Special Issue "Ultrafine Particles: Determination, Behavior and Human Health Effects"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016) | Viewed by 24685
Interests: liquid chromatography; sample preparation; chromatography; environment high-performance liquid chromatography; climate change; ecology; environmental analysis mass spectrometry; analytical chemistry instrumentation
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Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) influences the Earth’s energy budget by acting directly on the climate, with a greater absorption of solar radiation and consequent decreasing in the percentage of radiation, and/or indirectly, constituting condensation nuclei for clouds, increasing their possible formation. Further, in 2015 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) considered PM as a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths and classified it as carcinogenic to humans in Group I. The hazards associated with PM inhalation are related to particle sizes. PM10 is able to pass through the first airways and is deposited in the pharyngo-laryngeal region, whereas PM2.5 manages to penetrate the tracheo-bronchial region reaching the alveolar one. Recent studies underline the importance of granulometric particle size, focusing the attention on particles <100 nm, i.e., nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have been named differently, as “UltraFine Particles” (UFPs), by toxicologists and environmental hygienists, “Aitken nuclei” by the experts of atmospheric sciences, and “nanostructured materials made” in the field of Material Sciences. The distinction of the particles, based on their size, has given rise to two classifications: Modal classification, based on the mechanisms of formation, and dosimetry classification, based on capabilities to reach different respiratory regions. In fact, these generate lung problems because of their high deposition capacity and they penetrate effectively into the respiratory system and are able to pass from the respiratory system to the circulatory system.
This Special Issue would like to investigate nanoparticles in terms of both chemical-physical characterization (a very little known task) and biological mechanisms of penetration in the blood system, taking into account the relative effects in the deepest regions of the human respiratory systems as well. The topics will be related to indoor and outdoor, workplaces and residential indoors. This view should provide a better understanding of nanoparticles.
Dr. Pasquale Avino
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- UltraFine Particles
- Measurement equipment
- Atmospheric pollutants
- Human health
- Respiratory system