Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105). This special issue belongs to the section "Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 49461

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
The State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: intelligent optimization method and its application; battery safety; battery intelligent monitoring
School of Mechanical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Interests: battery thermal management system (BTMS); air and liquid cooling system design for batteries; battery management systems; battery state estimation (state of health and state of charge estimation); fast charging protocol optimization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
Interests: intelligent design optimization of energy storage systems; multidisciplinary design optimization of complex mechanical systems; reliability/robust/risk analysis; digital twins and intelligence manufacturing; low carbon design and optimization; electric vehicle; lithium ion battery; battery thermal management system
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used in many scenarios, such as electric vehicles, industrial facilities, and intelligent products, since they are clean, green, and environmentally friendly. However, with the continuous expansion of application scenarios and the improvement of use requirements, people are considerably concerned about the trends and prospects of LIBs. Therefore, the research of new battery electrode materials, the improvement of battery energy density, the prediction of battery health state, the early warning of battery failure, the management of the battery life cycle, and the design of battery management systems are all critical issues that current scholars are committed to solving. The present Special Issue invites researchers to submit original research articles, short communications, and review articles on the technological developments and application prospects of LIBs. Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Design of new type LIBs
  • Physics analysis of LIBs
  • Modeling and optimization of LIBs
  • Design of battery management system
  • Parameter estimation of LIBs
  • Fault warning of LIBs
  • Thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic coupling of LIBs
  • New application scenarios for LIBs
  • Artificial intelligence application in LIBs
  • Scheduling problem of LIBs
  • Design of hybrid energy storage system

Prof. Dr. Liang Gao
Dr. Akhil Garg
Dr. Wei Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lithium-ion batteries
  • battery design
  • battery manufacturing
  • battery recycling
  • battery application
  • electric vehicles
  • energy storage
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 3168 KiB  
Article
Trends in Automotive Battery Cell Design: A Statistical Analysis of Empirical Data
by Steffen Link, Christoph Neef and Tim Wicke
Batteries 2023, 9(5), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9050261 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 8972
Abstract
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become the preferred power source for electric vehicles (EVs) due to their high energy density, low self-discharge rate, and long cycle life. Over the past decade, technological enhancements accompanied by massive cost reductions have enabled the growing market diffusion [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become the preferred power source for electric vehicles (EVs) due to their high energy density, low self-discharge rate, and long cycle life. Over the past decade, technological enhancements accompanied by massive cost reductions have enabled the growing market diffusion of EVs. This diffusion has resulted in customized and cost-effective Li-ion battery cell designs tailored to automotive requirements. This study describes design trends in Li-ion batteries from the pack to the electrode level based on empirical data, including pack energy, cell capacity, outer cell dimensions and formats, energy density, specific energy, and electrode properties, such as active material selection, porosities, and component thicknesses. Market share-weighted findings imply several trends, such as (1) increasing cell dimensions, with the longest cells reaching 500 mm (pouch) and almost 1000 mm (prismatic) in 2021, (2) increasing differentiation between either high-energy or low-cost cathode and anode materials, and (3) increasing cell energy, equivalent to gaining about 100% (energy density) and 70% (specific energy) compared to the 2010 and 2021 averages. Despite these improvements, this study finds that the widespread market diffusion of the latest cell technologies proceeds slower than industry announcements suggest and that several well-known, literature-proofed potentials are not yet fully exploited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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21 pages, 5334 KiB  
Article
Design and Evaluation Framework for Modular Hybrid Battery Energy Storage Systems in Full-Electric Marine Applications
by Zhenmin Tao, Rene Barrera-Cardenas, Mohsen Akbarzadeh, Olve Mo, Jasper De Smet and Jeroen Stuyts
Batteries 2023, 9(5), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9050250 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
In the context of the maritime transportation sector electrification, battery hybridization has been identified as a promising manner of meeting the critical requirements on energy and power density, as well as lifetime and safety. Today, multiple promising battery hybridization topologies have been identified, [...] Read more.
In the context of the maritime transportation sector electrification, battery hybridization has been identified as a promising manner of meeting the critical requirements on energy and power density, as well as lifetime and safety. Today, multiple promising battery hybridization topologies have been identified, while there is not a level playing field enabling comparison between different topologies. This study bridges this gap directly by proposing a generic hybrid battery energy storage system (HBESS) design and evaluation framework in full-electric marine applications that accounts for the key design requirements in the system topology conceptualization phase. In doing so, generalized key component models, such as battery cell models, aging models, power converter models, and thermal models, are established. Additionally, given the selected key requirements in this study, the case study comparing one baseline monotype design and two HBESS topologies has shown the clear advantage of battery hybridization. Furthermore, we find that, depending on the topology selection and the specific load scenario being considered, power converter devices can also worsen the key performance indexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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20 pages, 6714 KiB  
Article
Study on the Heat Dissipation Performance of a Liquid Cooling Battery Pack with Different Pin-Fins
by Maokun Xiong, Ningbo Wang, Wei Li, Akhil Garg and Liang Gao
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010044 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
The heat dissipation capability of the battery thermal management system (BTMS) is a prerequisite for the safe and normal work of the battery. Currently, many researchers have designed and studied the structure of BTMS to better control the battery temperature in a specific [...] Read more.
The heat dissipation capability of the battery thermal management system (BTMS) is a prerequisite for the safe and normal work of the battery. Currently, many researchers have designed and studied the structure of BTMS to better control the battery temperature in a specific range and to obtain better temperature uniformity. This allows the battery to work safely and efficiently while extending its life. As a result, BTMS has been a hot topic of research. This work investigates the impact of pin-fins on the heat dissipation capability of the BTMS using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, designs several BTMS schemes with different pin-fin structures, simulates all schemes for fluid-structure interaction, and examines the impact of different distribution, number, and shape of pin-fins on heat dissipation capability and pressure drop. Analyzing the effect of cooling plates with different pin-fins on the thermal capability of the BTMS can provide a basis for the structural design of this BTMS with pin-fin cooling plates. The findings demonstrate that the distribution and quantity of pin-fin shapes might affect heat dissipation. The square-section pin-fins offer better heat dissipation than other pin-fin shapes. As the pin-fins number increases, the maximum battery temperature decreases, but the pressure drop increases. It has been observed that uniform pin-fin distribution has a superior heat dissipation effect than other pin-fin distribution schemes. In summary, the cooling plate with a uniform distribution of 3 × 6 square section pin-fins has better heat dissipation capability and less power consumption, with a maximum battery temperature of 306.19 K, an average temperature of 304.20 K, a temperature difference of 5.18 K, and a pressure drop of 99.29 Pa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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15 pages, 4651 KiB  
Article
Cell-Internal Contacting of Prismatic Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Micro-Friction Stir Spot Welding
by Martina E. Sigl, Sophie Grabmann, Luca-Felix Kick, Amanda Zens, Roman Hartl and Michael F. Zaeh
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100174 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2866
Abstract
The reliable production of high-quality lithium-ion battery components still poses a challenge, which must be met to cope with their rising demand. One key step in the production sequence is the process of cell-internal contacting, during which the electrode carrier foils of the [...] Read more.
The reliable production of high-quality lithium-ion battery components still poses a challenge, which must be met to cope with their rising demand. One key step in the production sequence is the process of cell-internal contacting, during which the electrode carrier foils of the anode and the cathode are joined with the arrester. This is usually done with ultrasonic or laser beam welding. Both joining processes, however, show limitations concerning the quality of the weld. This paper presents a new approach for cell-internal contacting by using micro-friction stir spot welding. Welding experiments were conducted in which joints with high mechanical strengths were produced. It was also shown that large stacks with foil numbers of 100 can be joined in only a few tenths of a second. The process is therefore especially of interest for the fast production of large-scale battery cells or other new types of high-energy-dense battery cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Review

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25 pages, 2066 KiB  
Review
A Review on Dynamic Recycling of Electric Vehicle Battery: Disassembly and Echelon Utilization
by Jinhua Xiao, Chengran Jiang and Bo Wang
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010057 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5802
Abstract
With the growing requirements of retired electric vehicles (EVs), the recycling of EV batteries is being paid more and more attention to regarding its disassembly and echelon utilization to reach highly efficient resource utilization and environmental protection. In order to make full use [...] Read more.
With the growing requirements of retired electric vehicles (EVs), the recycling of EV batteries is being paid more and more attention to regarding its disassembly and echelon utilization to reach highly efficient resource utilization and environmental protection. In order to make full use of the retired EV batteries, we here discuss various possible application methods of echelon utilization, including hierarchical analysis methods based on various battery evaluation index. In addition, retired EV battery disassembly is also reviewed through the entire EV battery recycling based on human–robot collaboration methods. In order to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of EV recycling, it is necessary to find a suitable recycling mode and disassembly process. This paper discusses the future possibility of echelon utilization and disassembly in retired EV battery recycling from disassembly optimization and human–robot collaboration, facing uncertain disassembly and echelon utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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37 pages, 4364 KiB  
Review
Electrochemically Active Polymer Components in Next-Generation LiFePO4 Cathodes: Can Small Things Make a Big Difference?
by Irina Chepurnaya, Evgenia Smirnova and Mikhail Karushev
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100185 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4185
Abstract
As a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) successfully transitioned from laboratory bench to commercial product but was outshone by high capacity/high voltage lithium metal oxide chemistries. Recent changes in the global economy combined with advances in [...] Read more.
As a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) successfully transitioned from laboratory bench to commercial product but was outshone by high capacity/high voltage lithium metal oxide chemistries. Recent changes in the global economy combined with advances in the battery pack design brought industry attention back to LFP. However, well-recognized intrinsic drawbacks of LiFePO4 such as relatively low specific capacity and poor electronic and ionic conductivity have not yet been fully mitigated. Integration of electrochemically active electron-conducting polymers (EAECPs) into the cathode structure to replace conventional auxiliary electrode components has been proposed as an effective strategy for further performance improvement of LFP batteries. In this review, we show how various combinations of polymer properties/functions have been utilized in composite LiFePO4 electrodes containing EAECP components. We present recent advances in the cathode design, materials, and methods and highlight the impact of synthetic strategies for the cathode preparation on its electrochemical performance in lithium-ion cells. We discuss advantages and limitations of the proposed approaches as well as challenges of their adoption by the battery manufactures. We conclude with perspectives on future development in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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26 pages, 11094 KiB  
Review
Echelon Utilization of Retired Power Lithium-Ion Batteries: Challenges and Prospects
by Ningbo Wang, Akhil Garg, Shaosen Su, Jianhui Mou, Liang Gao and Wei Li
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080096 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4532
Abstract
The explosion of electric vehicles (EVs) has triggered massive growth in power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The primary issue that follows is how to dispose of such large-scale retired LIBs. The echelon utilization of retired LIBs is gradually occupying a research hotspot. Solving the [...] Read more.
The explosion of electric vehicles (EVs) has triggered massive growth in power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The primary issue that follows is how to dispose of such large-scale retired LIBs. The echelon utilization of retired LIBs is gradually occupying a research hotspot. Solving the issue of echelon utilization of large-scale retired power LIBs brings not only huge economic but also produces rich environmental benefits. This study systematically examines the current challenges of the cascade utilization of retired power LIBs and prospectively points out broad prospects. Firstly, the treatments of retired power LIBs are introduced, and the performance evaluation methods and sorting and regrouping methods of retired power LIBs are comprehensively reviewed for echelon utilization. Then, the problems faced by the scenario planning and economic research of the echelon utilization of retired power LIBs are analyzed, and value propositions are put forward. Secondly, this study summarizes the technical challenges faced by echelon utilization in terms of security, performance evaluation methods, supply and demand chain construction, regulations, and certifications. Finally, the future research prospects of echelon utilization are discussed. In the foreseeable future, technologies such as standardization, cloud technology, and blockchain are urgently needed to maximize the industrialization of the echelon utilization of retired power LIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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11 pages, 510 KiB  
Review
Concept Review of a Cloud-Based Smart Battery Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Feasibility, Logistics, and Functionality
by Manh-Kien Tran, Satyam Panchal, Tran Dinh Khang, Kirti Panchal, Roydon Fraser and Michael Fowler
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020019 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 124 | Viewed by 15930
Abstract
Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB [...] Read more.
Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB systems, battery management systems (BMSs) are required. The current design and functionality of BMSs suffer from a few critical drawbacks including low computational capability and limited data storage. Recently, there has been some effort in researching and developing smart BMSs utilizing the cloud platform. A cloud-based BMS would be able to solve the problems of computational capability and data storage in the current BMSs. It would also lead to more accurate and reliable battery algorithms and allow the development of other complex BMS functions. This study reviews the concept and design of cloud-based smart BMSs and provides some perspectives on their functionality and usability as well as their benefits for future battery applications. The potential division between the local and cloud functions of smart BMSs is also discussed. Cloud-based smart BMSs are expected to improve the reliability and overall performance of LIB systems, contributing to the mass adoption of renewable energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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