Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 July 2023) | Viewed by 9539

Special Issue Editors

1. Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
2. Department of Earth System Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Interests: biogeochemical modelling; data assimilation; climate change; inverse methods; benchmarking system;
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
International Center for Climate and Environment Science (ICCES), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Interests: air-sea interaction; climate prediction; data assimilation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ocean plays a critically important role in climate change. About 93% of the additional heat and 30% of the carbon dioxide produced by human activity is absorbed by the ocean, which strongly regulates long-term climate variations. Climate change, driven by an exponential increase in the global emission of greenhouse gasses, will continue to impact the ocean through a variety of channels in the coming years, as indicated by Earth system models. In response to climate warming, the ocean has experienced many profound changes, e.g., rapid ice melting, extreme sea level events, marine heatwaves, intensified boundary currents, changes in the frequency and intensity of recurring climate patterns, and unexpected shifts in marine ecosystems. The severe impact of climate change on ocean dynamics has broad implications for our society, and must be taken seriously both for adaptation efforts and urgent mitigation strategies.

Understanding ocean dynamics is essential for the exploration of climate change at different spatial/temporal scales. This Special Issue aims to promote studies that analyze the connection between climate change and ocean dynamics, and consequently advance our understanding of the impact that the ocean will have on future climate change.

Potential submission topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Changes to the ocean’s mixed layer and stratification, and implications for extreme climate variability, particularly at extratropical latitudes;
  • The impact of large-scale ocean dynamics (e.g., AMOC) on future climate change and low-frequency variability (e.g., ENSO, PDO, etc.) in Earth system models.
  • The impact of river flows, flooding, and variable land-based precipitation on ocean salinity and circulation;
  • The impact of atmospheric changes and shifts in wind patterns on the frequency and intensity of coastal storm systems and upwelling;
  • Drivers of drastic changes in polar areas, such as shifts in the timing of the annual melt seasons, changes in ice sheets, and marine ecosystems.

We look forward to receiving manuscripts in consideration of all of the above.

Dr. Weiwei Fu
Prof. Dr. Fei Zheng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ocean dynamics
  • climate variability
  • polar regions
  • assimilation
  • physical processes

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 15329 KiB  
Article
Study on Seasonal Characteristics and Causes of Marine Heatwaves in the South China Sea over Nearly 30 Years
by Zhenli Gao, Wentao Jia, Weimin Zhang and Pinqiang Wang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(12), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14121822 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are becoming more frequent and intense in many regions around the world, as well as in China’s marginal seas. However, the seasonal characteristics and associated physical drivers of MHWs are largely unknown. In this study, we analyze, based on multiple [...] Read more.
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are becoming more frequent and intense in many regions around the world, as well as in China’s marginal seas. However, the seasonal characteristics and associated physical drivers of MHWs are largely unknown. In this study, we analyze, based on multiple reanalysis and numerical model data, the seasonal characteristics and causes of MHWs in the South China Sea (SCS) over a near 30-year period (1991–2022). There exist significant seasonal variabilities in the spatiotemporal features and formation mechanisms of MHWs. MHWs in the SCS show significant increasing trends in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity. MHWs during the summer half-year are stronger than the winter half-year as a whole, with them being more likely to occur over the eastern SCS in the summer half-year and the western region in the winter half-year. However, the increasing trend of MHWs in the winter half-year exceed those in the summer. Additionally, we find that MHWs are associated with the unusually strong west Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) both in the summer and winter half-years. Nevertheless, the dominant factors for MHWs are different in the varied seasons. According to upper ocean temperature equation analysis, surface heat flux anomalies (especially shortwave radiation flux) are major effect factors in the summer half-year, while ocean dynamic processes play the main role in the winter half-year. An analysis of the typical MHWs also proves this conclusion. Moreover, MHWs occurring in winter are often accompanied by temperature anomalies within the mixed-layer depth. The findings imply that the formation mechanisms and space–time distribution of MHWs exist with a seasonal contrast in the SCS, rather than simply being due to large-scale circulation and flux anomalies. This may provide a useful reference for a deeper understanding and forecasting of MHWs under different seasons and weather. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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23 pages, 7497 KiB  
Article
Retrieving Ocean Surface Winds and Waves from Augmented Dual-Polarization Sentinel-1 SAR Data Using Deep Convolutional Residual Networks
by Sihan Xue, Lingsheng Meng, Xupu Geng, Haiyang Sun, Deanna Edwing and Xiao-Hai Yan
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081272 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Sea surface winds and waves are very important phenomena that exist in the air–sea boundary layer. With the advent of climate change, cascade effects are bringing more attention to these phenomena as warmer sea surface temperatures bring about stronger winds, thereby altering global [...] Read more.
Sea surface winds and waves are very important phenomena that exist in the air–sea boundary layer. With the advent of climate change, cascade effects are bringing more attention to these phenomena as warmer sea surface temperatures bring about stronger winds, thereby altering global wave conditions. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a powerful sensor for high-resolution surface wind and wave observations and has accumulated large quantities of data. Furthermore, deep learning methods have been increasingly utilized in geoscience, especially the inversion of ocean information from SAR imagery. Here, we propose a method to invert various parameters of ocean surface winds and waves using Sentinel-1 SAR IW mode data. To ensure this method is more robust and scalable, we augmented the input data with dual-polarized SAR imagery, an incident angle, and a more constrained homogeneity test. This method adopts a deeper structure in order to retrieve more wind and wave parameters, and the use of residual networks can accelerate training convergence and improve regression accuracy. Using 1600 training samples filtered by a novel homogeneity test and with significant wave heights between 0 and 10 m, results from error parameters including the root mean square error (RMSE), scatter index (SI), and correlation coefficient (COR) show the great performance of this proposed method. The RMSE is 0.45 m, 0.76 s, and 1.90 m/s for the significant wave height, mean wave period, and wind speed, respectively. Furthermore, the temporal variation and spatial distribution of the estimates are consistent with China–France Oceanography Satellite (CFOSAT) observations, buoy measurements, WaveWatch3 regional model data, and ERA5 reanalysis data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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16 pages, 4636 KiB  
Article
Evaluation on the Forecast Skills of Precipitation and Its Influencing Factors in the Flood Season in Liaoning Province of China
by Yihe Fang, Dakai Jiang, Chenghan Liu, Chunyu Zhao, Zongjian Ke, Yitong Lin, Fei Li and Yiqiu Yu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040668 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
To clarify the precipitation forecast skills of climate forecast operations in the flood season in Liaoning Province of China, this study examines the forecast accuracies of China’s national and provincial operational climate prediction products and the self-developed objective prediction methods and climate model [...] Read more.
To clarify the precipitation forecast skills of climate forecast operations in the flood season in Liaoning Province of China, this study examines the forecast accuracies of China’s national and provincial operational climate prediction products and the self-developed objective prediction methods and climate model products by Shenyang Regional Climate Center (SRCC) in the flood season in Liaoning. Furthermore, the forecast accuracies of the main influencing factors on the precipitation in the flood season of Liaoning are assessed. The results show that the SRCC objective methods have a relatively high accuracy. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) sub-seasonal forecast initialized at the sub-nearest time has the best performance in June. The National Climate Center (NCC) Climate System Model sub-seasonal forecast initialized at the sub-nearest time, and the ECMWF seasonal and sub-seasonal forecasts initialized at the nearest time, perform the best in July. The NCC sub-seasonal forecast initialized at the sub-nearest time has the best performance in August. For the accuracy of the SRCC objective method, the more significant the equatorial Middle East Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is, the higher the evaluation score of the dynamic–analogue correction method is. The more significant the North Atlantic SST tripole is, the higher the score of the hybrid downscaling method is. For the forecast accuracy of the main influencing factors of precipitation, the tropical Atlantic SST and the north–south anti-phase SST in the northwest Pacific can well predict the locations of the southern vortex and the northern vortex in early summer, respectively. The warm (clod) SST in China offshore has a good forecast performance on the weak (strong) southerly wind in midsummer in Northeast China. The accuracy of using the SST in the Nino 1+2 areas to predict the north–south location of the western Pacific subtropical high is better than that of using Kuroshio SST. The accuracy of predicting northward-moving typhoons from July to September by using the SST in the west-wind-drift area is better than using the SST in the Nino 3 area. The above conclusions are of great significance for improving the short-term climate prediction in Liaoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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10 pages, 2115 KiB  
Communication
Surface Wave Mixing Modifies Projections of 21st Century Ocean Heat Uptake
by Joshua Kousal, Kevin J. E. Walsh, Zhenya Song, Qingxiang Liu, Fangli Qiao and Alexander V. Babanin
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030532 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Climate models do not explicitly account for the smaller scale processes of ocean surface waves. However, many large-scale phenomena are essentially coupled with the waves. In particular, waves enhance mixing in the upper ocean and thereby accelerate the ocean response to atmospheric changes. [...] Read more.
Climate models do not explicitly account for the smaller scale processes of ocean surface waves. However, many large-scale phenomena are essentially coupled with the waves. In particular, waves enhance mixing in the upper ocean and thereby accelerate the ocean response to atmospheric changes. Here, we introduced a representation of wave-induced turbulent mixing into the one-way coupled ACCESS-OM2-025 ocean model to study its effect on ocean heat content throughout the 21st century under the RCP4.5 scenario. We made two projections on ocean heat uptake for the end of the century: one which accounts for wave-induced mixing (the ‘modified’ projection) and the other which does not (the ‘standard’ projection). Both projections showed upper ocean heat content to increase by more than 2.2 × 1022 J. This projected ocean heat uptake was reduced by about 3% in the modified projection. Whilst the inclusion of wave-induced mixing reduces projected ocean heat uptake globally, some areas are expected to warm considerably faster, particularly the North Atlantic sub-tropics, the Tasman Sea, the Sea of Japan, and parts of the South Atlantic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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18 pages, 11665 KiB  
Article
The Spring Drought in Yunnan Province of China: Variation Characteristics, Leading Impact Factors, and Physical Mechanisms
by Lu Gao, Xue Han, Xingrong Chen, Boqi Liu and Yan Li
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020294 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Yunnan Province in Southwest China is vulnerable to droughts due to its distinctive topography and local climate. Spring drought in Yunnan (SDY), which accounts for 70% of all drought events, causes the most severe devastation. By examining the variation characteristics of droughts in [...] Read more.
Yunnan Province in Southwest China is vulnerable to droughts due to its distinctive topography and local climate. Spring drought in Yunnan (SDY), which accounts for 70% of all drought events, causes the most severe devastation. By examining the variation characteristics of droughts in Yunnan from 1961 to 2020 in terms of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), this present study shows that droughts in Yunnan have worsened in the past 60 years on different timescales. Especially, the SDY exhibits notable interannual and interdecadal variations, with no significant long-term trend, although the spring average regional temperatures have risen at a rate of 0.33 °C/10a since 1961. Here, in order to quantify the contribution of the precipitation and temperature, the two main meteorological impact factors, to the SDY under the exacerbation of climate warming, the statistical analyses reveal that precipitation plays a more crucial role than temperature in interannual and interdecadal SDY variations. Further, a diagnostic analysis of the moisture budget equation indicates that suppressed vertical moisture advection is the most important physical process affecting the reduced rainfall amount in spring, followed by the restricted horizontal water vapor transport. Meanwhile, the weak Bay of Bengal (BOB) summer monsoon, which is likely regulated by El Niño-like sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in spring, is closely linked with the SDY. This mechanism provides the possibility of SDY predictability on a seasonal scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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17 pages, 9143 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of an Ocean Reanalysis System in the Indian and Pacific Oceans
by Changxiang Yan and Jiang Zhu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020220 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
This paper describes an ocean reanalysis system in the Indian and Pacific oceans (IPORA) and evaluates its quality in detail. The assimilation schemes based on ensemble optimal interpolation are employed in the hybrid coordinate ocean model to conduct a long-time reanalysis experiment during [...] Read more.
This paper describes an ocean reanalysis system in the Indian and Pacific oceans (IPORA) and evaluates its quality in detail. The assimilation schemes based on ensemble optimal interpolation are employed in the hybrid coordinate ocean model to conduct a long-time reanalysis experiment during the period of 1993–2020. Different metrics including comparisons with satellite sea surface temperature, altimetry data, observed currents, as well as other reanalyses such as ECCO and SODA are used to validate the performance of IPORA. Compared with the control experiment without assimilation, IPORA greatly reduces the errors of temperature, salinity, sea level anomaly, and current fields, and improves the interannual variability. In contrast to ECCO and SODA products, IPORA captures the strong signals of SLA variability and reproduces the linear trend of SLA very well. Meanwhile, IPORA also shows a good consistence with observed currents, as indicated by an improved correlation and a reduced error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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14 pages, 3669 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the CAS-ESM2-0 Performance in Simulating the Global Ocean Salinity Change
by Guancheng Li, Lijing Cheng and Xutao Wang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14010107 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
The second version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Earth System Model, CAS-ESM2-0, is a newcomer that contributes to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project simulations in the community. We evaluated the model’s performance in simulating the salinity for climatology, seasonal cycles, long-term trends, and [...] Read more.
The second version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Earth System Model, CAS-ESM2-0, is a newcomer that contributes to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project simulations in the community. We evaluated the model’s performance in simulating the salinity for climatology, seasonal cycles, long-term trends, and time series of climatic metrics by comparing it with the ensemble mean of available gridded observations. The results showed that CAS-ESM2-0 could reproduce large-scale patterns of ocean salinity climatology and seasonal variations, despite the fresh biases in the low- and mid-latitudes for climatology, stronger seasonal variation of sea surface salinity within 20° S–20° N, and large uncertainty with the zonal-band structure for 0–1000 m averaged salinity. For long-term changes, the model revealed increased contrast between the salinity of the Atlantic and Pacific basins. However, regional differences in locations and strengths for salinity pattern amplification suggest substantial uncertainty when simulating regional multidecadal salinity changes. The simulated variations in climate metrics for salinity pattern amplification are consistent with the observations and will continue to intensify until the end of this century. Our assessment provides new features of the CAS-ESM2-0 model and supports further studies on model development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Ocean Dynamics)
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