Advances in Integrated Air Quality Management: Emissions, Monitoring, Modelling

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2022) | Viewed by 24097

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development (IERSD), National Observatory of Athens (NOA), GR 15236 Athens, Greece
Interests: environmental applications of remote sensing; atmospheric correction; air quality assessment/monitoring; aerosols; natural hazards; land cover/use change; GIS; spatial data analysis; climate change; natural disasters and extremes; desertification; precision farming; soil erosion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Athens, Greece
Interests: emission inventory development; chemical transport modeling; urban air quality; air pollution mitigation strategies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Athens, Greece
Interests: emission inventory development (classical pollutants and GHGs); air and particulate pollution over urban areas; GIS; air quality modeling; low-cost sensor monitoring; raising climate change awareness
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution has become an increasingly important environmental issue on a global scale, since the sources that cause poor air quality and are responsible for climate change are common. Both natural and anthropogenic components of air pollution have been long recognized and are continuously being investigated to identify links with local and regional air quality, impact on climate, health and ecosystems, new sources and pollutants as well as links between emissions and air pollution management.

Air quality is monitored at the surface through ground-based monitors, official networks, low-cost sensors and, recently, with cheap and easy-to-use sensors by citizens. Monitoring aims to identify pollution sources, air quality, compliance with ambient air quality standards, exposure and impact from other parameters (meteorology, topography, accidental release, etc.). Current research focuses on the study of intra-urban, local, regional and intercontinental transport of air pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM10, 2.5), O3, NOx, and so on. However, there is need for additional data on air pollution, both spatially and temporally, by including satellite data (in terms of aerosol optical thickness), synoptic information, visualization to ground-based air quality data modeling, advanced statistical relations to forecast air quality, new emissions sources and new pollutants.

This proposal aims at gathering research papers focused on methodologies based on emission inventories classical and novel methodologies, remote and in situ experimental observations, meteorological and climate parameters that affect air pollution, application of chemical transport and/or development of statistical models for forecasting air pollution levels and assisting the monitoring and mapping of air pollution close to major sources or in greater areas.

Dr. Adrianos Retalis
Dr. Vasiliki Assimakopoulos
Dr. Kyriaki-Maria Fameli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • emission inventory
  • air pollution monitoring
  • air pollution assessment
  • exposure
  • climate change and air pollution
  • PM2.5, PM10
  • ozone
  • aerosols
  • statistical forecasting models
  • chemical transport models
  • urban air pollution
  • remote sensing

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 1766 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Capability of Air Filter Fiber Materials Treated with Triclosan against Indoor Environmental Microbes
by Yanju Li, Qingqing Miao and Xinyu Wang
Atmosphere 2022, 13(7), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13071104 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Antibacterial filtration materials have been used effectively to control biological pollutants and purify indoor air. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial capability of three fiber filter materials treated with triclosan: glass fiber (GF), non-woven fabric (NF) and chemical fiber (CF). Triclosan was [...] Read more.
Antibacterial filtration materials have been used effectively to control biological pollutants and purify indoor air. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial capability of three fiber filter materials treated with triclosan: glass fiber (GF), non-woven fabric (NF) and chemical fiber (CF). Triclosan was loaded onto the filtration materials by the impregnation method. The triclosan-treated filter materials exhibited antibacterial zones obviously: the average antibacterial bands against E. coli were 11.8 mm (GF), 13.3 mm (NF) and 10.5 mm (CF); against S. albus, they were 25.5 mm (GF), 21.0 mm (NF) and 23.5 mm (CF). The percent reductions of bacteria for the antibacterial air fiber materials treated with triclosan against E. coli were 71.4% (CF) and 62.6% (GF), while the percent reductions against S. albus were 61.3% (NF) and 84.6% (CF). These findings could help to reduce the transmission and threat of epidemic and purify the environment through the use of environmentally friendly antibacterial filter fibers. Full article
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16 pages, 2298 KiB  
Article
Sixteen-Year Monitoring of Particulate Matter Exposure in the Parisian Subway: Data Inventory and Compilation in a Database
by Tesnim Ben Rayana, Amélie Debatisse, Valérie Jouannique, Kirushanthi Sakthithasan, Sophie Besançon, Romain Molle, Pascal Wild, Benjamin C. Guinhouya and Irina Guseva Canu
Atmosphere 2022, 13(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13071061 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
The regularly reported associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure, and morbidity and mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular, cancer, and metabolic diseases have led to the reduction in recommended outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 exposure limits. However, indoor PM10 and PM2.5 [...] Read more.
The regularly reported associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure, and morbidity and mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular, cancer, and metabolic diseases have led to the reduction in recommended outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 exposure limits. However, indoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in subway systems in many cities are often higher than outdoor concentrations. The effects of these exposures on subway workers and passengers are not well known, mainly because of the challenges in exposure assessment and the lack of longitudinal studies combining comprehensive exposure and health surveillance. To fulfill this gap, we made an inventory of the PM measurement campaigns conducted in the Parisian subway since 2004. We identified 5856 PM2.5 and 18,148 PM10 results from both personal and stationary air sample measurements that we centralized in a database along with contextual information of each measurement. This database has extensive coverage of the subway network and will enable descriptive and analytical studies of indoor PM exposure in the Parisian subway and its potential effects on human health. Full article
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29 pages, 5803 KiB  
Article
Impact of Collaborative Agglomeration of Manufacturing and Producer Services on Air Quality: Evidence from the Emission Reduction of PM2.5, NOx and SO2 in China
by Penghao Ye, Jin Li, Wenjing Ma and Huarong Zhang
Atmosphere 2022, 13(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13060966 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Industrial agglomeration is a major source of regional economic development and the main pattern enterprises employ after having developed to a certain stage. Industrial agglomeration also affects the emissions of air pollutants in production. Based on provincial panel data for China from 2006 [...] Read more.
Industrial agglomeration is a major source of regional economic development and the main pattern enterprises employ after having developed to a certain stage. Industrial agglomeration also affects the emissions of air pollutants in production. Based on provincial panel data for China from 2006 to 2019, this paper introduces the full generalized least squares (FGLS) panel econometrics model. By considering spatial correlation, the potential endogenous problem has been controlled using the instrumental variable and the effects of the co-agglomeration of manufacturing and producer services on three major air pollutants, i.e., SO2, PM2.5, and NOx, have been empirically estimated. The empirical results show that: (1) The agglomeration of manufacturing increases the emission of PM2.5 in the air, while the agglomeration of producer services and the co-agglomeration of manufacturing and producer services reduce it. Moran correlation index test showed that SO2 and NOx had no significant spatial correlation. (2) The agglomeration of manufacturing, the agglomeration of producer services, and co-agglomeration exert the most significant effects on PM2.5 in the air in central and western China. This is probably because of the availability of basic natural resources in these areas. (3) The energy consumption structure mediates the effect of the agglomeration of manufacturing on PM2.5, and human capital mediates the effect of the agglomeration of producer services on PM2.5 emissions. Based on the results, policy suggestions to improve the atmospheric environment during the process of industrial agglomeration are proposed. Full article
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54 pages, 3754 KiB  
Article
Modification of Fraser’s Method for the Atmospheric CO2 Mass Estimation by Using Satellite Data
by Marco Pellegrini, Arash Aghakhani, Alessandro Guzzini and Cesare Saccani
Atmosphere 2022, 13(6), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13060866 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
One of the most critical greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide (CO2) due to its long-lasting and negative impact on climate change. The global atmospheric monthly mean CO2 concentration is currently greater than 410 ppm which has changed [...] Read more.
One of the most critical greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide (CO2) due to its long-lasting and negative impact on climate change. The global atmospheric monthly mean CO2 concentration is currently greater than 410 ppm which has changed dramatically since the industrial era. To choose suitable climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies it is necessary to define carbon dioxide mass distribution and global atmospheric carbon dioxide mass. The available method to estimate the global atmospheric CO2 mass was proposed in 1980. In this study, to increase the accuracy of the available method, various observation platforms such as ground-based stations, ground-based tall towers, aircrafts, balloons, ships, and satellites are compared to define the best available observations, considering the temporal and spatial resolution. In the method proposed in this study, satellite observations (OCO2 data), from January 2019 to December 2021, are used to estimate atmospheric CO2 mass. The global atmospheric CO2 mass is estimated around 3.24 × 1015 kg in 2021. For the sake of comparison, global atmospheric CO2 mass was estimated by Fraser’s method using NOAA data for the mentioned study period. The proposed methodology in this study estimated slightly greater amounts of CO2 in comparison to Fraser’s method. This comparison resulted in 1.23% and 0.15% maximum and average difference, respectively, between the proposed method and Fraser’s method. The proposed method can be used to estimate the required capacity of systems for carbon capturing and can be applied to smaller districts to find the most critical locations in the world to plan for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Full article
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22 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
Inventory of Commercial Cooking Activities and Emissions in a Typical Urban Area in Greece
by Kyriaki-Maria Fameli, Aggelos Kladakis and Vasiliki D. Assimakopoulos
Atmosphere 2022, 13(5), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13050792 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
The pollutants emitted during meal preparation in restaurants deteriorate the air quality. Thus, it is an environmental issue that needs to be addressed, especially in areas where these activities are densely located. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact on [...] Read more.
The pollutants emitted during meal preparation in restaurants deteriorate the air quality. Thus, it is an environmental issue that needs to be addressed, especially in areas where these activities are densely located. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact on air quality from commercial cooking activities by performing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the related parameters. The area of interest is located in the southeastern Mediterranean (Greater Athens area in Greece). Due to the lack of the necessary activity information, a survey was conducted. Emissions from the fuel burnt during the cooking procedures were calculated and it was found that, overall, 940.1 tonnes are attributed to commercial cooking activities annually (generated by classical pollutants, heavy metals, particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions). Comparing the contribution of different sources to the pollutants emitted, it was found that commercial cooking is responsible for about 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% of the total CO, NOx and PM10 values. Cooking organic aerosol (COA) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from grilled meat were also calculated, accounting for 724.9 tonnes and 37.1 tonnes, respectively. Monthly, daily and hourly profiles of the cooking activities were developed and emissions were spatially disaggregated, indicating the city center as the area with higher values. Numerical simulations were performed with the WRF/CAMx modeling system and the results revealed a contribution of about 6% to the total PM10 concentrations in the urban center, where the majority of restaurants are located. Full article
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10 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Monitoring and Analysis of Outdoor Carbon Dioxide Concentration by Autonomous Sensors
by Paulo Henrique Soares, Johny Paulo Monteiro, Hanniel Ferreira Sarmento de Freitas, Luciano Ogiboski, Felipe Silva Vieira and Cid Marcos G. Andrade
Atmosphere 2022, 13(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020358 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
Countless problems have been caused by the excessive emission of polluting gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), into the atmosphere. Therefore, more effective monitoring of CO2 is essential, especially in central or industrial regions. Thus, this work shows the development [...] Read more.
Countless problems have been caused by the excessive emission of polluting gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), into the atmosphere. Therefore, more effective monitoring of CO2 is essential, especially in central or industrial regions. Thus, this work shows the development of a platform for monitoring the CO2 concentration, which is composed of autonomous and independent sensors that have their own energy source, storage capacity, and data replication for the central server. To validate the platform, CO2 measurements were taken at three strategic points in an outdoor environment in a Brazilian urban center. This platform proved to be an evolution over another system previously proposed by the group that was based on the use of a wireless network of sensors to monitor CO2. This new project managed to overcome limitations that compromised the efficiency of the first platform, which were mainly related to the interference in the communication signals between the network sensors due to the existence of physical barriers in the monitoring environment. With that, this new platform showed greater security in the maintenance of collected data and allowed for the expansion of the physical complexity of the environments that can be monitored. Full article
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15 pages, 20340 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Change Analysis of PM2.5 and Ozone Pollution in China’s Most Polluted Region during 2015–2020
by Yanpeng Li, Zhenchao Zhang and Yushan Xing
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010104 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
In this study, a time change analysis of fine particulate (PM2.5) emission in multi-resolution emission inventory in China (MEIC) from 2013 to 2016 was conducted. It was found that PM2.5 emissions showed a decreasing trend year by year, and that [...] Read more.
In this study, a time change analysis of fine particulate (PM2.5) emission in multi-resolution emission inventory in China (MEIC) from 2013 to 2016 was conducted. It was found that PM2.5 emissions showed a decreasing trend year by year, and that the annual total emission of PM2.5 decreased by 28.5% in 2016 compared with that of 2013. When comparing the observation data of PM2.5 and ozone (O3), it was found that both PM2.5 and O3 show obvious seasonal changes. The emission of PM2.5 in autumn and winter is higher than that in summer, while that of O3 is not. Our study showed that in the 2015–2020 period, annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 in Beijing varied from 80.87 to 38.31 μg m−3 and 110.75 to 106.18 μg m−3, respectively. Since 2015, the observed value of PM2.5 has shown an obvious downward trend. Compared with 2015, the average annual PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, Shanghai, Xuzhou, Zhengzhou, and Hefei in 2020 had decreased by 52.62%, 40.35%, 22.2%, 46.84%, and 45.11%, respectively, while O3 showed an upward trend. Compared with the annual averages of 2015 and 2020, Beijing and Shanghai saw a decrease of 4.13% and 8.46%, respectively, while Xuzhou, Zhengzhou, and Hefei saw an increase of 7.08%, 19.46%, and 41.57%, respectively. The comparison shows that PM2.5 is becoming less threatening in China and that ozone is becoming more difficult to control. Air pollution is a modifiable risk factor. Appropriate sustainable control policies are recommended to protect public health. Full article
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7 pages, 2409 KiB  
Communication
Adsorption of Gas-Phase Cyclohexanone on Atmospheric Water Films
by Shangpeng Hao, Chao Sun, Yuanpeng Zhang, Haitao Wang, Wenbo Zhao, Xiaolu Wang and Jinghai Li
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121705 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
The fate of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) strongly depends on the partitioning processes on the surface of aerosols, which are coated with a thin water film. However, the behavior of VOCs in the aqueous film of aerosols is difficult to measure. In [...] Read more.
The fate of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) strongly depends on the partitioning processes on the surface of aerosols, which are coated with a thin water film. However, the behavior of VOCs in the aqueous film of aerosols is difficult to measure. In this work, the interfacial partition constant of cyclohexanone was determined using a novel flow-tube reactor. A thin, aqueous film placed in the reactor was exposed to cyclohexanone gas. The subsequent partitioning was measured using chromatography techniques. The quality control tests were first conducted to ensure the accuracy of the adsorption experiments. The cyclohexanone concentration was then plotted as a function of film thickness to obtain the partitioning constants. As the thickness of the water film decreased, the aqueous concentration of cyclohexanone increased, indicating that surface adsorption played a dominant role in the uptake of cyclohexanone. According to the temperature dependence of the interfacial partition constant, the solvation enthalpy and entropy of cyclohexanone were obtained. The results of this study would help to elucidate the effect of atmospheric water film on the gas–aerosol partitioning of VOCs, and thus can help to better understand the fate of VOCs in the atmosphere. Full article
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10 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Chemical Fiber Air Filter for General Ventilation
by Yanju Li, Pengchang Chai, Yu Wang and Zelin Cheng
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121636 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Air filters for general ventilation have mainly been used to control the concentration of indoor particulate matter. In this study, the pressure differential, test dust capacity, quality factor and operating life of class F8 pleat–plate and multi-bag type chemical fiber filters were evaluated [...] Read more.
Air filters for general ventilation have mainly been used to control the concentration of indoor particulate matter. In this study, the pressure differential, test dust capacity, quality factor and operating life of class F8 pleat–plate and multi-bag type chemical fiber filters were evaluated using an air filter performance test system. The results showed that the resistance increase rate of multi-bag filter (0.49 Pa/g·(cm/s)) was lower than that of pleat–plate filter (1.94 Pa/g·(cm/s)), the quality factor of the multi-bag filter was lower than that of pleat–plate filter, and the dust capacity of the multi-bag filter was much higher than that of the pleat–plate filter. The operating life of the multi-bag filter was 8 times as that of the pleat–plate filter with the measured PM2.5 of outdoor. The energy consumption of the pleat–plate filter was 2.2 times that of the multi-bag filter. Analyzing the electron microscope photos after dust loading, the dust depth of pleat–plate filter into filter material was thinner than that of multi-bag filter. The research results could provide data support for the design optimization and selection of ventilation filters and the treatment of the particulate matter in indoor environments. Full article
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21 pages, 40772 KiB  
Article
Estimating NOx LOTOS-EUROS CTM Emission Parameters over the Northwest of South America through 4DEnVar TROPOMI NO2 Assimilation
by Andrés Yarce Botero, Santiago Lopez-Restrepo, Nicolás Pinel Peláez, Olga L. Quintero, Arjo Segers and Arnold W. Heemink
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121633 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
In this work, we present the development of a 4D-Ensemble-Variational (4DEnVar) data assimilation technique to estimate NOx top-down emissions using the regional chemical transport model LOTOS-EUROS with the NO2 observations from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). The assimilation was performed for [...] Read more.
In this work, we present the development of a 4D-Ensemble-Variational (4DEnVar) data assimilation technique to estimate NOx top-down emissions using the regional chemical transport model LOTOS-EUROS with the NO2 observations from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). The assimilation was performed for a domain in the northwest of South America centered over Colombia, and includes regions in Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador. In the 4DEnVar approach, the implementation of the linearized and adjoint model are avoided by generating an ensemble of model simulations and by using this ensemble to approximate the nonlinear model and observation operator. Emission correction parameters’ locations were defined for positions where the model simulations showed significant discrepancies with the satellite observations. Using the 4DEnVar data assimilation method, optimal emission parameters for the LOTOS-EUROS model were estimated, allowing for corrections in areas where ground observations are unavailable and the region’s emission inventories do not correctly reflect the current emissions activities. The analyzed 4DEnVar concentrations were compared with the ground measurements of one local air quality monitoring network and the data retrieved by the satellite instrument Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The assimilation had a low impact on NO2 surface concentrations reducing the Mean Fractional Bias from 0.45 to 0.32, primordially enhancing the spatial and temporal variations in the simulated NO2 fields. Full article
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