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Maritime Hydraulics: Analysis and Modeling

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2021) | Viewed by 16769

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering DICEA, “Sapienza” University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: coastal engineering; tsunamis; maritime structures; physical modeling; meteo-ocean study
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering DICEA, “Sapienza” University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: coastal engineering; fluid structure interaction; vertical breakwater; impulsive load; nonbreaking wave conditions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Construction-Architectural, and Environmental Engineering Department (DICEAA), Environmental and Maritime Hydraulic Laboratory (LIAM), University of L'Aquila, P.le Pontieri 1, 67100 Monteluco di Roio, L'Aquila, Italy
Interests: storm surge forecasting; coastal engineering; ocean engineering; environmental engineering; water waves hydraulics; physical modeling; wave energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coasts and marine structures offer a great field of research in applied sciences. In recent years, the problem of coastal erosion, the increasing attention being paid to the potential of blue energy, studies of the possible impact of climate change scenarios on coasts and marine structures, and risk assessment related to hazardous events (e.g. tsunamis and storm surges) have intensified the interest of the researchers in this field. Much has been done, and a huge amount of work will have to be done in order to answer technical and purely scientific questions.

This Special Issue aims at collecting works in different fields of maritime hydraulics. Research papers, extended review works, and work involving technical applications are encouraged.

We welcome contributions dealing with but not limited to the following topics:

  • The spatial and temporal evolution of waves;
  • The hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the coastal zone;
  • Sediment transport under waves and currents;
  • Coastal sediment transport interactions with structures;
  • Beaches and littorals evolution;
  • Estuary and lagoon evolution;
  • Wave interactions with structures and breakwaters in deep and shallow water;
  • Tsunamis generated by landslides and earthquakes and their impact on coasts;
  • Coastal hazard and risk analysis;
  • The influence of climatic changes on storm surges and wind-waves, and their statistical estimation;
  • Intervention strategies on the coasts to face climatic changes;
  • The reconstruction of extreme marine weather events;
  • Port planning and management;
  • The reconstruction of meteo-oceanographic extreme events;
  • Storm-surge barriers and their management;
  • The use of waves, tides, and currents for electricity production;
  • Hydraulic aspects of desalination plants;
  • Maritime structures failures.
Prof. Paolo De Girolamo
Dr. Myrta Castellino
Dr. Davide Pasquali
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Costal waves
  • Storm surges
  • Tsunamis
  • Costal hydrodinamics and morphodinamics
  • Coastal hazard and risk
  • Climate changes
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Ports, coastal and offshore structures.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 7623 KiB  
Article
Lagrangian Data Assimilation for Improving Model Estimates of Velocity Fields and Residual Currents in a Tidal Estuary
by Neda Mardani, Mohammadreza Khanarmuei, Kabir Suara, Richard Brown, Adrian McCallum and Roy C. Sidle
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 11006; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112211006 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Numerical models are associated with uncertainties that can be reduced through data assimilation (DA). Lower costs have driven a recent tendency to use Lagrangian instruments such as drifters and floats to obtain information about water bodies. However, difficulties emerge in their assimilation, since [...] Read more.
Numerical models are associated with uncertainties that can be reduced through data assimilation (DA). Lower costs have driven a recent tendency to use Lagrangian instruments such as drifters and floats to obtain information about water bodies. However, difficulties emerge in their assimilation, since Lagrangian data are set out in a moving frame of reference and are not compatible with the fixed grid locations used in models to predict flow variables. We applied a pseudo-Lagrangian approach using OpenDA, an open-source DA tool to assimilate Lagrangian drifter data into an estuarine hydrodynamic model. Despite inherent challenges with using drifter datasets, the work showed that low-cost, low-resolution drifters can provide a relatively higher improvement over the Eulerian dataset due to the larger area coverage of the drifter. We showed that the assimilation of Lagrangian data obtained from GPS-tracked drifters in a tidal channel for a few hours can significantly improve modelled velocity fields (up to 30% herein). A 40% improvement in residual current direction was obtained when assimilating both Lagrangian and Eulerian data. We conclude that the best results are achieved when both Lagrangian and Eulerian datasets are assimilated into the hydrodynamic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Hydraulics: Analysis and Modeling)
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16 pages, 20320 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modelling of Flow-Debris Interaction during Extreme Hydrodynamic Events with DualSPHysics-CHRONO
by Gioele Ruffini, Riccardo Briganti, Paolo De Girolamo, Jacob Stolle, Bahman Ghiassi and Myrta Castellino
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3618; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083618 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3065
Abstract
Floods can transport debris of a very wide range of dimensions, from cohesive sediments to large floating debris, such as trees and cars. The latter increases the risk associated with floods by, for example, obstructing the flow or damaging structures due to impact. [...] Read more.
Floods can transport debris of a very wide range of dimensions, from cohesive sediments to large floating debris, such as trees and cars. The latter increases the risk associated with floods by, for example, obstructing the flow or damaging structures due to impact. The transport of this type of debris and their interaction with structures are often studied experimentally in the context of tsunamis and flash floods. Numerical studies on this problem are rare, therefore the present study focuses on the numerical modelling of the flow-debris interaction. This is achieved by simulating multiple laboratory experiments, available in the literature, of a single buoyant container transported by a dam-break flow in order to validate the chosen numerical approach. The numerical simulations are carried using the open source DualSPHysics model based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method coupled with the multi-physics engine CHRONO, which handles the container–bottom interactions. The trajectory, as well as the velocity of the centroid of the container, were tracked throughout the simulation and compared with the same quantities measured in the laboratory. The agreement between the model and the experiment results is quantitatively assessed using the normalised root mean squared error and it is shown that the model is accurate in reproducing the floating container trajectory and velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Hydraulics: Analysis and Modeling)
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25 pages, 9589 KiB  
Article
Tide-Surge-Wave Interaction in the Taiwan Strait during Typhoons Soudelor (2015) and Dujuan (2015)
by Li Zhang, Shaoping Shang, Feng Zhang and Yanshuang Xie
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7382; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207382 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Typhoons Soudelor (2015) and Dujuan (2015) were two of the strongest storms to affect the Taiwan Strait in 2015. This study investigated the response of the waters on the western bank of the Taiwan Strait to the passage of Soudelor and Dujuan. This [...] Read more.
Typhoons Soudelor (2015) and Dujuan (2015) were two of the strongest storms to affect the Taiwan Strait in 2015. This study investigated the response of the waters on the western bank of the Taiwan Strait to the passage of Soudelor and Dujuan. This included an investigation of the resonant coupling between the tide and storm surge, typhoon wave variation caused by the storm tide, and wave-induced water level rise. Analyses conducted using numerical model simulations and observations from tidal stations and buoys, obtained during the passage of both Soudelor and Dujuan, revealed that resonant coupling between the astronomical tide and storm surge in the Taiwan Strait was prominent, which resulted in tidal period oscillation on the storm surge and reduced tidal range. The tide wave arrived earlier than the predicted astronomical tide because of the existence of the storm surge, which was attributable to acceleration of the tidal wave caused by the water level rise. Wave height observations showed that the storm tide predominantly affected the waves, which resulted in wave heights that oscillated within the tidal period. Numerical experiments indicated that both the current and the water level affected wave height. Waves were affected mainly by the current in the middle of the Taiwan Strait, but mostly by water level when the water level was comparable with water depth. Wave setup simulations revealed that wave setup also oscillated within the tidal period, and that local bathymetry was the most important influencing factor of wave setup distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Hydraulics: Analysis and Modeling)
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23 pages, 12187 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study of a Bottom-Hinged Wave Energy Converter with a Reflection Wall in Regular Waves—Focusing on Behavioral Characteristics
by Yong-Hwan Cho, Tomoaki Nakamura, Norimi Mizutani and Kwang-Ho Lee
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6734; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196734 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
The hybrid system of wave energy converters (WECs) using coastal structures is an attractive issue in terms of a decrease in construction costs and an improvement of the ability to capture wave energy. Most studies on the utilization of reflected waves from structures, [...] Read more.
The hybrid system of wave energy converters (WECs) using coastal structures is an attractive issue in terms of a decrease in construction costs and an improvement of the ability to capture wave energy. Most studies on the utilization of reflected waves from structures, which is one of the hybrid systems, are limited to mathematical analysis based on linear theories. Therefore, this paper presents fundamental experimental results in the presence of a reflection wall simplified as a coastal structure behind a bottom-hinged flap-type WEC under unidirectional regular waves. The behavioral characteristics and the power generation efficiency ke of the flap were investigated, focusing on wave steepness, initial water depth, and distance from the reflection wall. The results show that the condition of the initial water depth being smaller than the flap height is more effective in terms of avoiding unstable rotating of the flap. The maximum ke appeared slightly far from the node position of the standing waves because the flap shape and the power take-off (PTO) damping induce the phase difference between the reciprocating behavior of the flap and the period of the standing wave. The results imply that the optimum position of a WEC is dependent on WEC shape, PTO damping, and installation water depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Hydraulics: Analysis and Modeling)
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20 pages, 4078 KiB  
Article
Crown Wall Modifications as Response to Wave Overtopping under a Future Sea Level Scenario: An Experimental Parametric Study for an Innovative Composite Seawall
by Pasquale Contestabile, Gaetano Crispino, Sara Russo, Corrado Gisonni, Furio Cascetta and Diego Vicinanza
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072227 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5739
Abstract
The overtopping phenomenon at the rear side of breakwaters has particular importance in harbor protection. Undoubtedly, this topic needs to be taken even more seriously, considering the sea level rise. The present study focuses on the effectiveness in the reduction of the wave [...] Read more.
The overtopping phenomenon at the rear side of breakwaters has particular importance in harbor protection. Undoubtedly, this topic needs to be taken even more seriously, considering the sea level rise. The present study focuses on the effectiveness in the reduction of the wave overtopping of a triangular parapet placed on the top of an innovative concrete superstructure. The last is part of the OBREC device (Overtopping BReakwater for wave Energy Conversion), an overtopping structure which is integrated into a traditional rubble-mound breakwater, to convert wave energy into electricity. Parametric laboratory tests, including the influence of water depth, have led to the evaluation of the accuracy of the main literature formulations and to the introduction of a new overtopping formula to take into account the influence of the parapet geometry. The results highlight the capability of the parapet in significantly increasing the hydraulic protection compared to a breakwater with a traditional crown wall. The findings from this work are expected to support in promoting and developing adaptive management strategies for existing coastal defenses and smart approaches in the construction and maintenance of new ones, with special reference to future sea-level-rise scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Hydraulics: Analysis and Modeling)
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