Recent Developments in Carbon Emissions Reduction Approaches

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution Control".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 4476

Special Issue Editors

State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
Interests: interfacial properties of geofluids; sorption and transport of fluids in porous media; underground CO2/H2 storage; molecular simulations; molecular thermodynamics
School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617, China
Interests: hydrogen transportation; natural gas network simulation; numerical heat transfer; efficient numerical methods and algorithm; model reduction methods

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Guest Editor
School of Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China
Interests: fuel cell generation system health management; modeling and analysis of reversible solid oxide cell; application of control algorithm
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: discrete fracture networks; engineering geology; solid–fluid coupling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human activities have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 50% in less than 200 years. The carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere had previously reached 420 parts per million (ppm). Pollution caused by carbon dioxide, which is mainly from the usage of fossil fuels for energy generation, warms the planet, causing serious environmental challenges for humanity. Hence, many countries around the world have employed the target of net-zero carbon emissions for the next few decades in an attempt to mitigate global warming. Various options have been proposed to reduce carbon emissions. These methods include the development of renewable energy sources, carbon capture, storage and utilization (CCUS) technologies, energy storage techniques, techniques for improving the efficiency of energy generation, etc.

In recognition of the net-zero target, the open access journal Atmosphere is hosting a Special Issue to showcase the most recent findings related to recent developments in carbon emissions reduction approaches. In this Special Issue, we welcome experimental, theoretical, and simulation investigations to enhance the development of environmentally friendly methods relevant to carbon emissions reduction. The areas of focus include, but are not limited to, the following: the geological storage of carbon dioxide; carbon dioxide enhanced oil/gas recovery; new materials for carbon capture; carbon utilization; techniques for renewable energy resources; underground hydrogen storage; fuel cell; and reversible solid oxide cell.

Dr. Yafan Yang
Dr. Jingfa Li
Dr. Xiao-long Wu
Dr. Weiwei Zhu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • CCUS
  • renewable energy
  • energy storage
  • H2 transportation
  • CO2 flooding and storage
  • modeling and analysis of reversible solid oxide cell
  • fuel cell system control
  • multiscale simulation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 6390 KiB  
Article
Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study on Adsorption Characteristics of Illite for Hg2+
by Zhengchao Guo, Biao Wang and Xin Tang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(10), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14101503 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 604
Abstract
The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River has formed vast riverine fallout zones as a result of its periodic water storage and flood discharge operations, and the main constituents of this area are quaternary loose clays. It is important to study [...] Read more.
The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River has formed vast riverine fallout zones as a result of its periodic water storage and flood discharge operations, and the main constituents of this area are quaternary loose clays. It is important to study the microscopic characteristics of clay minerals in these fallout zones and their adsorption properties of Hg2+ to guide the environmental safety of the fallout zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. In this context, the authors of this paper used X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments to reveal the main clay mineral compositions in the fallout zones and then constructed the molecular model structures of the clay minerals based on molecular dynamics theory and studied the adsorption characteristics of these clay minerals with Hg2+ in depth. The results show that the main clay minerals in the Three Gorges Reservoir area fallout zone include illite, illite-mixed layer and green-mixed layer, in which the content of illite ranges from 21% to 54%. Taking illite as the study object, the heat of adsorption of Hg2+ in illite ranged from 14.83 kJ·mol−1 to 31.92 kJ·mol−1, which is a physical adsorption. The heat of adsorption was mainly affected by the water content and had little relationship with temperature. With the gradual increase in water content, the heat of adsorption gradually decreases. The adsorption amount of Hg2+, on the other hand, is jointly affected by water content and temperature and decreases with the increase in water content and temperature; under natural environmental conditions (P = 0.1 Mpa), the adsorption characteristics of Hg2+ in illite change with the change in water content. When the water content was between 0% and 6.95%, the increase in water content led to an increase in the interlayer spacing of illite, and the adsorption of Hg2+ in illite was in a monolayer state, with the adsorption peaks located from 4.5~5.5 Å. When the water content increased to 6.95% to 13.90%, the layer spacing of illite reached the maximum, and the adsorption of Hg2+ in illite transitioned from a monolayer to a bilayer, with the adsorption peaks located between 5 Å and 9~10 Å, respectively. When the water content was further increased to 13.90% to 20.85%, the increase in water content instead led to a slight decrease in the layer spacing of illite, showing a tendency of transitioning from a bilayer to a monolayer adsorption layer, which at the same time changed the number of adsorption layers of Hg2+; the study also revealed that the interaction between illite and Hg2+ was regulated by van der Waals and Coulomb forces, whereas the increase in temperature promoted the Hg2+ +diffusion, and an increase in water content inhibits the diffusion of Hg2+. In summary, these findings provide valuable theoretical support for solving the problem of Hg2+ pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Decline Zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Carbon Emissions Reduction Approaches)
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23 pages, 4864 KiB  
Article
Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Model Building and 3D Testing Based on the Nodal Idea
by Mingfei Li, Kanglin Zhu, Mumin Rao, Zhengpeng Chen, Kai Xiong, Longtong Hou, Xiabin Wang, Chuangting Chen, Shujun Li and Xi Li
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081261 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system is a highly intricate system characterized by multiple variables and couplings. Developing an accurate model for the SOFC independent power generation system is of paramount importance. Conducting experimental studies on the SOFC system is costly, and [...] Read more.
The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system is a highly intricate system characterized by multiple variables and couplings. Developing an accurate model for the SOFC independent power generation system is of paramount importance. Conducting experimental studies on the SOFC system is costly, and it carries certain risks due to the requirements for pure hydrogen, high-temperature environments, and other factors. To address these challenges, a high-performing model that precisely reflects the inherent characteristics of the SOFC is essential for dynamic static analysis and the identification of optimal operating points. This paper presents a SOFC system model based on current controls, which was implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, and it utilized a nodal approach for modeling. The model incorporated a cold air bypass, which enabled the more precise control of the SOFC reactor’s inlet and outlet temperatures. Furthermore, a 3D test and verification method are proposed in order to focus on the influence of input parameters on the four electrical characteristics, and four thermal characteristics, of output parameters. By conducting one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional studies of these output parameters, a more intuitive understanding of the system’s response to changes in input parameters was obtained. Under conditions wherein all other variables were kept constant, the entire system attained its maximum efficiency at approximately FU = 0.8, BP = 0, and AR = 6. The outcomes of this study have significant implications for exploring the optimal operating point in the SOFC independent power generation system in an in-depth manner. It provides valuable insights for enhancing the system’s efficiency and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Carbon Emissions Reduction Approaches)
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Review

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25 pages, 3711 KiB  
Review
Advances of Phase-Field Model in the Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flows: A Review
by Jingfa Li, Dukui Zheng and Wei Zhang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081311 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
The phase-field model (PFM) is gaining increasing attention in the application of multiphase flows due to its advantages, in which the phase interface is treated as a narrow layer and phase parameters change smoothly and continually at this thin layer. Thus, the construction [...] Read more.
The phase-field model (PFM) is gaining increasing attention in the application of multiphase flows due to its advantages, in which the phase interface is treated as a narrow layer and phase parameters change smoothly and continually at this thin layer. Thus, the construction or tracking of the phase interface can be avoided, and the bulk phase and phase interface can be simulated integrally. PFM provides a useful alternative that does not suffer from problems with either the mass conservation or the accurate computation of surface tension. In this paper, the state of the art of PFM in the numerical modeling and simulation of multiphase flows is comprehensively reviewed. Starting with a brief description of historical developments in the PFM, we continue to take a tour into the basic concepts, fundamental theory, and mathematical models. Then, the commonly used numerical schemes and algorithms for solving the governing systems of PFM in the application of multiphase flows are presented. The various applications and representative results, especially in non-match density scenarios of multiphase flows, are reviewed. The primary challenges and research focus of PFM are analyzed and summarized as well. This review is expected to provide a valuable reference for PFM in the application of multiphase flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Carbon Emissions Reduction Approaches)
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