Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (9 June 2023) | Viewed by 14254

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Eco-Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037, China
Interests: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); emission characteristics; reducing amount control; technology reduction; stationary sources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The industry uses complex processes utilizing many airborne pollutants, including airborne particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. Many of them pose significant risk to environmental and/or human health, an issue that has attracted global concern. Additionally, higher standards are required for risk control.

Many air diffusion models have been employed to simulate spatial changes in air pollution concentrations. Air diffusion models are suitable for simulating pollutant concentrations in air since they explicitly consider transmission and pollutant changes in the environment, and provide a good explanatory ability for time variations.

In recognition of this, the open access journal Atmosphere is hosting a Special Issue to showcase the most recent findings related to industrial park air quality, emission characteristics, stationary source management strategies, standards and policies, air diffusion models, exposure risk and health effects, etc. With the recent expansion of research showing the management of air pollutants from industrial sources in the direction of refined treatments, this Special Issue is also an appropriate venue for papers discussing industrial source analyses and the evaluation of control strategies. Ultimately, this Special Issue aims to showcase the most recent comparable evidence concerning the impact of industrial air quality on people and organizations.

Original results from the field and controlled investigations, subjective surveys, models and review papers related to industrial air pollution are all welcome contributions. Authors are encouraged to include a section pertaining to future issues, opportunities and/or concerns related to their topics from a 5-, 10- and 20-year perspective.

Dr. Hailin Wang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • industrial park air pollution
  • industrial emissions
  • emission characteristics
  • air diffusion models
  • health effect
  • stationary source management strategies
  • standards and policies
  • control scenarios
  • air quality modeling

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 6702 KiB  
Article
Climatological Study of Air Pollutant Emissions in Saudi Arabia
by Motirh Al-Mutairi, Nahaa Al-Otaibi, Amgad Saber, Heshmat Abdel Basset and Mostafa Morsy
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040729 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution, variation, abrupt change, and long-term trends of major pollutant emissions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the period 1960–2020 using the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC)/CityZEN EU projects (MACCity) emissions dataset inventory. [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution, variation, abrupt change, and long-term trends of major pollutant emissions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the period 1960–2020 using the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC)/CityZEN EU projects (MACCity) emissions dataset inventory. These pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC). Seven stations were selected (Al-Bahah, Abha, Dahra, Jeddah, Riyadh, Qassim, and Ahsa), which correspond to the highest (hotspot) annual pollutant emissions. The annual cycle analysis of the six pollutant emissions revealed that there are four distinct patterns; the first one has one interannual wave while the other three patterns have two interannual waves. The analysis of the different sectors’ contributions to pollutant emissions revealed that the energy, transportation, and industries sectors have the highest percentage contributions. Significant abrupt change points were detected in 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010. The development and growth rates in the KSA starting from the early 1970s are attributed to the oil boom. The great increase in pollutant emissions in the early 1980s followed by that in the 1990s up to 2000 is due to an increase in fossil fuel demand, industries, transportation, and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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15 pages, 10543 KiB  
Article
Characteristics, Ozone Formation Potential and Sources of VOCs in Shandong Province, Eastern China
by Fangfang Cao, Li Tan, Jinghua Shi, Jinjun Li, Xiuyan Xu, Ye Chen, Fengju Zhang and Xihua You
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040667 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Between 9 July and 19 August 2016, the air concentrations of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Shandong Province, eastern China. Seven sampling sites representing urban, coastal and background sites were selected for sampling. The measured data were employed to investigate [...] Read more.
Between 9 July and 19 August 2016, the air concentrations of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Shandong Province, eastern China. Seven sampling sites representing urban, coastal and background sites were selected for sampling. The measured data were employed to investigate the VOCs’ characteristics, ozone formation potential, and main sources. During the sampling period, the concentrations of the VOCs ranged between 15.3 and 883 ppbv, with a mean of 139 ppbv. The most severely polluted city was Zibo (833 ppbv), followed by Jinan (33.5 ppbv) and Qingdao (32.8 ppbv). Propane was the most abundant species in all of the sampling sites, with a concentration range of 1.05–9.86 ppbv. Ethene, i-butane, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, n-butane, i-pentane, n-pentane, benzene and toluene were the predominant species in both the urban and coastal sites. Propylene equivalent concentrations (Pro-Equiv) and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) were employed to assess the reactivity and contribution of each species to the photochemical ozone formation. The results showed that alkenes and aromatics were the most active species performing a key function in the ozone formation, accounting for 43.9–90.7% of the Pro-Equiv and 41.0–93% of the ozone formation potential (OFP). The ratios of ethylbenzene and m/p-xylene were calculated, and the results showed that local emissions were the main sources. Gasoline exhaust/fuel evaporation, industry process/solvent usage, diesel exhaust/petrochemical emission and coal burning were the dominant sources of VOCs in Shandong Province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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7 pages, 1093 KiB  
Communication
Emissions and Control Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds from a Typical Chemical Enterprise
by Lin Wang, Dong Lin, Rui Liu, Jing Li and Xiuyan Xu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020206 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Emissions from the chemical industry are among the important sources of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which face control challenges such as multiple emission sources, high emission intensity and complex pollutant types. In this study, a typical chemical enterprise is selected as the [...] Read more.
Emissions from the chemical industry are among the important sources of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which face control challenges such as multiple emission sources, high emission intensity and complex pollutant types. In this study, a typical chemical enterprise is selected as the research object, and VOCs characteristics such as emission amount, concentration and composition are analyzed; end-pipe treatment of VOCs is evaluated and control suggestions are proposed. Results show that the annual emission amount of VOCs from organized stacks was 64.08 tons, accounting for 72% of total emissions. Cyclohexane and xylene were the major components during the emission. The filling process was the largest contributor in the case of unorganized emission. As far as end-pipe treatment was concerned, ultraviolet (UV) photolysis varied greatly between 12–80%, indicating unstable removal efficiency. Finally, several measures concerning whole-process control were suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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9 pages, 1259 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of VOCs Emissions from Circulating Water of Typical Petrochemical Enterprises and Their Impact on Surroundings
by Li Fang, Run Hao, Xiaoqi Xie, Guoao Li and Hailin Wang
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13121985 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
The petrochemical industry is regarded as the main source of anthropogenic VOCs emissions in China. As one of the main sources of unorganized emissions, circulating water is scarcely studied and reported. In this research, six circulating water systems (LC2X, HGLY, YJ, XJ, LC4X [...] Read more.
The petrochemical industry is regarded as the main source of anthropogenic VOCs emissions in China. As one of the main sources of unorganized emissions, circulating water is scarcely studied and reported. In this research, six circulating water systems (LC2X, HGLY, YJ, XJ, LC4X and LC5X) of a typical petrochemical enterprise were selected as targets to characterize VOCs emitted from such unorganized emissions. The results showed that there was a great difference in the VOCs disorganized emissions from the six circulating water systems, among which the main VOCs of HG2X, HGLY and YJ were oxygen-containing VOCs (OVOCs), accounting for about 48.0–81.2%. The main compounds of XJ, LC4X and LC5X were alkynes (89.1%), aromatic hydrocarbons (69.7%) and alkane (50.1%), respectively. TVOCs ranged from 276.0 to 23,009.6 µg·m−3. Based on POC test results, VOCs emissions of the circulating water system were 1237.5 tons, indicating further control was needed. As for their ambient impact, XJ had higher OFP contribution, and the OFP values of the six systems ranged from 823.3 to 145,739.0 µg·m−3, among which the major contributors were aromatic hydrocarbons (0.2–85.1%), OVOCs (0.1–77.2%) and alkynes (1.7–97.6%). In addition, aromatic hydrocarbons showed the largest contribution of the potential of SOA generation, which was more than 88.0%. As far as control was concerned, the replacement of an open cooling tower to closed cooling tower combined with regular POC detection will be an efficient way to control VOCs from such sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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14 pages, 7124 KiB  
Article
Prioritization of VOCs Emitted from Co-Processing Cement Kiln Using a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Method
by Yong Yang, Guoao Li, Yaling Wang, Zhiping Wang, Bao Jiang, Huahua Bai, Lei Nie, Xue Chen, Xianglong Jing, Guohao Li and Chengyi Sun
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13121952 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The violate organic compounds (VOCs) emission from co-processing cement kiln has not been comprehensively investigated and evaluated. In this study, we sampled and determined the VOCs emitted from a typical co-processing cement kiln in Beijing, China. VOCs characteristics, ozone formation potential (OFP), and [...] Read more.
The violate organic compounds (VOCs) emission from co-processing cement kiln has not been comprehensively investigated and evaluated. In this study, we sampled and determined the VOCs emitted from a typical co-processing cement kiln in Beijing, China. VOCs characteristics, ozone formation potential (OFP), and main odor components for the emitted gas were analyzed. Additionally, a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (F-AHP) was innovatively applied to estimate the priority VOCs. The study shows that aromatic (36.6%) and oxygen contained VOCs (O-VOCs) (30.3%) were the most abundant VOCs, with a high average concentration of benzene (1622.0 μg/m3) and acrolein (1105.5 μg/m3). Acrolein, propene, benzene, 1-butane, and 1,3-butadiene were the dominate OFP compounds, with the corresponding average OFP concentration of 8325.6, 3768.2, 1167.9, 1065.9, and 1027.2 μg/m3, respectively. Acrolein was also found to be the dominate main odor component. Eleven VOCs, including one O-VOC, one halohydrocarbon, and nine alkenes, were screened out by F-AHP. Alkene was the priority VOCs category and acrolein was the most important VOC in the stack gas. The results of this study are helpful to systematically understand the VOCs’ characteristics, OFP, main odor components, and priority compounds of VOCs in the stack gas of co-processing cement kiln, and provide a new method for the screening of priority VOCs compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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11 pages, 32671 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Outdoor Environment PM10 Concentration in an Organized Industrial Zone Using Geographical Information System
by Fatma Kunt and Şükran Erdoğan
Atmosphere 2022, 13(11), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111918 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Air pollution adversely affects human health, visibility distance, materials, plants and animal health. Air pollution’s impact on human health arises from inhaling high amounts of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Notably, our understanding of the damage caused by PM10 pollutants is improving [...] Read more.
Air pollution adversely affects human health, visibility distance, materials, plants and animal health. Air pollution’s impact on human health arises from inhaling high amounts of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Notably, our understanding of the damage caused by PM10 pollutants is improving daily. This study aims to measure and analyze PM10 pollution in the Konya Organized Industrial Zone at certain times and places. Measurements were taken at twenty-four locations in the morning, noon and evening hours. The results were compared with the Turkish Air Quality Assessment and Management Regulation, and pollution maps of the regions were created with Surfer Software and ArcGIS 10.1 programs. With the measurements, it was observed that the times at which the limit was exceeded were mainly the evening hours. While no limit exceedance was recorded in the morning hours, the average concentration value was observed once in those hours, and around noon the maximum value was observed five times. In this study, we correlated the measurement results, the values of the measurement points located in the city center and the average number of vehicles passing through the region. It was observed that the PM10 -induced air pollution in the Konya Organized Industrial Zone was caused by dense traffic during evening hours. To prevent traffic-related pollution in the region, it is recommended to increase the number of entrance and exit gates in the industrial zone and to plant trees in appropriate sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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15 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
The Italian Pathway for Energy Transition: From the Coal Phase Out to the Problems Related to Natural Gas
by Claudia Cafaro, Paolo Ceci and Antonio Fardelli
Atmosphere 2022, 13(11), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111872 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
In Italy, the de-carbonization process descending from the National Energy Strategy (NES) of the November 2017 and the National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) of December 2019 has led two specific effects: the progressive ending of coal use as a fuel for the [...] Read more.
In Italy, the de-carbonization process descending from the National Energy Strategy (NES) of the November 2017 and the National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) of December 2019 has led two specific effects: the progressive ending of coal use as a fuel for the production of electricity and the emanation of authorization acts for the conversion to natural gas of existing coal-fired power plants and/or for the construction of new power plants powered by natural gas. These new plants will be technologically advanced and designed to guarantee the safety of the national electricity grid in periods of greatest energy demand and will have to support the growing part of energy produced with plants powered by renewable energy sources (especially wind and photovoltaic). This reference context will necessarily have to take into account the recent gas supply difficulties due to the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, which could lead to a reconsideration of the projects for the construction of new gas plants by focusing on other energy sources. This paper hence aims to quantify and to evaluate the effective environmental benefits for atmospheric emissions, related to the replacement of coal with natural gas. Starting from the electrical powers replaced and installed, the potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will be examined, comparing the current emission situation in terms of CO2, with the future scenarios deriving from the construction of thermoelectric plants whose projects are currently under authorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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23 pages, 6263 KiB  
Article
Black Carbon Emission Prediction of Diesel Engine Using Stacked Generalization
by Yongbo Zhang, Miaomiao Wen, Ying Sun, Hui Chen and Yunkai Cai
Atmosphere 2022, 13(11), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111855 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
With the continuous growth of international maritime trade, black carbon (BC) emissions from ships have caused great harm to the natural environment and human health. Controlling the BC emissions from ships is of positive significance for Earth’s environmental governance. In order to accelerate [...] Read more.
With the continuous growth of international maritime trade, black carbon (BC) emissions from ships have caused great harm to the natural environment and human health. Controlling the BC emissions from ships is of positive significance for Earth’s environmental governance. In order to accelerate the development process of ship BC emission control technologies, this paper proposes a BC emission prediction model based on stacked generalization (SG). The meta learner of the prediction model is Ridge Regression (RR), and the base learner combines four models: Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LGB), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Regression (SVR). We used mutual information (MI) to measure the correlation between combustion characteristic parameters (CCPs) and BC emission concentration, and selected them as the features of the prediction model. The results show that the CCPs have a strong correlation with the BC emission concentration of the diesel engine under different working conditions, which can be used to describe the influence of the changes to the combustion process in the cylinder on the BC generation. The introduction of the stacked generalization method reconciles the inherent bias of various models. Compared with traditional models, the fusion model has achieved higher prediction accuracy on the same datasets. The research results of this paper can provide a reference for the research and development of ship black carbon emission control technologies and the formulation of relevant regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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12 pages, 1399 KiB  
Article
Predicting PM2.5 in the Northeast China Heavy Industrial Zone: A Semi-Supervised Learning with Spatiotemporal Features
by Hongxun Jiang, Xiaotong Wang and Caihong Sun
Atmosphere 2022, 13(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111744 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Particulate matter PM2.5 pollution affects the Chinese population, particularly in cities such as Shenyang in northeastern China, which occupies a number of traditional heavy industries. This paper proposes a semi-supervised learning model used for predicting PM2.5 concentrations. The model incorporates rich [...] Read more.
Particulate matter PM2.5 pollution affects the Chinese population, particularly in cities such as Shenyang in northeastern China, which occupies a number of traditional heavy industries. This paper proposes a semi-supervised learning model used for predicting PM2.5 concentrations. The model incorporates rich data from the real world, including 11 air quality monitoring stations in Shenyang and nearby cities. There are three types of data: air monitoring, meteorological data, and spatiotemporal information (such as the spatiotemporal effects of PM2.5 emissions and diffusion across different geographical regions). The model consists of two classifiers: genetic programming (GP) to forecast PM2.5 concentrations and support vector classification (SVC) to predict trends. The experimental results show that the proposed model performs better than baseline models in accuracy, including 3% to 18% over a classic multivariate linear regression (MLR), 1% to 11% over a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP-ANN), and 21% to 68% over a support vector regression (SVR). Furthermore, the proposed GP approach provides an intuitive contribution analysis of factors for PM2.5 concentrations. The data of backtracking points adjacent to other monitoring stations are critical in forecasting shorter time intervals (1 h). Wind speeds are more important in longer intervals (6 and 24 h). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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8 pages, 868 KiB  
Article
Emission Characteristics and the Environmental Impact of VOCs from Typical FRP Manufacture Industry
by Run Hao, Song Xue, Hao Sun, Tao Yang and Hailin Wang
Atmosphere 2022, 13(8), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13081274 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
The VOC emission characteristics of the typical fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) industry were studied for an assessment of the impact on the environment. The results showed that the VOC emissions of the typical FRP industry mainly come from grille, sheet, winding, molding, and pultrusion [...] Read more.
The VOC emission characteristics of the typical fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) industry were studied for an assessment of the impact on the environment. The results showed that the VOC emissions of the typical FRP industry mainly come from grille, sheet, winding, molding, and pultrusion process links, including ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and benzene series. The benzene series’ concentration represented by styrene was much higher than that of other species. The generation potential of ozone and the SOA in the typical production process were evaluated: in terms of ozone impact, the OFP values of the winding process were the highest, accounting for 65.9% of the total contribution. For the component contribution, the OFP contribution of the benzene series represented by styrene was far more than that of other VOC species, and the styrene mainly came from the use of unsaturated resin. In terms of the SOA impact, the pultrusion process contributed the most to the generation of SOA, accounting for 63.9% of the total SOA contribution. In terms of the component contribution, the contribution of SOA mainly came from the benzene series, accounting for nearly 95% of the total contribution of VOCs. Therefore, FRP enterprises should give priority to controlling the emission of the benzene series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Air Pollution: Emission, Management and Policy)
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