Bridge Dynamics: Volume II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2021) | Viewed by 19515
Related Special Issue: Bridge Dynamics

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Interests: structures; mechanics and construction; nonlinear finite element analysis; shear in slabs; strengthening and rehabilitation; nondestructive testing techniques for structural evaluations; Steel and concrete structures; mechanics of reinforced concrete structure
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Guest Editor
Institute of Structural Mechanics, Civil Engineering Faculty, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
Interests: structures; mechanics and construction; dynamic of structures; bridge dynamics; nonlinear finite element analysis; seismic assessment; spatial variability of earthquake ground motions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
Interests: structures; mechanics and construction; dynamic of structures; nonlinear finite element analysis; seismic performance of bridges and footbridges; human-induced vibrations of footbridges; structural health monitoring (SHM) systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a continuation of the previous Special Issue Bridge Dynamics, which was closed in April 2020, and is dedicated to academic researchers and civil engineering specialists who want to present their work on theoretical and experimental methods of analysis for dynamic aspects of bridge structures. In view of the significance of dynamic issues for the protection, operation, as well as feasibility of bridge structures, this Bridge Dynamics Special Issue aims to bring together authors who want to present their experiences in research, design, construction, and utilization of bridges, with a focus on dynamics.

Some, though not all, of the problems considered for the Bridge Dynamics Special Issue are as follows: experimental and theoretical investigation of dynamic characteristics of bridges and footbridges; seismic performance of bridges and footbridges; dynamic analysis of railway bridges subjected to high-speed trains; human-induced vibrations of footbridges; aerodynamic stability of bridge structures; structural health monitoring (SHM) systems; integration and management of SHM data for bridges and footbridges.

Prof. Dr. Maria Anna Polak
Prof. Dr. Joanna Maria Dulińska
Dr. Izabela Joanna Drygała
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • structural health monitoring (SHM)
  • seismic assessment of bridges
  • aerodynamic assessment of bridges
  • dynamic characteristics of bridges and footbridges
  • human-induced vibrations of footbridges
  • bridge dynamics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 8662 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Human-Structure Interaction Model on an Ultra-Lightweight FRP Footbridge
by Christian Gallegos-Calderón, Javier Naranjo-Pérez, Iván M. Díaz and José M. Goicolea
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6654; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146654 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Due to the high strength-to-weight ratio of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), human-induced vibration problematic remains as a subject to be fully comprehended in order to extend the use of composites in Bridge Engineering. Thus, this paper studies an ultra-lightweight FRP footbridge, which presents [...] Read more.
Due to the high strength-to-weight ratio of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), human-induced vibration problematic remains as a subject to be fully comprehended in order to extend the use of composites in Bridge Engineering. Thus, this paper studies an ultra-lightweight FRP footbridge, which presents excessive vertical vibrations when the fourth harmonic of a walking pedestrian is synchronised with the structure’s fundamental frequency. Focusing on the vertical bending mode, at 7.66 Hz, the bridge dynamic behaviour was assessed under the action of a single pedestrian crossing the facility at a step frequency of 1.9 Hz. As an over prediction of the footbridge response was computed using a moving force (MF) model available in a design guideline, a mass-spring-damper-actuator (MSDA) system was adopted to depict a walker. Hence, Human-Structure Interaction (HSI) phenomenon was considered. Employing the experimental results, parameters of the MSDA system were identified, leading to a HSI model that considers the first fourth harmonics of a walking human. Additionally, a parametric analysis was carried out, determining that the damping ratio of the human body and the load factor associated to the fourth harmonic are the most relevant parameters on the estimation of the response. The identified HSI model may be used as a first approximation to accurately predict the dynamic response of ultra-lightweight composite structures and should be extended to account for crowd-induced loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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24 pages, 5887 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Mean Responses of RC Bridges Considering the Incident Angle of Ground Motions and Displacement Directions
by Payam Tehrani and Denis Mitchell
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062462 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Inelastic dynamic analyses were carried out using 3D and 2D models to predict the mean seismic response of four-span reinforced concrete (RC) bridges considering directionality effects. Two averaging methods, including an advanced method considering displacement direction, were used for the prediction of the [...] Read more.
Inelastic dynamic analyses were carried out using 3D and 2D models to predict the mean seismic response of four-span reinforced concrete (RC) bridges considering directionality effects. Two averaging methods, including an advanced method considering displacement direction, were used for the prediction of the mean responses to account for different incident angles of ground motion records. A method was developed to predict the variability of the mean displacement predictions due to variability in the incident angles of the records for different averaging methods. When the concepts of averaging in different directions were used, significantly different predictions were obtained for the directionality effects. The accuracy of the results obtained using 2D and 3D analyses with and without the application of the combination rules for the prediction of the mean seismic demands considering the incident angle of the records was investigated. The predictions from different methods to account for the records incident angles were evaluated probabilistically. Recommendations were made for the use of the combination rules to account for the directivity effects of the records and to predict the actual maximum displacement, referred to as the maximum radial displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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16 pages, 8618 KiB  
Article
Vertical Vibrations of Footbridges Due to Group Loading: Effect of Pedestrian–Structure Interaction
by Paweł Hawryszków, Roberto Pimentel, Rafaela Silva and Felipe Silva
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041355 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
The vibration serviceability of footbridges has evolved from the adoption of a single pedestrian crossing in the resonance condition to load cases in which several pedestrians cross the structure simultaneously. However, in spite of this improvement, pedestrians continue to be considered as applied [...] Read more.
The vibration serviceability of footbridges has evolved from the adoption of a single pedestrian crossing in the resonance condition to load cases in which several pedestrians cross the structure simultaneously. However, in spite of this improvement, pedestrians continue to be considered as applied loads in codes of practice. Recent research has pointed out that modeling pedestrians as dynamic systems is a step further in the search for a more realistic design approach. This is explored in this paper, focusing on the case of vertical vibration. A two-span cable-stayed test structure was selected, and accelerations were measured from single and group crossings, both at the structure and at a pedestrian’s waist. Numerical simulations considering the pedestrians modeled as loads only and also as dynamic systems were implemented, and numerical and experimental time response vibration signatures were compared. Reductions of up to 25% and 20% in peak and RMS acceleration, respectively, were obtained when pedestrians were modeled as dynamic systems, in comparison with the less realistic model of pedestrians as loads only. Such reductions were shown to depend on the number of pedestrians involved in the group. The results, thus, highlight that pedestrian–structure interaction is an asset for the vibration serviceability design of footbridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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22 pages, 8404 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Use of Natural and Artificial Records for Prediction of Seismic Response of Regular and Irregular RC Bridges Considering Displacement Directions
by Payam Tehrani and Denis Mitchell
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11030906 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The seismic responses of continuous multi-span reinforced concrete (RC) bridges were predicted using inelastic time history analyses (ITHA) and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). Some important issues in ITHA were studied in this research, including: the effects of using artificial and natural records on [...] Read more.
The seismic responses of continuous multi-span reinforced concrete (RC) bridges were predicted using inelastic time history analyses (ITHA) and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). Some important issues in ITHA were studied in this research, including: the effects of using artificial and natural records on predictions of the mean seismic demands, effects of displacement directions on predictions of the mean seismic response, the use of 2D analysis with combination rules for prediction of the response obtained using 3D analysis, and prediction of the maximum radial displacement demands compared to the displacements obtained along the principal axes of the bridges. In addition, IDA was conducted and predictions were obtained at different damage states. These issues were investigated for the case of regular and irregular bridges using three different sets of natural and artificial records. The results indicated that the use of natural and artificial records typically resulted in similar predictions for the cases studied. The effect of displacement direction was important in predicting the mean seismic response. It was shown that 2D analyses with the combination rules resulted in good predictions of the radial displacement demands obtained from 3D analyses. The use of artificial records in IDA resulted in good prediction of the median collapse capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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26 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
Error Caused by Damping Formulating in Multiple Support Excitation Problems
by Han Qin and Luyu Li
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8180; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228180 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
The effect of multiple support excitation is an important issue in studying large-span structures. Researchers have shown that the damping related terms in the equation of motion can induce errors in the analysis. Wrongly modelling the damping matrix can induce false damping forces [...] Read more.
The effect of multiple support excitation is an important issue in studying large-span structures. Researchers have shown that the damping related terms in the equation of motion can induce errors in the analysis. Wrongly modelling the damping matrix can induce false damping forces between the structure and the reference coordinates. In multiple support excitation problems, this error is increased when absolute coordinates are used. In this paper, this part of the error is defined as virtual damping error. The error caused by using Rayleigh damping instead of Modal damping is called damping truncation error. This study focuses on the virtual damping error and the damping truncation error that exist in the modeling methods widely used in multiple support excitation problems, namely, large mass method (LMM), relative motion method (RMM), and absolute displacement method (ADM). A new Rayleigh damping formula is proposed for LMM to prevent virtual damping error. A form of equation of motion derived from the converged LMM was proposed in the authors’ previous work. This equation of motion is proved in this paper to be equivalent to RMM when modal damping and the new Rayleigh damping formula are used. RMM is proved free from the virtual damping error. The influence of multiple support excitation effect on the damping formulating errors is studied by spectral analysis. One simplified spring-mass model and two bridge models are used for numerical simulation. The results from the numerical simulation testify to the conclusions from the spectral analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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11 pages, 5501 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two-Dimensional and Three- Dimensional Responses for Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Rectangular Prism
by Shuai Zhou, Yunfeng Zou, Xugang Hua and Zhipeng Liu
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 7996; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10227996 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
The accurate prediction of the amplitudes of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is important in wind-resistant design. Wind tunnel tests of scaled section models have been commonly used. However, the amplitude prediction processes were usually inaccurate because of insufficient evaluations of three-dimensional (3D) effects. This [...] Read more.
The accurate prediction of the amplitudes of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is important in wind-resistant design. Wind tunnel tests of scaled section models have been commonly used. However, the amplitude prediction processes were usually inaccurate because of insufficient evaluations of three-dimensional (3D) effects. This study presents experimental measurements of VIV responses in a prototype rectangular prism and its 1:1 two-dimensional section model in smooth flow. The results show that the section model vibrates with the same Reynolds number, equivalent mass, frequency, and damping ratio as those of the prototype prism without scale effects. The VIV amplitudes can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured and analyzed. The measured VIV lock-ins of these two models agree with each other. However, the prototype prism produces a 20% higher maximum amplitude than the section model. Several classical VIV mathematical models are used to validate the wind tunnel test results. This confirms that the 3D coupling effects of the modal shape and the imperfect correlations of excitation forces positively contribute to the maximum amplitude. Based on the section model outcomes, the amplified factor of 1.2 is found to be appropriate for the amplitude prediction of VIV for the present prism, and it can also provide a reference for other structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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18 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Mainshock-Integrated Aftershock Vulnerability Assessment of Bridge Structures
by Xuan Guo, Zheyu Zhang and ZhiQiang Chen
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6843; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196843 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Seismic fragility analysis is often conducted to quantify the vulnerability of civil structures under earthquake excitation. In recent years, besides mainshocks, strong aftershocks have been often witnessed to induce structural damage to engineered structures, including bridges. How to accurately and straightforwardly quantify the [...] Read more.
Seismic fragility analysis is often conducted to quantify the vulnerability of civil structures under earthquake excitation. In recent years, besides mainshocks, strong aftershocks have been often witnessed to induce structural damage to engineered structures, including bridges. How to accurately and straightforwardly quantify the vulnerability of bridges due to sequential mainshocks and aftershocks is essential for an efficient assessment of bridge performance. While recognizing the limitation of existing methods, this paper proposes a mainshock integrated aftershock fragility function model, which empirically encodes the effects of mainshocks and retains the simple form of traditional fragility curves. A pile foundation-supported bridge system is modeled considering seismic soil-structure interaction to demonstrate the proposed fragility model. Numerical examples show that the resulting fragility curves incorporate the initial value for the probability of collapse of the bridge system due to a mainshock and the effects of the variable aftershocks conditional on the mainshock. Statistical analysis confirms that the proposed model fits the simulated vulnerability data (e.g., seismic intensities of aftershocks and the response demands conditional a select mainshock ground motion) both accurately and robustly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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21 pages, 4711 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Performance and Riding Comfort of a Straddle-Type Monorail Subjected to Moving Trains
by Qingfei Gao, Kemeng Cui, Zhonglong Li and Yan Li
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5258; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155258 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3265
Abstract
The driving comfort of a straddle-type monorail, while considering the influence of the bridge structure, was studied on the basis of multibody dynamics and the finite element method. In this study, the coupled vehicle-bridge model was established through SIMPACK and ANSYS; the 3D [...] Read more.
The driving comfort of a straddle-type monorail, while considering the influence of the bridge structure, was studied on the basis of multibody dynamics and the finite element method. In this study, the coupled vehicle-bridge model was established through SIMPACK and ANSYS; the 3D model of the bridge was established in ANSYS, and the vehicle model with 35 degrees of freedom (DOFs) was established in SIMPACK. The influence of the vehicle speed, pier height, track irregularity, and vehicle load on riding comfort was studied. Overall, straddle-type monorails had a good running stability, and the lateral comfort of the vehicle was better than the vertical comfort, due to symmetrical horizontal wheels. As the vehicle speed increased, the acceleration of the bridge and vehicle increased accordingly. Track irregularity had a substantial influence on riding comfort. Three types of track irregularity were simulated, and this factor should be strictly controlled to be smoother than the Chinese national A-level road roughness. The bridge pier height had a notable influence on the lateral riding comfort. In addition, this study attempted to improve riding comfort from the perspective of increasing the bridge stiffness, which could be achieved by increasing the cross-beam thickness or the track beam height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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24 pages, 9556 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Study on Dynamics of Two Footbridges with Different Shapes of Girders
by Anna Banas and Robert Jankowski
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4505; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134505 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
The paper presents the experimental and numerical results of the dynamic system identification and verification of the behavior of two footbridges in Poland. The experimental part of the study involved vibration testing under different scenarios of human-induced load, impulse load, and excitations induced [...] Read more.
The paper presents the experimental and numerical results of the dynamic system identification and verification of the behavior of two footbridges in Poland. The experimental part of the study involved vibration testing under different scenarios of human-induced load, impulse load, and excitations induced by vibration exciter. Based on the results obtained, the identification of dynamic parameters of the footbridges was performed using the peak-picking method. With the impulse load applied to both structures, determination of their natural vibration frequencies was possible. Then, based on the design drawings, detailed finite element method (FEM) models were developed, and the numerical analyses were carried out. The comparison between experimental and numerical results obtained from the modal analysis showed a good agreement. The results also indicated that both structures under investigation have the first natural bending frequency of the deck in the range of human-induced excitation. Therefore, the risk of excessive structural vibrations caused by pedestrian loading was then analysed for both structures. The vibration comfort criteria for both footbridges were checked according to Sétra guidelines. In the case of the first footbridge, the results showed that the comfort criteria are fulfilled, regardless of the type of load. For the second footbridge, it was emphasized that the structure meets the assumptions of the guidelines for vibration severability in normal use; nevertheless, it is susceptible to excitations induced by synchronized users, even in the case of a small group of pedestrians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Dynamics: Volume II)
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