Plasma Medicine Technologies

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 40599

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Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Republic of Korea
Interests: atmospheric pressure plasma; plasma physics; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species
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ZIK Plasmatis, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
Interests: redox medicine; immunology; cancer; cold physical plasma; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; redox signaling
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Guest Editor
Plasma Medical Science Global Innovation Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
Interests: plasma medicine
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Antwarp University, Antwerpen, Belgium
Interests: plasma medicine; cancer biology; immune-modulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plasma Medicine Technologies aims to cover all the latest outstanding developments of plasma bioscience and medicine. This Special Issue will describe recent research and developments in the field of plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of plasma physics, material science, bioscience, and medicine towards the development of therapeutic strategies. The study of plasma medicine has yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in medical and dental sciences.

The objective of this Special Issue is to present some research underlying new therapeutic methods useful in medicine, dentistry, sterilization, and, in the current scenario, challenges and perspectives in biomedical sciences. This issue will focus on basic studies on the characterization of the bioplasma sources applicable to the living cells, especially to the human body and fundamental researches of mutual intreactions between the bioplasma and organic–inorganic, liquids and bio- or nanomaterials. The knowledge that has arisen from studies in the plasma medicine area may translate into new innovations to treat patients in daily clinics.

Prof. Dr. Eun Ha Choi
Prof. Dr. Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
Dr. Sanders Bekechus
Prof. Dr. Hiromasha Tanaka
Dr. Abraham Lin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plasma medicine
  • cold plasma
  • plasma physics

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 165 KiB  
Editorial
Plasma Medicine Technologies
by Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Sander Bekeschus, Hiromasa Tanaka, Abraham Lin and Eun Ha Choi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4584; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104584 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
This Special Issue, entitled “Plasma Medicine Technologies”, covers the latest remarkable developments in the field of plasma bioscience and medicine. Plasma medicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of plasma physics, material science, bioscience, and medicine, towards the development of therapeutic [...] Read more.
This Special Issue, entitled “Plasma Medicine Technologies”, covers the latest remarkable developments in the field of plasma bioscience and medicine. Plasma medicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of plasma physics, material science, bioscience, and medicine, towards the development of therapeutic strategies. A study on plasma medicine has yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in medical and dental sciences. An important aspect of this issue is the presentation of research underlying new therapeutic methods that are useful in medicine, dentistry, sterilization, and, in the current scenario, that challenge perspectives in biomedical sciences. This issue is focused on basic research on the characterization of the bioplasma sources applicable to living cells, especially to the human body, and fundamental research on the mutual interactions between bioplasma and organic–inorganic liquids, and bio or nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)

Research

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18 pages, 7847 KiB  
Article
Plasma-Treated Flammulina velutipes-Derived Extract Showed Anticancer Potential in Human Breast Cancer Cells
by Sarmistha Mitra, Pradeep Bhartiya, Neha Kaushik, Linh Nhat Nguyen, Rizwan Wahab, Sander Bekeschus, Eun Ha Choi and Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8395; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238395 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Natural products with medicinal properties are among alternative therapies of interest due to their high body tolerance. We aimed to determine whether nonthermal gas plasma could enhance the medicinal value of Flammulina velutipes mushrooms. Generated gas plasma was characterized by its emission spectrum [...] Read more.
Natural products with medicinal properties are among alternative therapies of interest due to their high body tolerance. We aimed to determine whether nonthermal gas plasma could enhance the medicinal value of Flammulina velutipes mushrooms. Generated gas plasma was characterized by its emission spectrum in ambient air, pH, temperature, and H2O2 and NOx concentrations after exposure for various periods. Phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extracts were measured using antioxidant assays and Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. We analyzed the effects of the plasma-treated mushroom-derived extracts against breast carcinoma using the MCF7 and MDA-MB231 cell lines. The extracts significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells without inducing toxicity in normal MCF10A cells, and induced apoptosis via oxidative stress, evidenced by DNA damage (γ-H2AX foci formation), and increased the population of MCF7 breast cancer cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The extracts also induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis of MCF7 cells through cytochrome c release and caspase cleavage activity. The plasma improved the biological activity of mushrooms by increasing their phenolic compounds that prevented the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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13 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
Adhesion between Epoxy Resin-Based Fiber Post and Dental Core Resin Improved by Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
by Hyoung-Sik Kim, Song-Yi Yang, Eun Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim and Jae-Sung Kwon
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072535 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adhesion between dental core resin and epoxy resin-based fiber post after treatment with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) and compare with conventional methods of epoxy resin-based fiber post treatments. Contact angle was measured on [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adhesion between dental core resin and epoxy resin-based fiber post after treatment with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) and compare with conventional methods of epoxy resin-based fiber post treatments. Contact angle was measured on the surface of epoxy resin before and after NTAPP treatment and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the surface chemistry. Finally, two shear bond strength tests were carried out; shear bond strength between core resin and epoxy resin for comparison between NTAPP treated and untreated sample, and push-out shear bond strength between core resin and NTAPP treated commercially available epoxy resin-based fiber post for comparison between NTAPP treated samples with conventionally treated samples. Contact angle on the surface of epoxy resin generally decreased with increasing NTAPP treatment time with presence of surface chemical changes. Also, there was significantly higher shear bond strength and push-out shear bond strength between epoxy resin and core resin for NTAPP treated epoxy resin, even to the conventionally treated epoxy resin-based fiber post with hydrofluoric acid or silane. In conclusion, new technology of NTAPP has potential for application on the epoxy resin-based fiber post to improve endodontic restoration success rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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8 pages, 1551 KiB  
Communication
Ex Vivo Exposure of Human Melanoma Tissue to Cold Physical Plasma Elicits Apoptosis and Modulates Inflammation
by Sander Bekeschus, Juliane Moritz, Iris Helfrich, Lars Boeckmann, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Steffen Emmert, Hans-Robert Metelmann, Ingo Stoffels and Thomas von Woedtke
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061971 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a not-sufficient clinical outcome. High tumor mutation rates often hamper a remedial treatment, creating the need for palliative care in many patients. To reduce pain and burden, local palliation often includes cryo-ablation, [...] Read more.
Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a not-sufficient clinical outcome. High tumor mutation rates often hamper a remedial treatment, creating the need for palliative care in many patients. To reduce pain and burden, local palliation often includes cryo-ablation, immunotherapy via injection of IL2, or electrochemotherapy. Yet, a fraction of patients and lesions do not respond to those therapies. To reach even these resistances in a redox-mediated way, we treated skin biopsies from human melanoma ex vivo with cold physical plasma (kINPen MED plasma jet). This partially ionized gas generates a potent mixture of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physical plasmas have been shown to be potent antitumor agents in preclinical melanoma and clinical head and neck cancer research. The innovation of this technology lies in its ease-of-use without anesthesia, as the “cold” plasma temperature of the kINPen MED does not exceed 37 °C. In metastatic melanoma skin biopsies from six patients, we identified a marked increase of apoptosis with plasma treatment ex vivo. This had an impact on the chemokine/cytokine profile of the cultured biopsies, e.g., three of six patient-derived biopsy supernatants showed an apparent decrease in VEGF compared to non-plasma treated specimens. Moreover, the baseline release levels of 24 chemokines/cytokines investigated may serve as a useful tool for future research on melanoma skin biopsy treatments. Our findings suggest a clinically useful role of cold physical plasma therapy in palliation of cutaneous melanoma lesions, possibly in a combinatory setting with other immune therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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10 pages, 2162 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet with Different Gas Sources and Modes of Treatment on the Fate of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
by Tae-Yun Kang, Jae-Sung Kwon, Naresh Kumar, Eun Ha Choi and Kwang-Mahn Kim
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4819; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224819 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Despite numerous attempts to use human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the field of tissue engineering, the control of their differentiation remains challenging. Here, we investigated possible applications of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) to control the differentiation of hMSCs. An [...] Read more.
Despite numerous attempts to use human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the field of tissue engineering, the control of their differentiation remains challenging. Here, we investigated possible applications of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) to control the differentiation of hMSCs. An air- or nitrogen-based NTAPPJ was applied to hMSCs in culture media, either directly or by media treatment in which the cells were plated after the medium was exposed to the NTAPPJ. The durations of exposure were 1, 2, and 4 min, and the control was not exposed to the NTAPPJ. The initial attachment of the cells was assessed by a water-soluble tetrazolium assay, and the gene expression in the cells was assessed through reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that the gene expression in the hMSCs was generally increased by the NTAPPJ exposure, but the enhancement was dependent on the conditions of the exposure, such as the source of the gas and the treatment method used. These results were attributed to the chemicals in the extracellular environment and the reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma. Hence, it was concluded that by applying the best conditions for the NTAPPJ exposure of hMSCs, the control of hMSC differentiation was possible, and therefore, exposure to an NTAPPJ is a promising method for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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14 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
Melanoma Growth Analysis in Blood Serum and Tissue Using Xenograft Model with Response to Cold Atmospheric Plasma Activated Medium
by Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Adhikari, Neha Kaushik, Su-Jae Lee, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik and Eun Ha Choi
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4227; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204227 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4688
Abstract
Background: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) proposed as a novel therapeutic tool for the various kinds of cancer treatment. Cold atmospheric Plasma-Activated Media (PAM) has exhibited its promising application in plasma medicine for the treatment of cancer. Methods: We investigated the role of PAM [...] Read more.
Background: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) proposed as a novel therapeutic tool for the various kinds of cancer treatment. Cold atmospheric Plasma-Activated Media (PAM) has exhibited its promising application in plasma medicine for the treatment of cancer. Methods: We investigated the role of PAM on the human melanoma cancer G-361 cells xenograft in vivo by estimating the biochemical and gene expression of apoptotic genes. Results: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by PAM could significantly decrease the tumor volume (40%) and tumor weight (26%) when administered intradermally (i.d.) into the melanoma region continuously for three days. Biochemical studies in blood serum along with excised melanoma samples revealed an increase in protein carbonylation and MDA content as compared to the control, while LDH and L-DOPA in serum and melanoma tissues were decreased significantly in PAM treated group. PAM generated RONS increased apoptotic genes like Bcl-2, Bax, Parp, Casp8, and P53 in melanoma tissue. Immunohistochemistry data confirms that PAM treatment increased apoptosis at the tissue level. Conclusions: These results suggested that RONS present in PAM inhibit the induction of xenograft melanoma cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and upregulating of various biochemical parameters within blood serum and melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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16 pages, 5221 KiB  
Article
Spore Viability and Cell Wall Integrity of Cordyceps pruinosa Treated with an Electric Shock-Free, Atmospheric-Pressure Air Plasma Jet
by Hyeongjin Noh, Ji Eun Kim, Jun Young Kim, Seong Hwan Kim, Ihn Han, Jun Sup Lim, Se Hoon Ki, Eun Ha Choi and Geon Joon Lee
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3921; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183921 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
Atmospheric-pressure A r plasma jets are known to be detrimental to Cordyceps pruinosa spores. However, it is not clear what kinds of reactive species are more effective with regard to fungal cell death. Herein, we study which reactive species plays pivotal roles in [...] Read more.
Atmospheric-pressure A r plasma jets are known to be detrimental to Cordyceps pruinosa spores. However, it is not clear what kinds of reactive species are more effective with regard to fungal cell death. Herein, we study which reactive species plays pivotal roles in the death of fungal spores using an electric shock-free, atmospheric-pressure air plasma jet, simply called soft plasma jet. Plasma treatment significantly reduced the spore viability and damaged fungal DNA. As observed from the circular dichroism spectra, scanning electron microscope images, and flow cytometric measurements, cell wall integrity was decreased by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) from the plasma itself and the plasma-activated water. Consequently, degradation of the spore cell wall allows RONS from the plasma to reach the intracellular components. Such plasma-induced intracellular RONS can attack spore DNA and other intracellular components, as confirmed by electrophoresis analysis and phosphorylated histone measurement. In addition, weakening of the spore cell wall allowed for the loss of intracellular components, which can lead to cell death. Plasma radicals were investigated by measuring the optical emission spectrum of the soft plasma jet, and intracellular reactive oxygen species were confirmed by measuring the fluorescence of 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate ( H 2 D C F - D A )-stained spores. The soft plasma jet generated considerable amounts of H 2 O 2 and N O x but a very small number of O H radicals as compared to the atmospheric-pressure A r plasma jet; this indicates that plasma-induced long-lived reactive species ( H 2 O 2 and N O x ) play an important role in the weakening of spore cell walls and cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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13 pages, 3529 KiB  
Article
Non-Thermal Plasma Accelerates Astrocyte Regrowth and Neurite Regeneration Following Physical Trauma In Vitro
by Kritika S. Katiyar, Abraham Lin, Alexander Fridman, Carolyn E. Keating, D. Kacy Cullen and Vandana Miller
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183747 - 08 Sep 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3844
Abstract
Non-thermal plasma (NTP), defined as a partially ionized gas, is an emerging technology with several biomedical applications, including tissue regeneration. In particular, NTP treatment has been shown to activate endogenous biological processes to promote cell regrowth, differentiation, and proliferation in multiple cell types. [...] Read more.
Non-thermal plasma (NTP), defined as a partially ionized gas, is an emerging technology with several biomedical applications, including tissue regeneration. In particular, NTP treatment has been shown to activate endogenous biological processes to promote cell regrowth, differentiation, and proliferation in multiple cell types. However, the effects of this therapy on nervous system regeneration have not yet been established. Accordingly, the current study explored the effects of a nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma on neural regeneration. Following mechanical trauma in vitro, plasma was applied either directly to (1) astrocytes alone, (2) neurons alone, or (3) neurons or astrocytes in a non-contact co-culture. Remarkably, we identified NTP treatment intensities that accelerated both neurite regeneration and astrocyte regrowth. In astrocyte cultures alone, an exposure of 20–90 mJ accelerated astrocyte re-growth up to three days post-injury, while neurons required lower treatment intensities (≤20 mJ) to achieve sub-lethal outgrowth. Following injury to neurons in non-contact co-culture with astrocytes, 20 mJ exposure of plasma to only neurons or astrocytes resulted in increased neurite regeneration at three days post-treatment compared to the untreated, but no enhancement was observed when both cell types were treated. At day seven, although regeneration further increased, NTP did not elicit a significant increase from the control. However, plasma exposure at higher intensities was found to be injurious, underscoring the need to optimize exposure levels. These results suggest that growth-promoting physiological responses may be elicited via properly calibrated NTP treatment to neurons and/or astrocytes. This could be exploited to accelerate neurite re-growth and modulate neuron-astrocyte interactions, thereby hastening nervous system regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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17 pages, 3340 KiB  
Article
Plasma-Derived Reactive Species Shape a Differentiation Profile in Human Monocytes
by Eric Freund, Juliane Moritz, Matthias Stope, Christian Seebauer, Anke Schmidt and Sander Bekeschus
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122530 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3749
Abstract
Background: Monocyte-derived macrophages are key regulators and producers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that cold physical plasma may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory conditions via the release of ROS/RNS. However, it is unknown how [...] Read more.
Background: Monocyte-derived macrophages are key regulators and producers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that cold physical plasma may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory conditions via the release of ROS/RNS. However, it is unknown how plasma treatment affects monocytes and their differentiation profile. Methods: Naïve or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-pulsed THP-1 monocytes were exposed to cold physical plasma. The cells were analyzed regarding their metabolic activity as well as flow cytometry (analysis of viability, oxidation, surface marker expression and cytokine secretion) and high content imaging (quantitative analysis of morphology. Results: The plasma treatment affected THP-1 metabolisms, viability, and morphology. Furthermore, a significant modulation CD55, CD69, CD271 surface-expression and increase of inflammatory IL1β, IL6, IL8, and MCP1 secretion was observed upon plasma treatment. Distinct phenotypical changes in THP-1 cells arguing for a differentiation profile were validated in primary monocytes from donor blood. As a functional outcome, plasma-treated monocytes decreased the viability of co-cultured melanoma cells to a greater extent than their non-treated counterparts. Conclusions: Our results suggest plasma-derived ROS/RNS shaped a differentiation profile in human monocytes as evidenced by their increased inflammatory profile (surface marker and cytokines) as well as functional outcome (tumor toxicity). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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Review

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22 pages, 4005 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Applications of Non-Thermal Plasma for Water Purification, Bio-Sterilization, and Decontamination
by Azadeh Barjasteh, Zohreh Dehghani, Pradeep Lamichhane, Neha Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi and Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3372; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083372 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 8810
Abstract
Various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are accompanied by electrons, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, ions, photons, and electric fields in non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma. Plasma technology is already used in diverse fields, such as biomedicine, dentistry, agriculture, ozone generation, chemical synthesis, surface treatment, and [...] Read more.
Various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are accompanied by electrons, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, ions, photons, and electric fields in non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma. Plasma technology is already used in diverse fields, such as biomedicine, dentistry, agriculture, ozone generation, chemical synthesis, surface treatment, and coating. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is also considered a promising technology in environmental pollution control. The degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants will be massively advanced by plasma-generated reactive species. Various investigations on the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology for organic wastewater purification have already been performed, and advancements are continuing to be made in this area. This work provides a critical review of the ongoing improvements related to the use of non-thermal plasma in wastewater control and outlines the operational principle, standards, parameters, and boundaries with a special focus on the degradation of organic compounds in wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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14 pages, 299 KiB  
Review
Medical Gas Plasma Treatment in Head and Neck Cancer—Challenges and Opportunities
by Julia Berner, Christian Seebauer, Sanjeev Kumar Sagwal, Lars Boeckmann, Steffen Emmert, Hans-Robert Metelmann and Sander Bekeschus
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061944 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Despite progress in oncotherapy, cancer is still among the deadliest diseases in the Western world, emphasizing the demand for novel treatment avenues. Cold physical plasma has shown antitumor activity in experimental models of, e.g., glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, breast carcinoma, osteosarcoma, bladder cancer, and [...] Read more.
Despite progress in oncotherapy, cancer is still among the deadliest diseases in the Western world, emphasizing the demand for novel treatment avenues. Cold physical plasma has shown antitumor activity in experimental models of, e.g., glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, breast carcinoma, osteosarcoma, bladder cancer, and melanoma in vitro and in vivo. In addition, clinical case reports have demonstrated that physical plasma reduces the microbial contamination of severely infected tumor wounds and ulcerations, as is often seen with head and neck cancer patients. These antimicrobial and antitumor killing properties make physical plasma a promising tool for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Moreover, this type of cancer is easily accessible from the outside, facilitating the possibility of several rounds of topical gas plasma treatment of the same patient. Gas plasma treatment of head and neck cancer induces diverse effects via the deposition of a plethora of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that mediate redox-biochemical processes, and ultimately, selective cancer cell death. The main advantage of medical gas plasma treatment in oncology is the lack of adverse events and significant side effects compared to other treatment modalities, such as surgical approaches, chemotherapeutics, and radiotherapy, making plasma treatment an attractive strategy for the adjuvant and palliative treatment of head and neck cancer. This review outlines the state of the art and progress in investigating physical plasma as a novel treatment modality in the therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine Technologies)
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