω at 26 ± 2 °C without the use of a metal catalyst; the reduction of oxygen was the limiting process. Finally, the sequence of treatments applied with this proposed system demonstrated its self-sustainability, which could be a viable option for the real-life conditions of this kind of wastewater. Further research is needed. Full article
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11 pages, 867 KiB  
Article
Possibilities for Utilization of Cherry Products (Juice and Pomace) in Beer Production
by Petar Nedyalkov, Ivan Bakardzhiyski, Vasil Shikov, Maria Kaneva and Vesela Shopska
Beverages 2023, 9(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9040095 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Fruit addition can enrich beer with flavor and bioactive substances. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) can be added in beer as a whole fruit, fruit juice, or pulp, but there is no data for the addition of cherry pomace in beer. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Fruit addition can enrich beer with flavor and bioactive substances. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) can be added in beer as a whole fruit, fruit juice, or pulp, but there is no data for the addition of cherry pomace in beer. Therefore, we investigated the addition of cherry juice and pomace during beer fermentation on the first and seventh day and studied the basic beer parameters (alcohol and extract), sensorial evaluation, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of the beers produced, measured using six different methods (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, ORAC, and HORAC) and compared the results with a control sample without cherry products addition. The results showed a strong correlation between the antioxidant activity values obtained using the DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC, and HORAC methods and the concentration of phenolic compounds in the studied beers. The phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity increased when cherries juice or pomace were added. The increase was much more significant when pomace was used. Therefore, it can be concluded that cherry pomace addition is a better option than cherry juice for beer production because of the increased content of bioactive compounds and the sustainability of the beers obtained. Full article
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13 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two Commercially Available Strains, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Torulaspora delbrueckii, for the Production of Low-Alcohol Beer
by Mateusz Jackowski, Weronika Czepiela, Laura Hampf, Wiktor Żuczkowski, Tomasz Dymkowski and Anna Trusek
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030066 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2207
Abstract
Due to current trends in beer consumption, as well as social aspects, such as the education of society on combining drinking and driving, intensive research and development efforts have been recently focused on producing low-alcohol beers and non-alcoholic beers with a sensory profile [...] Read more.
Due to current trends in beer consumption, as well as social aspects, such as the education of society on combining drinking and driving, intensive research and development efforts have been recently focused on producing low-alcohol beers and non-alcoholic beers with a sensory profile appealing to consumers. There are plenty of methods for obtaining such beverages; one of these methods involves utilizing non-conventional yeasts for wort fermentation. In this work, the production of low-alcohol beer using commercially available Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were compared. The results showed that Torulaspora delbrueckii achieved the lowest level of attenuation, producing beer with an ethanol concentration of 2.58% vol. Saccharomycodes ludwigii displayed a slightly higher level of attenuation; however, its alcohol concentration was slightly lower than in the case of Torulaspora delbrueckii and reached 2.50% vol. Fully fermented beers produced using Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Torulaspora delbrueckii represented reduced ethanol concentrations by 12% and 15%, respectively, in comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, in order to produce non-alcoholic beers, arrested fermentation is necessary. In such a case, Saccharomycodes ludwigii reached the highest level of attenuation among non-alcoholic beers. Full article
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25 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Lachancea thermotolerans, an Innovative Alternative for Sour Beer Production
by Vanesa Postigo, Sergio Esteban and Teresa Arroyo
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010020 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3765
Abstract
The interest in and growth of craft beer has led to an intense search for new beers and styles. The revival of traditional styles has sometimes been hampered by the use of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, studies on alternative yeasts [...] Read more.
The interest in and growth of craft beer has led to an intense search for new beers and styles. The revival of traditional styles has sometimes been hampered by the use of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, studies on alternative yeasts for the production of this style of beer have increased. In this work and together with previous studies carried out with yeasts isolated from Madrid agriculture (from grapes, must, wine, vineyards and wineries), the capacity of 10 yeast strains, belonging to the genus Lachancea thermotolerans, for the production of sour beer has been determined. For this purpose, different fermentation scale-ups (100 mL, 1 L and 100 L) have been performed and their fermentation capacity, aroma compound production (33 volatile compounds by GC), organoleptic profile (trained tasting panel and consumers), melatonin production (HPLC) and antioxidant capacity have been studied. Beer fermented with yeast strain CLI 1232 showed a balanced acidity with a fruity aromatic profile and honey notes. On the other hand, the beer fermented with strain 1-8B also showed a balanced acidity, but less fruity and citric flavour than CLI 1232 strain. Finally, the yeast strain selected by the consumers (CLI 1232) was used for beer production at industrial scale and the market launch of a sour beer. Full article
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13 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Comparison of Gluten-Free Brewing Techniques: Differences in Gluten Reduction Ability, Analytical Attributes, and Hedonic Perception
by Nazarena Cela, Nicola Condelli, Giuseppe Perretti, Maria Di Cairano, Jessika De Clippeleer, Fernanda Galgano and Gert De Rouck
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010018 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
This study provides a comprehensive comparison among the most common gluten-free (GF) brewing practices, with a focus on the impact of each treatment on physicochemical parameters and consumer acceptability of the final beer. In addition, the influence of a longer cold maturation on [...] Read more.
This study provides a comprehensive comparison among the most common gluten-free (GF) brewing practices, with a focus on the impact of each treatment on physicochemical parameters and consumer acceptability of the final beer. In addition, the influence of a longer cold maturation on the natural reduction of the gluten content was investigated. Prolyl endopeptidase addition was found to be the most effective treatment in reducing gluten levels (−75.93%), followed by silica gel (−53.09%), longer cold maturation (−4.32%), and tannins (−1.85%). Nonetheless, none of the treated beer samples was gluten-free (gluten content > 20 ppm) due to the high nitrogen content of the original wort. The silica gel application treatment affected the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final beer the least. According to the difference from control test results, no significant difference in terms of overall liking, appearance, odor/aroma, or taste was observed between the silica gel-treated sample and control beer (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the application of enzymes and tannins significantly affected the appearance and the beer odor/aroma. Nevertheless, all beer samples received positive sensory acceptance scores. Full article
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18 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Role of Mashing in the Amino Acid Profiles of Worts Produced from Gluten-Free Malts
by Andrew J. Ledley, Ryan J. Elias and Darrell W. Cockburn
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010010 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
A successful wort fermentation depends on both the sugar and the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content of a wort. The primary goal of the mashing step is to generate fermentable sugars, as FAN is regarded as being primarily determined by malt quality; however, [...] Read more.
A successful wort fermentation depends on both the sugar and the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content of a wort. The primary goal of the mashing step is to generate fermentable sugars, as FAN is regarded as being primarily determined by malt quality; however, the role of mashing in modifying FAN has not been extensively studied, especially with respect to non-barley brewing materials. In this study, the FAN content of gluten-free (GF) worts varied greatly from barley (73–490 mg/L vs. 201 mg/L, respectively) and yielded different amino acid profiles, including lower proline and higher γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations. While most of the amino acids were present in the malt or generated in a brief window early in the mashing, significant increases in amino acid concentrations could be generated by mashing at temperatures below 55 °C. Overall, GF malts are promising brewing ingredients that can produce quality worts if appropriate mashing conditions are implemented. Full article
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23 pages, 1360 KiB  
Article
Single and Interactive Effects of Unmalted Cereals, Hops, and Yeasts on Quality of White-Inspired Craft Beers
by Antonietta Baiano, Anna Fiore, Barbara la Gatta, Maria Tufariello, Carmela Gerardi, Michele Savino and Francesco Grieco
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010009 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
White beers owe their name to their straw yellow colour deriving from the use of unmalted wheat, which also supplies a relatively high protein content causing haze formation. This study aimed to develop white-inspired craft beers made with combinations of three mixtures of [...] Read more.
White beers owe their name to their straw yellow colour deriving from the use of unmalted wheat, which also supplies a relatively high protein content causing haze formation. This study aimed to develop white-inspired craft beers made with combinations of three mixtures of barley malt/unmalted wheat (alternatively durum-var. Dauno III, soft-var. Risciola, or emmer-var. Padre Pio), two hop varieties (Cascade or Columbus), and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (Belgian yeast and a high-ester producing yeast); and assess the single and interactive effects of these ingredients on physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the beers. According to the graphical representation of the results for the Principal Component Analysis, most of the samples appear overlapped since they had similar characteristics, but it was possible to highlight two clusters of beers different from the others: those produced with (a) Risciola wheat and Columbus hop and (b) Dauno III wheat, Cascade hop, and the Belgian yeast. The beers of these clusters obtained the highest scores for their overall quality that, in turn, was positively correlated with concentrations of citric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, and epicatechin; alcohol %, colour, amount and persistence of foam, intensity of fruity flavour, and body. Full article
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14 pages, 1481 KiB  
Article
Biofilm Formation of Probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii on Glass Surface during Beer Bottle Ageing
by Khosrow Mohammadi and Per Erik Joakim Saris
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040077 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
While brewing probiotic beer using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, we noticed the yeast potentially makes biofilm in glass bottles as the bottles get hazy. In this study, S. cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-745 was used as a starter culture to produce probiotic beer. [...] Read more.
While brewing probiotic beer using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, we noticed the yeast potentially makes biofilm in glass bottles as the bottles get hazy. In this study, S. cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-745 was used as a starter culture to produce probiotic beer. We studied the biofilm parameters combined with FLO11 mRNA expression and used light and scanning electron microscopy to document biofilm formation and structure. Our results revealed that ageing the beer and maturing from a sugar-rich to a sugar-limited beer, along with the stress factors from the brewing process (pH reduction and produced metabolites), led to an increase in biofilm mass; however, the viable count remained relatively stable (approximately 7.1 log10 cells/mL). Biofilm S. boulardii cells showed significantly higher FLO11 mRNA expression in the exponential and stationary phase compared to the planktonic cells. This study, therefore, provides evidence that S. cerevisiae var. boulardii makes biofilm on glass surfaces during beer bottle ageing. The impact of complications caused by formed biofilms on returnable bottles emphasizes the significance of this study. Full article
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