Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710). This special issue belongs to the section "Malting, Brewing and Beer".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 27746

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REQUIMTE/LAQV-Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Interests: analytical chemistry; bioanalytical chemistry; chromatography; mass spectrometry; food chemistry; food analysis; food control; food quality
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Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: health-promoting compounds in brewing raw materials (hops, barley and beer); microbiological, colloidal, and sensorial stability of beer; microbial contaminants in beer and raw materials; authentication of beer and brewing raw materials; study of the properties of brewing yeast; formation, stability, and decomposition of beer foam; development of new products; development of new analytical methods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue “Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section” will present a collection of feature papers on recent developments in malting and brewing processes considering the use of traditional and alternative raw materials, conventional and non-conventional technologies, microorganisms, innovative processes, and emerging technologies to control and improve the production of beer.

This Special Issue is seeking papers that feature original research as well as review articles. The journal offers a high-quality peer review and rapid publication process. Submissions to this Special Issue are now open and will remain so until June 30, 2022. Invited papers may be considered for a full or partial waiver of the publication fee. If you would like to be invited to contribute to this Special Issue, please send the (tentative) title and abstract of your potential paper/review to the Guest Editor listed below. We look forward to receiving your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Luis F. Guido
Prof. Dr. Pavel Dostálek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2292 KiB  
Article
Why Oxidation Should Be Still More Feared in NABLABs: Fate of Polyphenols and Bitter Compounds
by Margaux Simon and Sonia Collin
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040061 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Nowadays, non-alcoholic (NAB) and low-alcoholic beers (LAB) still significantly suffer from staling defects when fresh, partially due to absence of ethanol as antioxidant. In the current work, the fate of flavan-3-ols (monomers, dimers, and trimers) and bitter compounds (isohumulones, humulinones, etc.) of 11 [...] Read more.
Nowadays, non-alcoholic (NAB) and low-alcoholic beers (LAB) still significantly suffer from staling defects when fresh, partially due to absence of ethanol as antioxidant. In the current work, the fate of flavan-3-ols (monomers, dimers, and trimers) and bitter compounds (isohumulones, humulinones, etc.) of 11 commercial NABLABs available on the Belgian market was monitored through one year of aging at 20 °C in the dark. Fresh NABLABs contained variable flavan-3-ols and bitter compounds levels (between 3.0–10.0 mg/L and 8.0–39.0 mg/L, respectively), depending on different technological processes used. Chill haze and color were also investigated as potential oxidation markers of fresh and aged beers. Surprisingly, contrary to conventional beers, the oligomers’ concentration (dimer and trimer procyanidins) exhibited a strong correlation (R2 = 0.95) with chill haze before aging, suggesting prematured oxidation of the samples. After a year of storage, significant degradation occurred as for regular dry hopped beers (process very sensitive to oxidation), only 27% remaining for flavan-3-ol dimers and an average 16% for trans-isohumulones. Oxidation risk appears here as the main weakness of NABLABs, which could be probably improved by spiking very efficient antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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11 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Molecular Networks and Macromolecular Molar Mass Distributions for Preliminary Characterization of Danish Craft Beers
by Marcus M. K. Nielsen, Sean Sebastian Hughes, Judith Kuntsche, Anders Malmendal, Håvard Jenssen, Carsten Uhd Nielsen and Bala Krishna Prabhala
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020035 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2392
Abstract
Beer is one of the most widely consumed beverages containing up to 200,000 unique small molecules and a largely uncharacterized macromolecular and particulate space. The chemical profiling of beer is difficult due to its complex nature. To address this issue, we have used [...] Read more.
Beer is one of the most widely consumed beverages containing up to 200,000 unique small molecules and a largely uncharacterized macromolecular and particulate space. The chemical profiling of beer is difficult due to its complex nature. To address this issue, we have used various state-of-the-art methods to determine the physicochemical characteristics of beer. Specifically, we have successfully generated an LC-MS-based molecular network with minimal sample preparation to profile indoles in beer and confirmed their presence using 1H-NMR. In addition, we have identified different macromolecular signatures in beer of different colors by utilizing AF4-MALS. These preliminary findings lay the foundation for further research on the physicochemical nature of beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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18 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
From Ground to Glass: Evaluation of Unique Barley Varieties for Craft Malting, Craft Brewing, and Consumer Sensory
by Evan B. Craine, Stephen Bramwell, Carolyn F. Ross and Kevin M. Murphy
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020030 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
Differentiating agricultural products has been adopted as a strategy to improve farm profitability and thereby business sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate unique barley varieties for craft malting and brewing markets to enhance profitability for diversified grain growers in southwestern Washington. Advanced barley [...] Read more.
Differentiating agricultural products has been adopted as a strategy to improve farm profitability and thereby business sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate unique barley varieties for craft malting and brewing markets to enhance profitability for diversified grain growers in southwestern Washington. Advanced barley breeding lines from Washington State University (WSU) were compared to a control variety (CDC-Copeland) through field trials, experimental and commercial malting conditions, and consumer sensory evaluation. The beers differed only by the genotype-dependent malt. Malting conditions (experimental or commercial) and field replicate influenced five out of the eight malt quality traits measured, while genotype influenced seven out of eight of the traits. Consumers differentiated the beers through ranking, open description, and check all that apply during a central location test. Based on consumer liking, breeding lines 12WA_120.14 or 12WA_120.17 could replace CDC-Copeland in beers. A total of 83% of consumers responded that they would pay more for a beer if it would support local farmers. This value proposition represents an opportunity for consumer purchasing to support producers, who form the foundation of the craft malt and beer value chain and whose economic success will determine the sustainability of small farms in minor growing regions. We provide further evidence for the contributions of barley genotype to beer flavor, while tracing the impact of barley genotype from ground to glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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15 pages, 2041 KiB  
Article
Brewing Efficacy of Non-Conventional Saccharomyces Non-cerevisiae Yeasts
by James Bruner, Andrew Marcus and Glen Fox
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030068 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5471
Abstract
Consumer demands for new sensory experiences have driven the research of unconventional yeasts in beer. While much research exists on the use of various common Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as well as non-Saccharomyces yeasts, there exists a gap in knowledge regarding other non- [...] Read more.
Consumer demands for new sensory experiences have driven the research of unconventional yeasts in beer. While much research exists on the use of various common Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as well as non-Saccharomyces yeasts, there exists a gap in knowledge regarding other non-cerevisiae Saccharomyces species in the fermentation of beer, in addition to S. pastorianus. Here, five distinct species of Saccharomyces from the UC Davis Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, as well as one interspecies hybrid from Fermentis, were chosen to ferment 40 L pilot-scale beers. S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus, S. bayanus, and S. uvarum yeasts were used to ferment wort in duplicate pairs, with one fermenter in each pair receiving 10 g/L dry-hop during fermentation. Analytical measurements were made each day of fermentation and compared to controls of SafAle™ US-05 and SafLager™ W 34/70 for commercial brewing parameters of interest. Finished beers were also analyzed for aroma, taste, and mouthfeel to determine the flavor of each yeast as it pertains to brewing potential. All beers exhibited spicy characteristics, likely from the presence of phenols; dry-hopping increased fruit notes while also increasing perceived bitterness and astringency. All of the species in this study displayed great brewing potential, and might be an ideal addition to beer depending on a brewery’s desire to experiment with flavor and willingness to bring a new yeast into their production environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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7 pages, 699 KiB  
Communication
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Malt
by Krešimir Mastanjević, Vinko Krstanović, Dragan Kovačević, Brankica Kartalović and Kristina Habschied
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030058 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
The kilning of malt occurs at different temperatures, depending on the desired color and aromas. Higher temperatures applied during kilning can be involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation in malt. PAHs are undesirable and designated as health hazards, it is important to [...] Read more.
The kilning of malt occurs at different temperatures, depending on the desired color and aromas. Higher temperatures applied during kilning can be involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation in malt. PAHs are undesirable and designated as health hazards, it is important to quantify and qualify them in different malts. Since the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) gave strict recommendations about PAHs in different foods, but omitted malt as a potential hazardous raw material that can cause health damage to beer consumers, the aim of this investigation was to assess the presence of 16 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Anl), acenaphthene (Ane), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phen), fluoranthene (Flt), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP)) in different, commercially available malts (amber, black, pilsner, and cara-120). The results showed that PAHs are present in different malts, with some in high amounts (BaA in black malt was 737 µg/kg). Minimal levels of BaA were detected in the amber malt, 60.53 µg/kg. The PAH4 (BaP, BaA, BbF, and Chry) sums are identical to the BaA concentrations in all malts and greatly exceed the EFSA prescribed levels for PAH4 in processed cereal-based foods (1 µg/kg). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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11 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Statistical Significant Differences between Aroma Profiles of Beer Brewed from Sorghum
by Drew Budner, Joseph Carr, Brett Serafini, Samantha Tucker, Elisabeth Dieckman-Meyer, Lindsey Bell and Katherine A. Thompson-Witrick
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030056 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
There is currently an increased demand for foodstuffs that are classified as gluten-free including beer. Beer produced using gluten-free grains has a distinct flavor profile that differs greatly from that of beer produced from gluten-containing grains. The chemical difference between beers made from [...] Read more.
There is currently an increased demand for foodstuffs that are classified as gluten-free including beer. Beer produced using gluten-free grains has a distinct flavor profile that differs greatly from that of beer produced from gluten-containing grains. The chemical difference between beers made from these two different grain sources has been explored and some key differences have been identified. Here malt sources containing gluten (barley) and malt without gluten (sorghum) were used to determine which compounds are statistically different based upon their concentrations. A total of 14 (7 barley and 7 sorghum) small-batch beers were made from malt extract. The aroma profile was sampled using SPME with chemical separation and identification and quantification using GC-MS. As expected, the differences were not the result of unique compounds but compounds present in differing amounts. A total of 17 compounds were found to be present in beer brewed from both extracts but in amounts that were highly significantly different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
20 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
A Modified Brewing Procedure Informed by the Enzymatic Profiles of Gluten-Free Malts Significantly Improves Fermentable Sugar Generation in Gluten-Free Brewing
by Andrew J. Ledley, Ryan J. Elias, Helene Hopfer and Darrell W. Cockburn
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030053 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7545
Abstract
The mashing step underpins the brewing process, during which the endogenous amylolytic enzymes in the malt, chiefly β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase, act concurrently to rapidly hydrolyze malt starch to fermentable sugars. With barley malts, the mashing step is relatively straightforward, due in [...] Read more.
The mashing step underpins the brewing process, during which the endogenous amylolytic enzymes in the malt, chiefly β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase, act concurrently to rapidly hydrolyze malt starch to fermentable sugars. With barley malts, the mashing step is relatively straightforward, due in part to malted barley’s high enzyme activity, enzyme thermostabilities, and gelatinization properties. However, barley beers also contain gluten and individuals with celiac disease or other gluten intolerances should avoid consuming these beers. Producing gluten-free beer from gluten-free malts is difficult, generally because gluten-free malts have lower enzyme activities. Strategies to produce gluten-free beers commonly rely on exogenous enzymes to perform the hydrolysis. In this study, it was determined that the pH optima of the enzymes from gluten-free malts correspond to regions already typically targeted for barley mashes, but that a lower mashing temperature was required as the enzymes exhibited low thermostability at common mashing temperatures. The ExGM decoction mashing procedure was developed to retain enzyme activity, but ensure starch gelatinization, and demonstrates a modified brewing procedure using gluten-free malts, or a combination of malts with sub-optimal enzyme profiles, that produces high fermentable sugar concentrations. This study demonstrates that gluten-free malts can produce high fermentable sugar concentrations without requiring enzyme supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
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