Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section—Volume II

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710). This special issue belongs to the section "Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2023) | Viewed by 22618

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: wine chemistry; polyphenolic compounds; astringency; sensory analysis; antioxidant activity
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Guest Editor
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals & Environment, Università di Padova, Legnaro, PD, Italy
Interests: wine science and technology; wine stabilization; analytical chemistry; wine proteins; sensory analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Considering the success of the previous Special Issue, we are pleased to announce that we are launching a second Special Issue on this topic: "Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section—Volume II".

This Special Issue will continue to present a collection of feature papers on recent developments in the production and quality of wines, spirits, vinegars and other oenological products, starting from grape maturity and harvest to the completion of alcoholic fermentation (and malolactic fermentation, if used, or acetic fermentation for vinegar), distillation (for spirits), maturation, stabilization treatments and ageing.

This Special Issue seeks papers that feature original research, as well as review articles. The journal offers high-quality peer review and a rapid publication process. If you would like to be invited to contribute to this issue, please send the (tentative) title and abstract of your potential paper/review to the Guest Editor listed below. We look forward to receiving your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Stamatina Kallithraka
Dr. Matteo Marangon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine
  • spirits
  • oenological
  • alcoholic

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
Risky Alcohol Consumption in the Elderly: Screening and Brief Intervention from Primary Care. The ALANE Study, a Randomized Clinical Trial
by Pere Torán, Susanna Montesinos, Alba Pachón-Camacho, Galadriel Diez-Fadrique, Irene Ruiz-Rojano, Ingrid Arteaga, Guillem Pera, Núria Montellà-Jordana, Pilar Montero-Alía, Carmina Rodríguez-Pérez, Llorenç Caballeria and Carla Chacón
Beverages 2023, 9(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9040100 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Background: Risky alcohol consumption (RAC) can lead to alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Liver cirrhosis caused by ALD continues to increase as alcohol consumption continues unabated. In turn, the elderly are more sensitive to alcohol. Population ageing calls for preventive activities to improve their [...] Read more.
Background: Risky alcohol consumption (RAC) can lead to alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Liver cirrhosis caused by ALD continues to increase as alcohol consumption continues unabated. In turn, the elderly are more sensitive to alcohol. Population ageing calls for preventive activities to improve their health. Brief interventions have proven to be cost-effective in addressing risk behaviours. Aim: We aimed to analyse the prevalence of RAC in people > 64 years and to assess the effect of a brief intervention in the subgroup of risky consumers. Methods: population-based study in two phases: (1) Phase I: Cross-sectional, descriptive multicentre study of prevalence of RAC in people > 64 years. (2) Phase II: Cluster randomized, controlled, single-blind, community-based clinical trial with two comparison groups of subjects with RAC, to assess the effectiveness of a brief intervention compared to standard practice in reducing alcohol consumption in primary care. Results: Out of the 932 subjects, 455 (49%) (268 men (64%) and 187 women (36%)) had an alcohol consumption that was considered to be risky. Overall, the brief intervention was effective in reducing alcohol consumption showing 1.8 OR (p = 0.030). That effect was caused by women whose group showed 3.3 OR (p = 0.009). There was no effect on men (p = 0.468). Conclusions: RAC in the elderly is very high, far more in men than in women. A brief intervention was successful in reducing alcohol consumption but not below risk levels. Further research is needed to determine which types of interventions are most effective in this population subgroup. Full article
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23 pages, 3449 KiB  
Article
Physical Contact between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alters Cell Growth and Molecular Interactions in Grape Must
by Laura Chasseriaud, Warren Albertin, Mélisande Blein-Nicolas, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Joana Coulon and Marina Bely
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030081 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
The use of multi-starters in oenological conditions (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces species) is becoming increasingly common. For the past ten years, the combination of Torulaspora delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae has been proposed to winemakers to improve the wine aromatic profile compared [...] Read more.
The use of multi-starters in oenological conditions (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces species) is becoming increasingly common. For the past ten years, the combination of Torulaspora delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae has been proposed to winemakers to improve the wine aromatic profile compared to pure inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, two commercial strains, T. delbrueckii Zymaflore® Alpha and S. cerevisiae Zymaflore® X5 (Laffort compagny, Floirac, France), were investigated in Sauvignon blanc must using a fermentor with a double compartment allowing for physical separation of the two yeast species. The physical separation of the two species resulted in significant differences in the growth, fermentation kinetics (maximum fermentation rate (+13%)), fermentation duration (−14%) and the production of 3SH (+35%) in comparison to mixed cultures with contact. Proteomic analysis confirmed cell–cell contact interactions, as strong differences were observed for both species between mixed cultures with and without physical contact. T. delbrueckii mortality in mixed cultures with physical contact may be explained by an oxidative stress. Indeed two proteins implicated in the oxidative stress response were found in significantly higher amounts: a cytosolic catalase T and a cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme. For S. cerevisiae, an increase in proteins involved in the respiratory chain and proton transport were found in higher amounts in pure cultures and mixed culture without physical contact. Our results confirmed that the two mixed inoculations increased certain minor esters (ethylpropanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and ethyl isobutanoate) specifically produced by T. delbrueckii, 3.4-fold more compared to in the pure S. cerevisiae culture. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms involved in cell–cell contact and confirm the benefits of using T. delbrueckii species under winemaking conditions. Full article
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19 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Mineral Composition of Grapevine Canes for Wood Chip Applications in Alcoholic Beverage Production to Enhance Viticulture Sustainability
by Veronica D’Eusanio, Francesco Genua, Andrea Marchetti, Lorenzo Morelli and Lorenzo Tassi
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030060 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the metal content of tannic extracts obtained from grapevine canes, to evaluate their suitability as wood shavings for direct infusion during the aging process of alcoholic beverages or vinegars. Traditional barrel aging is a slow and costly process [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the metal content of tannic extracts obtained from grapevine canes, to evaluate their suitability as wood shavings for direct infusion during the aging process of alcoholic beverages or vinegars. Traditional barrel aging is a slow and costly process that can be enhanced through direct infusion of wood chips. Our investigation focused on the pruning materials of two widely cultivated Lambrusco cultivars in the Modena (Italy) area, Ancellotta and Salamino. The grapevine chips underwent preliminary heat treatments at temperatures ranging from 120 °C to 260 °C. Tannic extracts were obtained by ethanol maceration at 80 °C for 2 h. The metal composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Generally, the metal content increased with the roasting temperature of the chips. Two exceptions were noted in the Salamino extracts, where the concentrations of Bi and Ni decreased as the roasting temperature increased. The levels of heavy metal, such as Pb and Cd, were low, posing no toxicity concerns for using infused grapevine chips during the beverage aging process. The Ni concentration slightly exceeded the limits imposed by certain regulations. Its content is likely derived from the type of soil in which the plant has grown. Full article
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13 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Do Consumers Consider the Healthfulness of Wine in Republic of Korea?
by Jinkyung Choi, Jinlin Zhao and Jiin Yang
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020044 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Purpose: Wine is an alcoholic beverage considered to have health benefits when consumed in moderation. Studies have investigated the healthfulness of wine via various approaches; however, given that wine consumption behavior is evolving, fresh data are needed. There is a paucity of evidence [...] Read more.
Purpose: Wine is an alcoholic beverage considered to have health benefits when consumed in moderation. Studies have investigated the healthfulness of wine via various approaches; however, given that wine consumption behavior is evolving, fresh data are needed. There is a paucity of evidence on the perceived mental health benefits of wine; hence, this study examined consumers’ perceptions of wine healthfulness separately for each physical and mental health benefit and compared them with wine consumption behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative data collection method was used. The questionnaires were given to participants in South Korea who had consumed wine in the six months before the survey. A total of 304 responses were collected for further analysis. A paired t-test, ANOVA, and descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings: This study found that respondents perceived higher mental health benefits than physical health benefits from wine consumption. Demographic characteristics showed significant differences in the mental or physical health benefits of wine. Consumers who believed in the physical health benefits of wine preferred white wine over red wine; however, consumers who believed in the mental health benefits of wine had no preferences. Originality: This study suggests that segmented marketing tools are needed due to the various characteristics of wine consumers. In addition, to encourage a healthy drinking environment, marketing should focus on moderation for both the wine industry and consumers. Furthermore, consumers’ consideration of the mental health benefits of wine consumption cannot be underestimated compared to the physical health benefits of wine consumption; however, wine is also regarded as an alcoholic beverage that needs to be consumed with consideration of health concerns in various restrictions. Full article
17 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
An Exploratory Research Regarding Greek Consumers’ Behavior on Wine and Wineries’ Character
by Dionysia Sykalia, Yvonni Chrisostomidou and Ioannis K. Karabagias
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020043 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2296
Abstract
Given the lack of data regarding the preferences, behavior and habits of wine consumers in Greece, the purpose of the present study was to investigate consumer trends and explore the factors that affect the purchase and consumption of wine in comparison with other [...] Read more.
Given the lack of data regarding the preferences, behavior and habits of wine consumers in Greece, the purpose of the present study was to investigate consumer trends and explore the factors that affect the purchase and consumption of wine in comparison with other alcoholic beverages. For this purpose, a self-response questionnaire survey was designed through the Google platform on a sample of 994 participants. In order to analyze the collected data, statistical analysis was done. A second online questionnaire was introduced to Greek winery companies. The purpose was to examine if the wine producers follow the wine consumption trends according to the desires of the Greek wine consumers or are addressed to a more international audience. As for the wine companies’ perspectives, we wanted to collect data regarding the amount of their production and the type of wine they produce and to know about their profile (international, exports, strategies, etc.). We collected 71 responses from wineries located in different parts of Greece. For the first time in the last 10 years, there is a profile of Greek consumers’ behavior toward wine in comparison with other alcoholic beverages and knowledge of specific operational data of Greek wineries using an online questionnaire survey (e-survey). Full article
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17 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Do Wine Flaws Really Matter to Wine Consumers’ Intention to Purchase Wine—An Online Study
by D. Christopher Taylor, Cortney L. Norris, Nelson A. Barber and Scott Taylor, Jr.
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020035 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Purpose: Exploring antecedents of flawed wine purchase intention, this study attempts to assess consumer acceptance leading to the purchase or consumption of a flawed wine product as well as build a profile of flawed wine consumers. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey, from Amazon Mechanical Turk [...] Read more.
Purpose: Exploring antecedents of flawed wine purchase intention, this study attempts to assess consumer acceptance leading to the purchase or consumption of a flawed wine product as well as build a profile of flawed wine consumers. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey, from Amazon Mechanical Turk (Mturk) with 260 valid survey responses collected. ANOVA with post hoc testing was used to analyze the data. Findings: Results reflect that attitude, subjective knowledge, perceived behavioral control, perceived risk, and sensory appeal all significantly influence intent to purchase a flawed wine product. Additionally, environmental attitude significantly influences their intent to purchase wines with flaws and their attitude toward flawed wine. Originality: To date, no research has explored consumer acceptance of flawed wines. This study attempted to fill a gap in the literature and add to the overall body of knowledge regarding flawed wines and consumer understanding/acceptance of flawed wines, as well as generating a profile of potential flawed wine consumers. Research Limitations/Implications: Consumer panel data is not as rich as an experimental study design; however, this work starts an academic conversation on flawed wine and provides a foundation for future research. Practical Implications: The results of this study offer practical opportunities, from educating consumers toward a richer understanding of wine flaws; promotional opportunities for wine producers with a product to be disposed of, enhancing revenue generation; and how sensory appeal and environmental concern are beneficial to furthering the understanding and predictability of consumer intentions to purchase flawed wines. Full article
14 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Fondillón Wine Adulteration by Addition of Other Monastrell Wines
by Hanán Issa-Issa, Francisca Hernández, David López-Lluch, Reyhan Selin Uysal and Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010028 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Authenticity and traceability are two issues of great importance to quality and food safety in the food industry. For wine producers and authorities, it is essential to know how to detect adulterations because wine is one of the alcoholic beverages most prone to [...] Read more.
Authenticity and traceability are two issues of great importance to quality and food safety in the food industry. For wine producers and authorities, it is essential to know how to detect adulterations because wine is one of the alcoholic beverages most prone to adulteration, as indicated by the European Commission. Fondillón is one of the most important naturally sweet Spanish wines and is certainly the core of the Alicante PDO. Fondillón is a wine that is prone to be adulteration due to its limited production and high price. The aim of this study was to identify potential markers of Fondillón adulteration by mixing it with other Monastrell wines. The experimental results showed that Fondillón is characterized by high concentrations of acetic acid, furfural, benzaldehyde, vitispirane, and TDN and low concentrations of citric, tartaric, and malic acids; a low total phenolic content; and low values of antioxidant activity. Full article
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16 pages, 3638 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1H qNMR Spectroscopy as Potential Methods for the Authentication of Baijiu Spirits
by Neil Fitzgerald and John C. Edwards
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010025 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1933
Abstract
The baijiu spirit is often the focus of fraudulent activity due to the widely varying prices of the products. In this work, Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography (SPME GCMS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and 1H qNMR spectroscopy were evaluated as potential [...] Read more.
The baijiu spirit is often the focus of fraudulent activity due to the widely varying prices of the products. In this work, Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography (SPME GCMS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and 1H qNMR spectroscopy were evaluated as potential methods to authenticate baijiu samples. Data were collected for 30 baijiu samples produced by seven different distilleries. The data from the SPME GCMS and FTIR methods were treated by a Principal Component Analysis to identify clusters that would suggest chemical differences in the products from different distilleries. The results suggest that SPME GCMS has the potential to be a fully portable method for baijiu authentication. FTIR did not appear suitable for authentication but can be used to find the %ABV range of the sample. 1H quantitative NMR (1H qNMR) was utilized to quantify the ethanol concentrations and calculate the observable congener chemistry comprising ester, ethanol, methanol, fusel alcohol, and organic acids. Discrepancies in ethanol content were observed in three samples, and a lack of major congeners in two samples indicates the possible presence of a counterfeit product. Detailed and quantitative congener chemistry is obtainable by NMR and provides a possible fingerprint analysis for the authentication and quality control of baijiu style, producer, and the length of the ageing process. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 316 KiB  
Review
Measuring Wine Quality and Typicity
by Marianthi Basalekou, Panagiotis Tataridis, Konstantinos Georgakis and Christos Tsintonis
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020041 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5204
Abstract
Wine quality and typicity are complex concepts that can be hard to define. Wine is a product destined to not only be consumed and appreciated but also marketed, and its distinctiveness, quality and typicity are important characteristics that describe a wine’s sensory profile [...] Read more.
Wine quality and typicity are complex concepts that can be hard to define. Wine is a product destined to not only be consumed and appreciated but also marketed, and its distinctiveness, quality and typicity are important characteristics that describe a wine’s sensory profile and, ultimately, add value to the finished product. Even though both quality and typicity are mostly assessed using a sensory evaluation, many studies have examined the feasibility of using chemical analysis methods in order to increase the objectivity of assessments. Today, the use of chemometrics facilitates the handling of big data, and outcomes from various analytical techniques can be integrated to produce more accurate results. This study discusses the existing sensory and analytical approaches, implications and future prospects for an objective measurement of quality and typicity as well as methods for the selection of appropriate data for predictive model development. Full article
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20 pages, 560 KiB  
Review
The Application of Non-Thermal Technologies for Wine Processing, Preservation, and Quality Enhancement
by Yogesh Kumar, Matteo Marangon and Christine Mayr Marangon
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020030 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2994
Abstract
Recently, non-thermal wine processing technologies have been proposed as alternatives to conventional winemaking processes, mostly with the aims to improve wine quality, safety, and shelf-life. Winemakers typically rely on sulfites (SO2) to prevent wine oxidation and microbial spoilage, as these processes [...] Read more.
Recently, non-thermal wine processing technologies have been proposed as alternatives to conventional winemaking processes, mostly with the aims to improve wine quality, safety, and shelf-life. Winemakers typically rely on sulfites (SO2) to prevent wine oxidation and microbial spoilage, as these processes can negatively affect wine quality and aging potential. However, SO2 can trigger allergic reactions, asthma, and headaches in sensitive consumers, so limitations on their use are needed. In red winemaking, prolonged maceration on skins is required to extract enough phenolic compounds from the wine, which is time-consuming. Consequently, the wine industry is looking for new ways to lower SO2 levels, shorten maceration times, and extend shelf life while retaining wine quality. This review aggregates the information about the novel processing techniques proposed for winemaking, such as high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultrasound, microwave, and irradiation. In general, non-thermal processing techniques have been shown to lead to improvements in wine color characteristics (phenolic and anthocyanin content), wine stability, and wine sensory properties while reducing the need for SO2 additions, shortening the maceration time, and lowering the microbial load, thereby improving the overall quality, safety, and shelf life of the wines. Full article
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