Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Management in Renewable Energy Systems

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105). This special issue belongs to the section "Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2023) | Viewed by 14052

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
Interests: grid-integration of new energy and battery; power system stability and control; HVDC transmission technology; optimal generation dispatch; dynamic security analysis and state estimation; load forecasting

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Guest Editor
AAU Energy, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Interests: energy storage; lithium-ion batteries; battery performance and lifetime testing; accelerated aging; battery performance-degradation modeling; state-of-charge estimation; state-of-health estimation; remaining useful lifetime prediction; aging mechanisms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
Interests: power system stability and control; renewable power generation; grid-connected energy storage system control; flexible DC power transmission
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Control and Operation of Renewable Energy and Storage Systems, China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192, China
Interests: large scale energy storage technology; renewable energy power generation; power system engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The worldwide energy revolution is stimulating the rapid development of renewable power generation, e.g., solar photovoltaic power and wind power. Due to the inevitable uncertainty and intermittency of the renewable energy systems, the support from energy storage plays a key role in mitigating the power fluctuation and improving the flexibility of electricity usage. Among all the energy storage candidates, different kinds of lithium-ion battery have dominated the market due to their superior performance. However, there is still a research gap in exploring the applications of different lithium-ion battery techniques in renewable energy systems, especially for sharing the knowledge from battery cell level to system level. By focusing on this issue, this Special Issue intends to cover novel findings, innovative methodologies, and potential breakthroughs in this field. We look forward to the contributions of original research articles and review articles from academia and industry for publication in this Special Issue.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Evaluation the operation states of lithium-ion battery energy storage in renewable systems.
  • New topology, modeling, and control of grid-connected battery systems.
  • Coordination control of battery and renewable systems.
  • Advanced energy management of lithium-ion battery-based systems.
  • Thermal management of battery-based energy storage devices.
  • Cooperative dispatching of battery and renewable energy systems in power grids.
  • The application of new lithium-ion battery types in renewable energy systems.
  • Battery lifetime management in power systems.
  • Vehicle to grid applications in renewable energy systems.

Dr. Jinhao Meng
Prof. Dr. Tianqi Liu
Dr. Daniel Stroe
Dr. Qiao Peng
Prof. Dr. Xiangjun Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • battery
  • renewable energy system
  • operation state
  • topology
  • modeling
  • control
  • grid-connection
  • energy management
  • thermal management
  • lifetime management
  • vehicle to grid
  • cooperative dispatching

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3625 KiB  
Article
The Modeling and SOC Estimation of a LiFePO4 Battery Considering the Relaxation and Overshoot of Polarization Voltage
by Guorong Zhu, Oukai Wu, Qian Wang, Jianqiang Kang and Jing V. Wang
Batteries 2023, 9(7), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9070369 - 9 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
A triple polarization (TP) model is proposed based on the second-order RC hysteresis equivalent circuit model, in order to more precisely reflect the dynamic and static characteristics of a LiFePO4 (LFP) battery, considering the long relaxation time and overshoot of its polarization [...] Read more.
A triple polarization (TP) model is proposed based on the second-order RC hysteresis equivalent circuit model, in order to more precisely reflect the dynamic and static characteristics of a LiFePO4 (LFP) battery, considering the long relaxation time and overshoot of its polarization voltage. The TP model introduces an RC link, whose time constant varies with changes in the battery operating status to represent the fast build-up and slow relaxation of the polarization voltage. Specifically, such an RC link evolves into an RLC parallel link during charging to reveal the overshoot characteristic. In this way, the external characteristics of LFP batteries, considering the complex phase transition process, are simulated by a simple equivalent circuit. Constant-current pulse tests are performed to verify the proposed model. For application, a state-of-charge (SOC) estimation is implemented on the basis of the TP model, with the use of a transformed cubature Kalman Filter (TCKF). The experimental results show that the TP model is able to represent the dynamic and static characteristics, as well as estimate the SOC of an LFP battery with a good accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Management in Renewable Energy Systems)
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25 pages, 13333 KiB  
Article
Degradation-Conscious Multiobjective Optimal Control of Reconfigurable Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage Systems
by Dulmini Karunathilake, Mahinda Vilathgamuwa, Yateendra Mishra, Paul Corry, Troy Farrell and San Shing Choi
Batteries 2023, 9(4), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9040217 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems are made from sets of battery packs that are connected in series and parallel combinations depending on the application’s needs for power. To achieve optimal control, advanced battery management systems (ABMSs) with health-conscious optimal control are required for [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems are made from sets of battery packs that are connected in series and parallel combinations depending on the application’s needs for power. To achieve optimal control, advanced battery management systems (ABMSs) with health-conscious optimal control are required for highly dynamic applications where safe operation, extended battery life, and maximum performance are critical requirements. The majority of earlier research assumed that the battery cells in these energy storage systems were identical and would vary uniformly over time in terms of cell characteristics. However, in real-world situations, the battery cells might behave differently for a number of reasons. Overcharging and over-discharging are caused by an electrical imbalance that results from the cells’ differences in properties and capacity. Therefore in this study, a stratified real-time control scheme was developed for the dual purposes of minimizing the capacity fade and the energy losses of a battery pack. Each of the cells in the pack is represented by a degradation-conscious physics-based reduced-order equivalent circuit model. In view of the inconsistencies between cells, the proposed control scheme uses a state estimator such that the parametric values of the circuit elements in the cell model are determined and updated in a decentralized manner. The minimization of the capacity fade and energy losses is then formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem, from which the resulting optimal control strategy is realized through the switching actions of a modular multilevel series-parallel converter which interconnects the battery pack to an external AC system. A centralized controller ensures optimal switching sequence of the converter leading to the maximum utilization of the capacity of the battery pack. Both simulation and experimental results are used to verify the proposed methodologies which aim at minimizing the battery degradation by reconfiguring the battery cells dynamically in accordance with the state of health (SOH) of the pack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Management in Renewable Energy Systems)
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20 pages, 4977 KiB  
Article
Lithium-Ion Battery State-of-Charge Estimation Using Electrochemical Model with Sensitive Parameters Adjustment
by Jingrong Wang, Jinhao Meng, Qiao Peng, Tianqi Liu, Xueyang Zeng, Gang Chen and Yan Li
Batteries 2023, 9(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9030180 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
State-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with good accuracy is of critical importance for battery management systems. For the model-based methods, the electrochemical model has been widely used due to its accuracy and ability to describe the internal behaviors of the battery. [...] Read more.
State-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with good accuracy is of critical importance for battery management systems. For the model-based methods, the electrochemical model has been widely used due to its accuracy and ability to describe the internal behaviors of the battery. However, the uncertainty of parameters and the lack of correction from voltage also induce errors during long-time calculation. This paper proposes a particle filter (PF) based method to estimate Li-ion batteries’ SOC using electrochemical model, with sensitive parameter identification achieved using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. First, a single particle model with electrolyte dynamics (SPME) is used in this work to reduce the computational burden of the battery electrochemical model, whose sensitive parameters are selected through the elementary effect test. Then, the representative sensitive parameters, which are difficult to measure directly, are adjusted by PSO for a high efficiency. Finally, a model-based SOC estimation framework is constructed with PF to achieve accurate Li-ion battery SOC. Compared with extended Kalman filter and equivalent circuit model, the proposed method shows high accuracy under three different driving cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Management in Renewable Energy Systems)
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20 pages, 4590 KiB  
Article
Research on the Frequency Regulation Characteristics and Control Strategy of Wind Power Generation with Energy Storage Synergy
by Jianlin Li, Dixi Xin, Chang’an Liu, Xiaohui Hou and Donghui Li
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020117 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
With the high penetration of wind power, the power system has put forward technical requirements for the frequency regulation capability of wind farms. Due to the energy storage system’s fast response and flexible control characteristics, the synergistic participation of wind power and energy [...] Read more.
With the high penetration of wind power, the power system has put forward technical requirements for the frequency regulation capability of wind farms. Due to the energy storage system’s fast response and flexible control characteristics, the synergistic participation of wind power and energy storage in frequency regulation is valuable for research. This paper established a frequency characteristic model of a power system, including wind power and energy storage, and analyzed the influence of different frequency regulation methods on system stability. Based on the established model, a fuzzy PID-based energy management strategy was designed for different disturbance scenarios, which offered the advantages of simple parameter design and easy online operation of the project. This paper used a case based on the actual parameters for verification. The energy storage, rated at 10% of the wind farm’s rated power, provided 56% frequency drop suppression and 89% frequency fluctuation rate suppression, according to the proposed model in this paper. The proposed fuzzy PID control strategy achieved adaptive control of the controller parameters under strong disturbances and was able to provide an additional frequency rejection capability of 10–25%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Management in Renewable Energy Systems)
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15 pages, 3921 KiB  
Article
Design and Energy Analysis of Photovoltaic-Battery Prototype Considering Different Voltage Levels
by F. J. Sepúlveda, I. Montero, F. Barrena, M. T. Miranda and J. I. Arranz
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010016 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
Photovoltaic self-consumption systems are effective at reducing energy consumption from fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Incorporating energy storage into these systems enables improved energy management and the optimization of their operation. However, to date, few studies have evaluated and compared the energy performance [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic self-consumption systems are effective at reducing energy consumption from fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Incorporating energy storage into these systems enables improved energy management and the optimization of their operation. However, to date, few studies have evaluated and compared the energy performance of PV systems with battery storage. In this context, with the current development of High Voltage batteries, research is needed on energy storage at different voltage levels incorporated into PV systems for self-consumption. In this way, the design and operation of an experimental prototype are described, consisting of two photovoltaic systems for self-consumption with energy storage using batteries operating at different voltages. One of them operates at low voltage (Low Voltage Installation, LVI) and the other at high voltage (High Voltage Installation, HVI). Through experimentation, it was demonstrated which installation is more efficient. During commissioning, the results showed the importance of considering the voltage level parameter in a renewable energy production system for self-consumption, since the energy yield of the HVI inverter-battery set was higher than in the case of the LVI on almost all of the days of the month studied. In addition, both systems showed a strong dependence on weather conditions, causing higher energy losses in their components during days with lower solar energy production. Therefore, the need for further analysis of energy efficiency to optimize the integration of these systems into the building sector was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Management in Renewable Energy Systems)
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