Solid State Batteries

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2022) | Viewed by 18304

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Department of Chemistry, A18 Chemistry Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, UK
Interests: Li-ion and Na-ion batteries; solid-state batteries; salt-water batteries
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on organic electrolytes were commercialized in the early 1990s by Sony Corporation. Since then, these energy storage devices have been used in many applications, from portable devices to electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, LIBs are approaching their limits in terms of energy and power densities, as well as present safety issues due to the use of flammable organic liquid electrolytes. Next-generation batteries are expected to address the previous challenges. Solid-state batteries (SSBs) have emerged as one of the preferred technologies to lead the next generation of charge storage devices. These batteries offer the advantage of safety when compared to conventional batteries, due to the replacement of the flammable organic electrolyte by a stable solid electrolyte. High densities can also be achieved in these batteries by using metallic anodes, which are impractical for batteries with organic liquids due to dendritic growth.

Dr. Nuria Tapia-Ruiz
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • energy storage
  • ceramics
  • solid polymer electrolytes
  • hybrid electrolytes
  • solid electrolytes
  • all-solid-state lithium battery
  • all-solid-state sodium battery
  • ionic conductivity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Feasibility of a Cold Start Procedure for Solid State Batteries in Automotive Applications
by Ryan Hughes and Christopher Vagg
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020013 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3324
Abstract
This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational temperatures above 60 °C. The feasibility of a cold start procedure is examined, which would enable a solid polymer battery to be used, without preconditioning, in a wide variety of ambient temperatures. The proposed solution involves dividing the solid-state battery into smaller sub-packs, which can be heated and brought online more quickly. Thermal modelling shows a cold start procedure is theoretically feasible when using a small liquid electrolyte lithium battery at the start. The key bottlenecks are the rate at which the solid-state batteries can be heated, and the discharge rates they can provide. After resistive heating is used for the first solid-state module, all subsequent heating can be provided by waste heat from the motor and operating battery modules. Due to the insulation required, the proposed system has lower volumetric, but higher gravimetric energy density than liquid electrolyte systems. This work suggests that with suitable system-level design, solid-state batteries could be widely adopted despite temperature constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid State Batteries)
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13 pages, 5456 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Etching Profile of a Si Substrate on the Capacitive Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Sergei Kurbatov, Alexander Mironenko, Victor Naumov, Alexander Skundin and Alexander Rudy
Batteries 2021, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7040065 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Along with the soaring demands for all-solid-state thin-film lithium-ion batteries, the problem of their energy density rise becomes very acute. The solution to this problem can be found in development of 3D batteries. The present work deals with the development of a technology [...] Read more.
Along with the soaring demands for all-solid-state thin-film lithium-ion batteries, the problem of their energy density rise becomes very acute. The solution to this problem can be found in development of 3D batteries. The present work deals with the development of a technology for a 3D solid-state lithium-ion battery (3D SSLIB) manufacturing by plasma-chemical etching and magnetron sputtering technique. The results on testing of experimental samples of 3D SSLIB are presented. It was found that submicron-scale steps appearing on the surface of a 3D structure formed on Si substrate by the Bosch process radically change the crystal structure of the upper functional layers. Such changes can lead to disruption of the layers’ continuity, especially that of the down conductors. It is shown that surface polishing by liquid etching of the SiO2 layer and silicon reoxidation leads to surface smoothing, the replacement of the dendrite structure of functional layers by a block structure, and a significant improvement in the capacitive characteristics of the battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid State Batteries)
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Review

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20 pages, 5748 KiB  
Review
Perovskite Solid-State Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries
by Shuo Yan, Chae-Ho Yim, Vladimir Pankov, Mackenzie Bauer, Elena Baranova, Arnaud Weck, Ali Merati and Yaser Abu-Lebdeh
Batteries 2021, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7040075 - 7 Nov 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 10918
Abstract
Solid-state lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have become increasingly important in recent years due to their potential to offer higher energy density and enhanced safety compared to conventional liquid electrolyte-based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, they require highly functional solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) and, therefore, many [...] Read more.
Solid-state lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have become increasingly important in recent years due to their potential to offer higher energy density and enhanced safety compared to conventional liquid electrolyte-based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, they require highly functional solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) and, therefore, many inorganic materials such as oxides of perovskite La2/3−xLi3xTiO3 (LLTO) and garnets La3Li7Zr2O12 (LLZO), sulfides Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS), and phosphates Li1+xAlxTi2−x(PO4)3x (LATP) are under investigation. Among these oxide materials, LLTO exhibits superior safety, wider electrochemical window (8 V vs. Li/Li+), and higher bulk conductivity values reaching in excess of 10−3 S cm−1 at ambient temperature, which is close to organic liquid-state electrolytes presently used in LIBs. However, recent studies focus primarily on composite or hybrid electrolytes that mix LLTO with organic polymeric materials. There are scarce studies of pure (100%) LLTO electrolytes in solid-state LMBs and there is a need to shed more light on this type of electrolyte and its potential for LMBs. Therefore, in our review, we first elaborated on the structure/property relationship between compositions of perovskites and their ionic conductivities. We then summarized current issues and some successful attempts for the fabrication of pure LLTO electrolytes. Their electrochemical and battery performances were also presented. We focused on tape casting as an effective method to prepare pure LLTO thin films that are compatible and can be easily integrated into existing roll-to-roll battery manufacturing processes. This review intends to shed some light on the design and manufacturing of LLTO for all-ceramic electrolytes towards safer and higher power density solid-state LMBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid State Batteries)
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