Air Quality in Urban-Industrial Areas: Monitoring, Source Apportionment and Management

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 2 September 2024 | Viewed by 10435

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, Km 139.7, 2695-066 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: air quality; particulate matter; source apportionment; air biomonitoring
Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, Km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal
Interests: indoor air quality; ventilation; sleep; biodiesel; aerosols; biomonitoring; schools; assessment of pollution sources; atmospheric pollution; human exposure; air quality
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution has known impacts on human health, climate and ecosystems. According to the Global Burden of Disease study, air pollution was the fourth leading risk factor for early death, contributing to 6.67 million deaths worldwide in 2019, with PM2.5 being considered the largest cause of air pollution’s burden of disease.

According to the European Environment Agency (Air quality in Europe—2020 Report), in the EU-28 in 2018, the manufacturing and extractive industry was the largest contributor to As, Cd, Hg, Pb and NMVOC emissions and the second largest contributor to primary PM, SOX, NOX, CO and Ni; the related energy supply sector was the largest contributor to SOX and Ni.

Although industries increasingly perform emissions abatement in their processes, important emissions are still produced, such as PM from diffuse emissions (e.g., associated with the stocking, handling and transportation of materials).

Urban industrial areas are a matter of concern due to the combination of poor air quality with high population density. They are always challenging for air quality management because industries are often close to other industries, roadways, shipping ports, and residential areas with domestic heating, making it difficult to distinguish between the contributions of each anthropogenic source. Furthermore, natural sources and regional and long-range transport also affect local air quality.

To solve these environmental problems, it is crucial to use source apportionment techniques to identify the emission sources and their contributions to the air pollution levels in order to capacitate national/local authorities and industries to promote targeted and cost-effective mitigation measures.

Receptor models (RMs) are the most used method, and are based on the chemical composition profiles of sources and the observed composition of samples collected at a receptor site. These models rely on mass balance analysis (MBA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF), and may be applied in conjunction with methods that use local wind data (namely conditional bivariate polar plots, CBPFs). RMs have mainly been applied to PM, but also to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gaseous pollutants.

We propose this Special Issue to illustrate the role of monitoring and source apportionment as decision-support tools for air quality management in urban industrial areas, towards sustainable industrial development. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Temporal analysis of air pollutants and their relation to meteorological parameters (namely in the formation of secondary pollutants);
  • Industry-type characterization of pollutant emissions and chemical tracers (e.g., petrochemical, coking, metal smelting and steelworks, energy production, waste management);
  • Aerosols chemical characterization (elements, ions, black carbon, OC/EC, PAHs, oxidative potential, etc.) for source apportionment and for health risk assessment;
  • Biomonitoring of air pollution targeting the identification of pollution sources and their spatial distribution.

We look forward to receiving your submission!

Prof. Dr. Carla Gamelas
Dr. Nuno Canha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ambient air quality 
  • urban industrial areas
  • gaseous air pollutants (nitrogen and sulfur oxides, ozone, VOCs, etc.)
  • primary and secondary atmospheric pollutants 
  • particulate matter (PM)
  • chemical characterization of aerosols
  • metals 
  • black carbon 
  • source apportionment 
  • chemical tracers of industrial emissions 
  • air biomonitoring 
  • health risk assessment

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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31 pages, 11639 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Complexities of VOC Sources in Mexico City in the Years 2016–2022
by Mohammad Jahirul Alam, Bernhard Rappenglueck, Armando Retama and Olivia Rivera-Hernández
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020179 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major ingredients of photochemical smog. It is essential to know the spatial and temporal variation of VOC emissions. In this study, we used the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model for VOC source apportionment in Mexico City. We first [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major ingredients of photochemical smog. It is essential to know the spatial and temporal variation of VOC emissions. In this study, we used the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model for VOC source apportionment in Mexico City. We first analyzed a data set collected during the ozone season from March–May 2016. It includes 33 VOCs, nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the sum of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particle matter with a diameter < 1 μm (PM1). Another PMF analysis focused only on VOC data obtained in the month of May between the years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2021, and 2022 to gain insights into interannual variations. While the use of fossil fuel through combustion and evaporation continues to be major fraction in Mexico City, additional sources could be identified. Apart from biogenic sources which become more important closer to the end of the ozone season, a second natural emission factor termed “geogenic”, was identified. Overall, anthropogenic sources range between 80–90%. Diurnal plots and bivariate plots show the relative importance of these emission source factors on different temporal and spatial scales, which can be applied in emission control policies for Mexico City. Full article
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12 pages, 15506 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Meteorological Parameters on PM10: A Statistical Analysis of an Urban and Rural Environment in Izmir/Türkiye
by Necmiye Gulin Birim, Cihan Turhan, Ali Serdar Atalay and Gulden Gokcen Akkurt
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030421 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Air pollution is a substantial menace, especially in industrialized urban zones, which affects the balance of the environment, life of vital organisms and human health. Besides the main causes of air pollution such as dense urbanization, poor quality fuels and vehicle emissions, physical [...] Read more.
Air pollution is a substantial menace, especially in industrialized urban zones, which affects the balance of the environment, life of vital organisms and human health. Besides the main causes of air pollution such as dense urbanization, poor quality fuels and vehicle emissions, physical environment characteristics play an important role on air quality. Therefore, it is vital to understand the relationship between the characteristics of the natural environment and air quality. This study examines the correlations between the PM10 pollutant data and meteorological parameters such as temperature (Tair), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) and direction (WD) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 project. Two different zones (Vilayetler Evi as an urban zone and Sasalı Natural Life Park as a rural zone) of Izmir Province in Türkiye are used as a case study and the PM10 data is evaluated between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2021. A one-tailed t-test is used in order to statistically determine the relationships between the PM10 pollutant data and meteorological parameters. As a further study, practical significance of the parameters is investigated via the effect size method and the results show that the RH is found to be the most influencing parameter on the PM10 for both zones, while Tair is found to be statistically non-significant. Full article
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16 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Assessment of PM10 and Atmospheric Metal Pollution in Kayseri Province, Turkey
by Fatma Kunt, Zeynep Cansu Ayturan, Feray Yümün, İlknur Karagönen, Mümin Semerci and Mehmet Akgün
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020356 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Air pollution has numerous detrimental consequences for human health, visibility, climate, materials, plant health, and animal health. A portion of air pollution consists of metals, which are emitted into the environment via the combustion of fossil fuels, industrial activities, and the incineration of [...] Read more.
Air pollution has numerous detrimental consequences for human health, visibility, climate, materials, plant health, and animal health. A portion of air pollution consists of metals, which are emitted into the environment via the combustion of fossil fuels, industrial activities, and the incineration of metal-containing products. In this work, the particulate matter and particle-related metal pollution from various sources, in the Turkish province of Kayseri, were determined. AERMOD modeling was also used to examine the distribution of PM10 around the Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone (OIZ). Particulate matter (PM10) samples were collected using MCZ dust collecting devices at six monitoring locations mainly affected by residential heating (Hürriyet, Talas, and Kocasinan), industry (OIZ), and traffic (Tramway and Cumhuriyet) during the autumn/winter months and at three monitoring locations mainly affected by residential heating (Kocasinan), industry (OIZ), and traffic (Tramvay) during the spring months. ICP-MS analysis was used to assess the concentrations of the heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in samples collected over 6 different time periods of 16 days each. During the autumn/winter months, the concentrations of Pb near roadways were found to exceed the Air Quality Assessment and Management Regulation of Turkey (AQAMR) limit value. During all the sampling periods, the Ni and Cd concentrations were below the AQAMR limit values. At the points associated with winter heating, the concentrations exceeded the AQAMR limit value, which may result from coal combustion. Full article
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16 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Particulate Matter Accumulation and Leaf Traits of Ten Woody Species Growing with Different Air Pollution Conditions in Cheongju City, South Korea
by Huong-Thi Bui, Uuriintuya Odsuren, Sang-Yong Kim and Bong-Ju Park
Atmosphere 2022, 13(9), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091351 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) is the most dangerous form of air pollution and is known to cause severe health problems to humans. Plants as biological filters can reduce PM in urban areas by accumulating PM on the surface and epicuticular wax of leaves. The [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) is the most dangerous form of air pollution and is known to cause severe health problems to humans. Plants as biological filters can reduce PM in urban areas by accumulating PM on the surface and epicuticular wax of leaves. The present study determined the amount of PM (large PM (10–100 µm) and coarse PM (2.5–10 µm)) collected on 10 plant species from two sites (urban forest and roadside) of Cheongju City, South Korea. Selected leaf traits (chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), total chlorophyll (TChl), carotenoid, relative leaf water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and pH of these plant species at the two sites were concurrently determined to find about the correlation between the leaf straits and PM accumulation on leaf. Study results showed that the amount of accumulated large PM (10–100 µm) and coarse PM (2.5–10 µm) were different depending on the plant species and the collection site. Plants from the roadside tended to have higher amounts of PM accumulation as compared to the same plant species from the urban forest. In addition, the amount of PM accumulated on the leaf surface was higher than that of the epicuticular wax. PM accumulation on the leaf surface was positively correlated with the amount of PM accumulated on the epicuticular wax. Among the 10 plant species selected, P. strobus, P. densiflora, M. denudata, and S. vulgaris were the most effective plant for PM accumulation, while M. glyptostroboides was the least effective plant ones. Chl a, Chl b, TChl, and carotenoid contents were higher in plants collected along the roadside than in those collected from the urban forest, whereas RWC was higher in plants from the urban forest. No distinct tendency was noted regarding the pH. Coarse PM (2.5–10 µm) was negatively correlated with leaf traits of plants along the roadside. The tolerance of plants to pollution might be due to an increase in chlorophyll content. Features of the leaf were also essential in increasing PM accumulation on the leaf surface. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 355 KiB  
Review
Viability of Artificial Rain for Air Pollution Control: Insights from Natural Rains and Roadside Sprinkling
by Noor Haleem, Pradeep Kumar, Seyit Uguz, Yousuf Jamal, John McMaine and Xufei Yang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(12), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14121714 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Artificial rain, a technology primarily used for drought relief, has recently been used for combating regional air pollution. However, there are limited available measurement data to confirm the effectiveness of this control practice. In this study, we summarize control theories and indirect but [...] Read more.
Artificial rain, a technology primarily used for drought relief, has recently been used for combating regional air pollution. However, there are limited available measurement data to confirm the effectiveness of this control practice. In this study, we summarize control theories and indirect but relevant observations/findings, including air pollutant reduction after natural rain events and roadside sprinkling. A brief review of artificial rain basics is also provided. Our work shows that artificial rain appears to be a promising management strategy for air pollution control. However, field measurements are needed to further assess the cost-effectiveness of the practice, as well as the other benefits or challenges it may create. Full article
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