Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Industrial Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 17279

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Projects, University of Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
Interests: innovations in the research of healthcare buildings; healthcare engineering; buildings; project engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-quality engineering projects require planning for reliability from the earliest stages of system design. The use of probabilistic design for reliability allows the comparison of a component’s strength against the stress that it will encounter in various environments. Failures link hierarchically in terms of the system architecture, and in turn, a failure mode may cause failures in a higher-level subsystem or may be the result of a failure in a lower-level component. 

Reliability techniques in engineering projects can substantially increase operational dependability through better system design and the selection of more suitable parts and materials. In addition, there are practices that can improve reliability with respect to manufacturing, assembly, shipping and handling, operation, maintenance and repair.  

Additionally, reliability in fact is extremely design-sensitive. A more reliable product needs less maintenance, so a design trade-off between reliability and maintainability is required. Very slight changes to the design of a component can cause profound changes in operational dependability, which is why it is important to specify product reliability and maintainability targets before any design work is undertaken.

This Special Issue includes new research and the latest technologies related to reliability techniques in engineering projects. In particular, it includes a series of documents focused on:

  • Reliability
  • Failure modes
  • Design for reliability
  • Maintenance
  • Design for maintainability
  • Building design
  • Facility design
  • Resilient design
  • Reliability techniques
  • Reliability-centered maintenance
  • Physics-of-failure-based approach
  • Reliability prediction and improvement
  • Statistics-based approach
  • Reliability modeling
  • Reliability testing
  • Accelerated testing
  • Fail-safe design
  • Detectability and common cause failures
  • Maintenance 4.0
  • Built-in redundancy

We hope that this Special Issue will present the research and knowledge required to improve the overall efficiency of engineering projects and help to minimize design failures.

Prof. Justo García Sanz-Calcedo
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 217 KiB  
Editorial
Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects
by Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo, Gonzalo Sánchez-Barroso, Jaime González-Domínguez and Manuel Botejara-Antúnez
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074364 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
In engineering projects, reliability is conceived as physical equipment’s ability to function without failure [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)

Research

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21 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
A New Insight into Reliability Data Modeling with an Exponentiated Composite Exponential-Pareto Model
by Bowen Liu and Malwane M. A. Ananda
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010645 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
It is observed that, for some of the data in engineering and medical fields, the hazard rates increase to a high peak at the beginning and quickly decrease to a low level. In the context of survival analysis, such a hazard rate is [...] Read more.
It is observed that, for some of the data in engineering and medical fields, the hazard rates increase to a high peak at the beginning and quickly decrease to a low level. In the context of survival analysis, such a hazard rate is called a upside-down bathtub hazard rate. In this paper, we investigated the properties of a model named exponentiated exponential-Pareto distribution. The model was recently proposed and applied to insurance data. We demonstrated that the model has upside-down bathtub-shaped hazard rates with specific choices of parameters. The theoretical properties such as moments, survival functions, and hazard functions were derived. The parameter estimation procedures were also introduced. We then briefly discussed the goodness-of-fit tests of the model with the simulations. Finally, we applied the model to a specific time-to-event data set along with a comparison of the performances with previous existing models. When compared to previous proposed models, the exponentiated exponential-Pareto model demonstrated good performance when fitting to such data sets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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15 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Storage Reliability Assessment Method for Aerospace Electromagnetic Relay Based on Belief Reliability Theory
by Qingshen Li, Yigang Lin, Shoudong Wang, Shanshan Wang and Xiangou Zhu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8637; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178637 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The aerospace electromagnetic relay (AEMR) is a key electronic component in aerospace and weaponry systems. It usually lacks sufficient test data to conduct an effective storage reliability assessment at its early development stage. Thus, this paper introduces the theory of belief reliability, a [...] Read more.
The aerospace electromagnetic relay (AEMR) is a key electronic component in aerospace and weaponry systems. It usually lacks sufficient test data to conduct an effective storage reliability assessment at its early development stage. Thus, this paper introduces the theory of belief reliability, a new theory in the field of reliability engineering. Under its theoretical framework, firstly, through the analysis of the storage degradation mechanism of AEMR, the performance degradation characterization parameters are selected to build a storage degradation model. Then, the failure criterion conditions of AEMR are analyzed, and the degradation characterization parameters are used as the ‘smaller the better’ performance parameters to build a margin equation. Then, the margin equation is combined with the storage degradation model, and the uncertainties of the model parameters are quantified to complete the belief reliability model of AEMR. Finally, a certain AEMR is used as the object for validation. In solving the belief reliability model, the manufacturing information of the product, the degradation simulation data, and the test data are fully utilized to solve the model parameters by utilizing the uncertainty maximum likelihood estimation (UMLE) method. The results show that the method can obtain more accurate assessment results with small test data samples, and the MAE is reduced, compared to only simulation data, by 29.3%. By analyzing the uncertainty of the model parameters, it is found that the main sensitive factor affecting the storage reliability of batch aerospace relays is the initial release time. It was also found that the accuracy of the calculations could be significantly improved by considering the uncertainty of the threshold values when calculating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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12 pages, 2411 KiB  
Article
Comparative Reliability Analysis of Milling Teeth Manufactured by Conventional Cutting Processes and Laser Cladding
by Daniela Maria Iovanas and Adela-Eliza Dumitrascu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7133; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147133 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
This paper presents the estimation of the main reliability indices of two milling teeth types. The comparative analysis referred to milling teeth manufactured by conventional cutting processes, made of 41Cr4 (type I), and milling teeth manufactured by high-productivity welding loading processes, namely, laser [...] Read more.
This paper presents the estimation of the main reliability indices of two milling teeth types. The comparative analysis referred to milling teeth manufactured by conventional cutting processes, made of 41Cr4 (type I), and milling teeth manufactured by high-productivity welding loading processes, namely, laser cladding (type II). To analyze the distributions of the lifetime data specific to milling teeth types, the correlation coefficient value was considered. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicated that normal distribution was adopted in order to conduct parametric estimates of the reliability indices. Point estimations of the parameters and estimations with 95% confidence intervals of the components’ lifetimes were performed, applying the least squares estimation method. Compared to the type II milling teeth, lower values of the reliability function were estimated for the type I milling teeth. The type II milling teeth displayed higher values for the statistical parameters, with a mean of 6 h, while the mean of the failure of the type I milling teeth was 5.2 h. In addition, a more pronounced hazard rate for the type I milling teeth compared to the type II milling teeth was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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27 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Statistical Power Analysis in Reliability Demonstration Testing: The Probability of Test Success
by Alexander Grundler, Martin Dazer and Thomas Herzig
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6190; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126190 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2481
Abstract
Statistical power analyses are used in the design of experiments to determine the required number of specimens, and thus the expenditure, of a test. Commonly, when analyzing and planning life tests of technical products, only the confidence level is taken into account for [...] Read more.
Statistical power analyses are used in the design of experiments to determine the required number of specimens, and thus the expenditure, of a test. Commonly, when analyzing and planning life tests of technical products, only the confidence level is taken into account for assessing uncertainty. However, due to the sampling error, the confidence interval estimation varies from test to test; therefore, the number of specimens needed to yield a successful reliability demonstration cannot be derived by this. In this paper, a procedure is presented that facilitates the integration of statistical power analysis into reliability demonstration test planning. The Probability of Test Success is introduced as a metric in order to place the statistical power in the context of life test planning of technical products. It contains the information concerning the probability that a life test is capable of demonstrating a required lifetime, reliability, and confidence. In turn, it enables the assessment and comparison of various life test types, such as success run, non-censored, and censored life tests. The main results are four calculation methods for the Probability of Test Success for various test scenarios: a general method which is capable of dealing with all possible scenarios, a calculation method mimicking the actual test procedure, and two analytic approaches for failure-free and failure-based tests which make use of the central limit theorem and asymptotic properties of several statistics, and therefore simplify the effort involved in planning life tests. The calculation methods are compared and their respective advantages and disadvantages worked out; furthermore, the scenarios in which each method is to be preferred are illustrated. The applicability of the developed procedure for planning reliability demonstration tests using the Probability of Test Success is additionally illustrated by a case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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14 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
DRAM Retention Behavior with Accelerated Aging in Commercial Chips
by Md Kawser Bepary, Bashir Mohammad Sabquat Bahar Talukder and Md Tauhidur Rahman
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094332 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3290
Abstract
The cells in dynamic random access memory (DRAM) degrade over time as a result of aging, leading to poor performance and potential security vulnerabilities. With a globalized horizontal supply chain, aged counterfeit DRAMs could end up on the market, posing a significant threat [...] Read more.
The cells in dynamic random access memory (DRAM) degrade over time as a result of aging, leading to poor performance and potential security vulnerabilities. With a globalized horizontal supply chain, aged counterfeit DRAMs could end up on the market, posing a significant threat if employed in critical infrastructure. In this work, we look at the retention behavior of commercial DRAM chips from real-time silicon measurements and investigate how the reliability of DRAM cells degrade with accelerated aging. We analyze the retention-based errors at three different aging points to observe the design-induced variations, analyze the pattern dependency, and explore the impacts of accelerated aging for multiple DRAM vendors. We also investigate the DRAM chips’ statistical distribution to attribute the vital wear-out effects present in DRAM. We see a continuous increase in retention error as DRAM chips age and therefore infer that the aged retention signatures can be used to differentiate recycled DRAM chips in the supply chain. We also discuss the roles of device signature in DRAM aging and aging-related security implication on DRAM row-hammer error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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15 pages, 3827 KiB  
Article
Inversion Analysis of Impervious Curtain Permeability Coefficient Using Calcium Leaching Model, Extreme Learning Machine, and Optimization Algorithms
by Yongkang Shu, Zhenzhong Shen, Liqun Xu, Kailai Zhang and Chao Yang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073272 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The calcium leaching effect leads to a decrease in the impermeability of the impervious curtain. The inverse analysis strategy was introduced in this study because the calcium leaching parameters of the curtain are not easy to determine. An orthogonal design and the finite [...] Read more.
The calcium leaching effect leads to a decrease in the impermeability of the impervious curtain. The inverse analysis strategy was introduced in this study because the calcium leaching parameters of the curtain are not easy to determine. An orthogonal design and the finite element method were used in the strategy. The time-series data of hydraulic head and leakage volume were applied to construct the objective function. The extreme learning machine (ELM) was proposed to build the reflection sets. Genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), sparrow search algorithm (SSA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) were employed to accelerate the iterative search for the target parameters. The target parameters of the calcium leaching model were used for finite element verification by comparing the monitored and simulated values. The simulated values of hydraulic head and leakage by PSO show good agreement with measurements. The evolution of the curtain permeability coefficient in 100 years was analyzed. The results demonstrate the strategy’s feasibility in determining the curtain’s calcium leaching parameters and permeability coefficients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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15 pages, 1610 KiB  
Article
Failure Modes in Electricity and Telecommunication Facilities in Dwellings in Spain
by Manuel J. Carretero-Ayuso, Gonzalo Sánchez-Barroso, Jaime González-Domínguez and Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5274; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115274 - 06 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
The value of a house depends not only on the quality of the construction elements but also on the functionality of its installations. Making mistakes during the design and even execution phases of installations in newly built homes is common. This paper determines, [...] Read more.
The value of a house depends not only on the quality of the construction elements but also on the functionality of its installations. Making mistakes during the design and even execution phases of installations in newly built homes is common. This paper determines, catalogues, and quantifies faults in electrical and telecommunications installations in dwellings based on owners’ complaints and using the ‘learning from faults’ philosophy. To this end, 154 complaints concerning these installations in all of Spain were analyzed and protocolized. The results show that, in all types of dwellings, the most common fault was ‘alterations and malfunctions’ (81%), followed by ‘incorrect or lack of placement of elements’ (14%). The pathological origin with the greatest presence in the research was ‘shortcomings and omissions in the installation’ (40%) and ‘anomalies in the installation’ (36%). Moreover, all functional deterioration processes as well as the type of dwelling where each of these parameters occurred most were defined and quantified (association between each fault and its cause). Finally, the ‘probability factor’ (PF) was determined, which numerically quantifies the probable existence of complaints according to four ranges. The results will pave the way for more precise inspections during the construction phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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Review

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16 pages, 585 KiB  
Review
Progress of Process Monitoring for the Multi-Mode Process: A Review
by Jie Ma and Jinkai Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7207; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147207 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Multi-mode processing is a central feature of modern industry. The application of monitoring technology to multi-mode processing is crucial to ensure process safety and to enhance product quality. This paper describes the definition, nature and data characteristics of the multi-mode process. A complete [...] Read more.
Multi-mode processing is a central feature of modern industry. The application of monitoring technology to multi-mode processing is crucial to ensure process safety and to enhance product quality. This paper describes the definition, nature and data characteristics of the multi-mode process. A complete classification framework for multi-mode process monitoring methods is produced, covering steady-state modes and transitional processes. After introducing basic concepts and describing research outcomes obtained for monitoring methods, prospects for multi-mode process monitoring technology are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Techniques in Engineering Projects)
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