Advances in Integrated Air Quality Management: Emissions, Monitoring, Modelling (2nd Volume)

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2023) | Viewed by 23509

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development (IERSD), National Observatory of Athens (NOA), GR 15236 Athens, Greece
Interests: environmental applications of remote sensing; atmospheric correction; air quality assessment/monitoring; aerosols; natural hazards; land cover/use change; GIS; spatial data analysis; climate change; natural disasters and extremes; desertification; precision farming; soil erosion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Athens, Greece
Interests: emission inventory development; chemical transport modeling; urban air quality; air pollution mitigation strategies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Athens, Greece
Interests: emission inventory development (classical pollutants and GHGs); air and particulate pollution over urban areas; GIS; air quality modeling; low-cost sensor monitoring; raising climate change awareness
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a follow-up of the first Special Issue entitled “Advances in Integrated Air Quality Management: Emissions, Monitoring, Modelling” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/special_issues/advances_air_management) published in Atmosphere and will cover all aspects of air quality management issues.

Air pollution has become an increasingly important environmental issue on a global scale, since the sources that cause poor air quality and are responsible for climate change are common. Both natural and anthropogenic components of air pollution have been long recognized and are continuously being investigated to identify links with local and regional air quality, impact on climate, health and ecosystems, new sources and pollutants, as well as links between emissions and air pollution management.

Air quality is monitored at the surface through ground-based monitors, official networks, low-cost sensors and, recently, cheap and easy-to-use sensors by citizens. Monitoring aims to identify pollution sources, air quality, compliance with ambient air quality standards, exposure and impact from other parameters (meteorology, topography, accidental release, etc.). Current research focuses on the study of intra-urban, local, regional and intercontinental transport of air pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), O3, NOx and so on. However, there is need for additional data on air pollution, both spatially and temporally, by including satellite data (in terms of aerosol optical thickness), synoptic information, visualization to ground-based air quality data modeling, advanced statistical relations to forecast air quality, new emissions sources and new pollutants.

This proposal aims to gather research papers focused on methodologies based on emission inventories, classical and novel methodologies, remote and in situ experimental observations, meteorological and climate parameters that affect air pollution, application of chemical transport and/or development of statistical models for forecasting air pollution levels and assisting the monitoring and mapping of air pollution close to major sources or in greater areas.

Dr. Adrianos Retalis
Dr. Vasiliki Assimakopoulos
Dr. Kyriaki-Maria Fameli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emission inventory
  • air pollution monitoring
  • air pollution assessment
  • exposure
  • climate change and air pollution
  • PM2.5, PM10
  • ozone
  • aerosols
  • statistical forecasting models
  • chemical transport models
  • urban air pollution
  • remote sensing

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 3315 KiB  
Article
A Novel AI Framework for PM Pollution Prediction Applied to a Greek Port City
by Fotios K. Anagnostopoulos, Spyros Rigas, Michalis Papachristou, Ioannis Chaniotis, Ioannis Anastasiou, Christos Tryfonopoulos and Paraskevi Raftopoulou
Atmosphere 2023, 14(9), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14091413 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a major global concern due to its negative impact on human health. To effectively address this issue, it is crucial to have a reliable and efficient forecasting system. In this study, we propose a framework for predicting particulate [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a major global concern due to its negative impact on human health. To effectively address this issue, it is crucial to have a reliable and efficient forecasting system. In this study, we propose a framework for predicting particulate matter concentrations by utilizing publicly available data from low-cost sensors and deep learning. We model the temporal variability through a novel Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network that offers a level of interpretability. The spatial dependence of particulate matter pollution in urban areas is modeled by incorporating characteristics of the urban agglomeration, namely, mean population density and mean floor area ratio. Our approach is general and scalable, as it can be applied to any type of sensor. Moreover, our framework allows for portable sensors, either mounted on vehicles or used by people. We demonstrate its effectiveness through a case study in Greece, where dense urban environments combined with low cost sensor networks is a peculiarity. Specifically, we consider Patras, a Greek port city, where the net PM pollution comes from a variety of sources, including traffic, port activity and domestic heating. Our model achieves a forecasting accuracy comparable to the resolution of the sensors and provides meaningful insights into the results. Full article
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11 pages, 3853 KiB  
Article
Patterns and Influencing Factors of Air Pollution at a Southeast Chinese City
by Le Jian, Xiangjing Gao, Yun Zhao, Meibian Zhang, Qing Chen, Hua Zou and Mingluan Xing
Atmosphere 2023, 14(9), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14091394 - 3 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Ambient air pollution is a pressing global environmental problem. To identify the source of air pollution and manage air quality in urban areas, the patterns of air pollutants under different traffic conditions and the impact of weather on air quality were explored in [...] Read more.
Ambient air pollution is a pressing global environmental problem. To identify the source of air pollution and manage air quality in urban areas, the patterns of air pollutants under different traffic conditions and the impact of weather on air quality were explored in Hangzhou, China, a city experiencing rapid growth in vehicles. Data for particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, and UFP), gaseous pollutants (CO, SO2, O3, and NO), and weather parameters (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and air pressure) were collected at two venues with different traffic conditions. An exploratory factor analysis was employed to identify the main factors contributing to air quality. The results showed that PMs, particularly PM1.0 and UFP, significantly contributed to air quality in monitoring venues, especially at Venue 2. As the leading factor, PMs contributed 40.85%, while gaseous pollutants and traffic (particularly fuel type) contributed 30.46% to air quality. The traffic was an independent contributor at Venue 2. Temperature and wind speed had negative influences on air pollutants. The outcomes of the study suggest that exhaust emissions from vehicles, particularly PM1.0 and UFP from heavy-duty vehicles, contributed significantly to ambient air quality. The contribution of meteorological factors to air quality varied at different venues and should not be ignored. Full article
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12 pages, 2616 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Carbon Particulate Matter Removal Performance of Dual-Fuel Marine Engine with DOC + CDPF
by Zhiyuan Yang, Zhiwen Tan, Qinming Tan and Shien Tu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14061041 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
This study analyzes Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Carbon Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) after-treatment systems integrated into a WARTSILA W20DF marine dual-fuel engine. The CDPF was coated with a non-precious metal catalyst whose catalytic redox performance improved with increasing temperature. The carbon particulate [...] Read more.
This study analyzes Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Carbon Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) after-treatment systems integrated into a WARTSILA W20DF marine dual-fuel engine. The CDPF was coated with a non-precious metal catalyst whose catalytic redox performance improved with increasing temperature. The carbon particulate matter combustion reached up to 12.5 mg/s at 800 K and over 20 mg/s at 900 K. Then, the W20DF running at 230 kW, 450 kW, 680 kW, and 810 kW with 1000 rpm; a Tisch 10-8xx; and an AVL SPC 478 were used to sample and analyze the carbon particulate matter (CPM) before and after DOC + CDPF. The gaseous emissions (O2, CO2, CO, HC, NOx, and NO2) were analyzed with the flue gas analyzer AVL i60. The results show that the collected carbon particulate matter simultaneously became darker as the load decreased. This study finds that the maximum amount of CPM per unit volume of exhaust gas occurs under 50% working conditions and the lowest amount under 90% working conditions. After DOC + CDPF treatment with a non-precious metal coating, the CPM was reduced by about 50%. Furthermore, this type of catalyst’s efficiency rises with the temperature increase. The CPM combustion efficiency reached up to 20 mg/s at 900 K. The other gas components in the exhaust gas before and after DOC + CDPF also changed. These research results have a significant reference value for DOC + CDPF optimization to decrease the carbon particulate matter in marine engines. Full article
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38 pages, 1997 KiB  
Article
Challenges in IAQ for Indoor Spaces: A Comparison of the Reference Guideline Values of Indoor Air Pollutants from the Governments and International Institutions
by Gaetano Settimo, Yong Yu, Marco Gola, Maddalena Buffoli and Stefano Capolongo
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040633 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6597
Abstract
Since people spend most of their time inside buildings, indoor air quality (IAQ) remains a highlighted topic to ensure in the built environment to improve public health, especially for vulnerable users. To achieve a better indoor environment quality (IEQ), some countries’ governments or [...] Read more.
Since people spend most of their time inside buildings, indoor air quality (IAQ) remains a highlighted topic to ensure in the built environment to improve public health, especially for vulnerable users. To achieve a better indoor environment quality (IEQ), some countries’ governments or regional institutions have developed and published reference guideline values of various air pollutants to prevent the IAQ from becoming adverse to occupants. Beyond guidelines by World Health Organization (WHO), in some countries, there are specific institutional requirements on the IAQ, and others integrated it into the building regulation for the built environment. This paper is based on the literature research, summarized from previously conducted works by the authors, on the chemical reference values of IAQ-related regulations and guidelines published by several Governments or related institutions from various regions around the World. Despite these efforts at standardization and legislation, many indoor air quality monitoring activities conducted in several countries still fall short of the main indications produced. By comparing the reference values of 35 pollutants, both physical and chemical ones, which are proposed in documents from 23 regions included so far, the IAQ research and prevention actions on progress in different regions should be included in monitoring plans with guidelines/reference values in their current state. The outcome of the paper is to define the current trends and suggest some perspectives on the field of interest for improving the indoor air quality of generic spaces at an international level. It becomes evident that, at the global level, IAQ represents a complex political, social, and health challenge, which still suffers from the absence of a systematic and harmonized approach. This is not a new situation; the issue was raised more than 40 years ago, and despite efforts and a pandemic, the situation has not changed. Full article
17 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
The Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals in Surface Dust in the Main District Bus Stops of Tianshui City Based on the Positive Matrix Factorization Model and Geo-Statistics
by Chunyan Li, Xinmin Wang, Shun Xiao and Hai Wang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030591 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
For the pollution assessment and quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in surface dust, a total of 52 surface dust samples were collected from bus stops in Tianshui City. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI [...] Read more.
For the pollution assessment and quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in surface dust, a total of 52 surface dust samples were collected from bus stops in Tianshui City. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to analyze the pollution levels caused by heavy metals. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of the receptor modeling and geo-statistics were employed to analyze the source of the heavy metals. The results were as follows. ① Except for Mn, Co and V, the mean concentrations of other heavy metals have exceeded the local background value of Gansu. The percentage of excessive concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb in the samples was 100%, and that of Cr, Ni and As were 96.15%, 94.23%, and 96.15%, respectively. ② Semivariogram model fitting showed that the block-based coefficients of Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni, and As were between 0.25 and 0.75, indicating that they were mainly affected by human factors. The high values of Pb, Zn, Ni and As were mainly distributed in the eastern part of the study area, and the high values of Cu, Sr, Ba and Cr were distributed in a spot-like pattern in the study area. ③ The Igeo results showed that As, Cu, Zn, and Pb were the main contamination factors, and the optimized RI showed that the heavy metals were the overall ecological risk of intensity, among which Pb, As and Cu were the main ecological factors and should be taken as the priority control objects. ④ Based on the PMF, there are four main sources of eleven heavy metals. V, Mn, and Co were attributed to natural sources, accounting for 18.33%; Cu, Sr, and Ba were from mixed sources of pollution from transportation and industrial alloy manufacturing, accounting for 26.99%; Cr and Ni were from sources of construction waste pollution, accounting for 17.17%, As, Zn and Pb were mainly produced by coal-traffic mixed pollution emissions, accounting for 37.52%. Overall, the study area was dominated by coal-traffic emissions. Full article
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17 pages, 16855 KiB  
Article
Study of the Dynamical Relationships between PM2.5 and PM10 in the Caribbean Area Using a Multiscale Framework
by Thomas Plocoste, Adarsh Sankaran and Lovely Euphrasie-Clotilde
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030468 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
The Caribbean basin is a geographical area with a high prevalence of asthma due to mineral dust. As such, it is crucial to analyze the dynamic behavior of particulate pollutants in this region. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships [...] Read more.
The Caribbean basin is a geographical area with a high prevalence of asthma due to mineral dust. As such, it is crucial to analyze the dynamic behavior of particulate pollutants in this region. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10) using Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT)-based approaches, including the time-dependent intrinsic correlation (TDIC) and time-dependent intrinsic cross-correlation (TDICC) frames. The study utilized datasets from Puerto Rico from between 2007 and 2010 to demonstrate the relationships between two primary particulate matter concentration datasets of air pollution across multiple time scales. The method first decomposes both time series using improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (ICEEMDAN) to obtain the periodic scales. The Hilbert spectral analysis identified two dominant peaks at a weekly scale for both PM types. High amplitude contributions were sustained for long and continuous time periods at seasonal to intra-seasonal scales, with similar trends in spectral amplitude observed for both types of PM except for monthly and intra-seasonal scales of six months. The TDIC method was used to analyze the resulting modes with similar periodic scales, revealing the strongest and most stable correlation pattern at quarterly and annual cycles. Subsequently, lagged correlations at each time scale were analyzed using the TDICC method. For high-frequency PM10 intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) less than a seasonal scale, the value of the IMF at a given time scale was found to be dependent on multiple antecedent values of PM2.5. However, from the quarterly scale onward, the correlation pattern of the PM2.5-PM10 relationship was stable, and IMFs of PM10 at these scales could be modeled by the lag 1 IMF of PM2.5. These results demonstrate that PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are dynamically linked during the passage of African dust storms. Full article
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20 pages, 9198 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Deep Learning Model for Air Quality Prediction Based on the Time–Frequency Domain Relationship
by Rui Xu, Deke Wang, Jian Li, Hang Wan, Shiming Shen and Xin Guo
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020405 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Deep learning models have been widely used in time-series numerical prediction of atmospheric environmental quality. The fundamental feature of this application is to discover the correlation between influencing factors and target parameters through a deep network structure. These relationships in original data are [...] Read more.
Deep learning models have been widely used in time-series numerical prediction of atmospheric environmental quality. The fundamental feature of this application is to discover the correlation between influencing factors and target parameters through a deep network structure. These relationships in original data are affected by several different frequency factors. If the deep network is adopted without guidance, these correlations may be masked by entangled multifrequency data, which will cause the problem of insufficient correlation feature extraction and difficult model interpretation. Because the wavelet transform has the ability to separate these entangled multifrequency data, and these correlations can be extracted by deep learning methods, a hybrid model combining wavelet transform and transformer-like (WTformer) was designed to extract time–frequency domain features and prediction of air quality. The 2018–2021 hourly data in Guilin was used as the benchmark training dataset. Pollutants and meteorological variables in the local dataset are decomposed into five frequency bands by wavelet. The analysis of the WTformer model showed that particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) had an obvious correlation in the low-frequency band and a low correlation in the high-frequency band. PM2.5 and temperature had a negative correlation in the high-frequency band and an obvious positive correlation in the low-frequency band. PM2.5 and wind speed had a low correlation in the high-frequency band and an obvious negative correlation in the low-frequency band. These results showed that the laws of variables in the time–frequency domain could be found by the model, which made it possible to explain the model. The experimental results show that the prediction performance of the established model was better than that of multilayer perceptron (MLP), one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN), gate recurrent unit (GRU), long short-term memory (LSTM) and Transformer, in all time steps (1, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h). Full article
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22 pages, 5053 KiB  
Article
Adverse Health Effects (Bronchitis Cases) Due to Particulate Matter Exposure: A Twenty-Year Scenario Analysis for the Greater Athens Area (Greece) Using the AirQ+ Model
by Kleopatra Ntourou, Konstantinos Moustris, Georgios Spyropoulos, Kyriaki-Maria Fameli and Nikolaos Manousakis
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020389 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
It is well known that air pollution has a negative impact on human health. Research has shown an increasing trend in hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases during and after consecutive days of high or even medium air pollution levels. The [...] Read more.
It is well known that air pollution has a negative impact on human health. Research has shown an increasing trend in hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases during and after consecutive days of high or even medium air pollution levels. The objective of this paper is to provide quantitative and qualitative data concerning the impact of long-term air pollution on the health of residents living in the Greater Athens Area (GAA). More accurately, the prevalence of bronchitis in children and the incidence of chronic bronchitis cases in adults due to particulate matter exposure are estimated utilizing the AirQ+ model. For this purpose, daily average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10) from five different locations within the GAA, covering the period 2001–2020, are used. The results show a significant correlation between PM10 concentrations and adverse health effects (R2 = 0.9). Interestingly, there were more cases of children suffering from bronchitis disease than cases of adults. In addition, it was observed that the unhealthiest areas in the GAA are the center of Athens city (mean annual PM10 concentration in 2019: 36 μgr/m3), as well as suburban areas (Lykovrissi and Marousi: mean annual PM10 concentrations in 2019 were 27 μgr/m3 and 28 μgr/m3, respectively). Finally, a decreasing trend for both PM10 concentrations and the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across the GAA was observed through the examined 20 years, which was significantly higher over the period 2010–2020. Full article
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13 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
Outdoor Microplastic Analysis Using Inlet Filters from an NOx Regulatory Air Quality Monitoring Device
by Lauren C. Jenner, Rameez Raja Kureshi, David White, Emma Chapman, Laura R. Sadofsky and Jeanette M. Rotchell
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13122017 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Atmospheric microplastics (MPs) are a ubiquitous environmental contaminant of emerging concern. Sampling methods provide information relating to surface area concentration and MP characteristics, without direct comparison with routinely measured standard air quality parameters. This study analysed 6 active air samples generated by a [...] Read more.
Atmospheric microplastics (MPs) are a ubiquitous environmental contaminant of emerging concern. Sampling methods provide information relating to surface area concentration and MP characteristics, without direct comparison with routinely measured standard air quality parameters. This study analysed 6 active air samples generated by a local authority as part of their routine air quality monitoring activities. Continuous sampling totalled 10 months, within the city centre of Kingston-upon-Hull. By using μFTIR analysis, levels of total particles detected using the NOx inlet filters ranged from 5139 ± 2843 particles m−2 day−1, comprising 1029 ± 594 MPs m−2 day−1. The controls displayed a mean level of 2.00 ± 3.49 MPs. The polymers nylon (32%) and polypropylene, PP (22%) were the most abundant. Small fragments of 47.42 ± 48.57 μm (length) and 21.75 ± 13.62 μm (width) were most common. An increase in MP levels during April 2020 coincided with an increase in PM10 levels. This study used robust procedures to measure MPs in the air by exploiting existing air quality monitoring equipment. Knowing the levels, types, and characteristics of MPs can inform toxicity studies to provide more environmentally relevant exposures, which is urgent now that MPs have been reported in human lung tissue. Full article
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11 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Measuring and Regression Modeling of Gas–Particle Partitioning of Atmospheric Oxidized Mercury at a Coastal Site in Shanghai
by Deming Han, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Yi Tang and Minneng Wen
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13122014 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Gas–particle partitioning between reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle bound mercury (PBM) controls the fates of atmospheric oxidized mercury (namely reactive mercury, RM). We conducted a long-term observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), RGM, PBM, and auxiliary parameters in Chongming Island, Shanghai, China, [...] Read more.
Gas–particle partitioning between reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle bound mercury (PBM) controls the fates of atmospheric oxidized mercury (namely reactive mercury, RM). We conducted a long-term observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), RGM, PBM, and auxiliary parameters in Chongming Island, Shanghai, China, to understand the characteristics of speciated mercury and their gas–particle partitioning behaviors. The entire average abundances of GEM, RGM and PBM were 2.12 ± 0.94 ng/m3, 14.75 ± 9.94 pg/m3 and 21.81 ± 30.46 pg/m3, respectively. An observation data dependent empirical gas–particle partitioning relationship of partitioning coefficient and temperature log(1/KP) = −2692.20/T + 10.57 was obtained, and it varied in different season being by the temperature. To further evaluate the influences of temperature, particulate matter (PM), relative humidity on RGM and PBM partitioning process, the particulate fraction (φ = PBM/(PBM + RGM)) was used in this study. High φ values (φ > 0.8) mainly occurred at low temperature domain (<281 K), and high PM concentration enhanced this influence. In addition, high relative humidity shifts RGM from atmosphere partitioning to PBM in response to the diurnal valley φ values at 13:00–16:00 in the summer. Photochemical reactions were proposed to play important roles on partitioning processes between RGM and PBM. This study will benefit for the understanding of oxidized mercury fate and influencing factors in the complex atmospheric pollutants. Full article
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