Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 18025

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Alliance Sorbonne University, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, AVENUES, 60203 Compiègne, France
Interests: energy management; microgrid; photovoltaic; electric vehicle charging station

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) energy is a key element of the energy transition. Especially, the increasing share of PV production in the energy mix allows us to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Recent PV developments, new technologies, and the increased efficiency of PV modules have led to a significant reduction in production costs. However, several challenges remain to be challenged in order to improve the reliability of power systems. Importantly, the grid integration of intermittent PV production must be addressed. This can be conducted by analyzing its various impacts, adding storage, providing a more accurate forecast of PV production, and/or considering uncertainties. Additionally, the assessment of economic and environmental impacts on the system lifecycle can ease PV development. Optimal sizing design, under optimal management and with optimal carbon impact, can improve PV system performances and lead to new architectures, implementing and/or controling the techniques. In addition, the experimental validation of these control techniques improves the reliability of the results and their integration into PV power systems.

In light of these growing trends, this Special Issue focuses on PV system modeling and performance analysis. The goal is to address current PV deployment challenges and to bring new ideas, advances, and insights regarding PV power systems. Authors are invited to submit original contributions for review and possible publication. This Special Issue includes, but is not limited, the following topics:

  • emerging PV technologies and state-of-the-art reviews on PV technologies (topologies, architectures, etc.);
  • MPPT methods (in particular for curved PV panels);
  • forecasting of PV power (in particular for 3D solar irradiation models);
  • PV power system modeling including uncertainties mitigation;
  • applications of PV systems (in particular, vehicle-integrated PV, PV-powered charging station, agri-PV, floating PV, PV energy communities, etc.):
    • performance analysis of PV systems (energy efficiency, lifecycle economic and environmental impacts, etc.);
    • control techniques, including cost and sizing optimization, as well as energy and real-time power management;
    • grid integration of PV systems and ancillary services;
    • case studies (real PV systems involving real measurements and/or experimental control technics methods validation);
  • energy transition and reduced greenhouse gas emissions by increasing PV implementation (PV role in energy mix, PV infrastructures design, PV social impact, social acceptability and acceptance of PV infrastructures, etc.).

Prof. Dr. Manuela Sechilariu
Dr. Saleh Cheikh-Mohamad
Dr. Berk Celik
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • photovoltaic systems
  • MPPT energy efficiency
  • power electronic converters
  • environmental impact
  • power management
  • experimental testing
  • energy transition

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 6263 KiB  
Article
Global Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic Module Array Based on Modified Cat Swarm Optimization
by Kuei-Hsiang Chao and Thi Bao-Ngoc Nguyen
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072853 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to research and develop maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic module array (PVMA) with partial module shading and sudden changes in solar irradiance. Modified cat swarm optimization (MCSO) was adopted to track the global [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to research and develop maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic module array (PVMA) with partial module shading and sudden changes in solar irradiance. Modified cat swarm optimization (MCSO) was adopted to track the global maximum power point (GMPP) of the PVMA. Upon a sudden changes in solar irradiance or when certain modules in the PVMA were shaded, the maximum power point (MPP) of the PVMA will change accordingly, and multiple peak values may appear on the power–voltage (P-V) characteristic curve. Therefore, if the tracking pace is constant, the time required to track the MPP might extend, and under certain circumstances, the GMPP might not be tracked, as only the local maximum power point (LMPP) can be tracked. To prevent this problem, a maximum power point tracker based on MCSO is proposed in this paper in order to adjust the tracking pace along with the slope of the P-V characteristic curve and the inertia weight of the iteration formula. The initial voltage for tracking commencement was set to 0.8 times the voltage at the maximum power point of the PVMA under standard test conditions. Firstly, MATLAB 2022a was used to construct the four-series, three-parallel PVMA model under zero shading and partial shading. The feedback of PVMA voltage and current was obtained, where the GMPP was tracked with MCSO. From the simulation results, it was proven that, under different shading percentages and sudden changes in solar irradiance for partial modules in the PVMA, the MCSO proposed in this paper provided better tracking speed, dynamic response, and steady performance compared to the conventional CSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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22 pages, 11696 KiB  
Article
Non-Contact Monitoring of Operating Conditions for Solar Cells in a Photovoltaic Module Using a Surface Potential Meter for Detecting the Risk of Fire
by Ryo Shimizu, Yasuyuki Ota, Akira Nagaoka, Kenji Araki and Kensuke Nishioka
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10391; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810391 - 17 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Fires in photovoltaic modules are caused by hot spots, which are typically monitored by thermal images. This method helps visualize the hot spot, but it is affected by the environment (solar irradiance, wind, ambient temperature) and is not reproducible. Assessing the heat dissipation [...] Read more.
Fires in photovoltaic modules are caused by hot spots, which are typically monitored by thermal images. This method helps visualize the hot spot, but it is affected by the environment (solar irradiance, wind, ambient temperature) and is not reproducible. Assessing the heat dissipation of the hot cell can be used for alternative assessment of the fire risk. This method was validated by comparing the value measured by the surface potential meter and the module potential measured directly by adding a bypass measurement circuit. The substantial reverse-bias voltage caused by mismatching or partial shading (depending on the operating conditions) leads to local heat consumption of the partially shaded solar cells and potentially causes fire. The fire risk can be assessed in the worst-case conditions (ex. 1380 W/m2 solar irradiance) by non-contact measurement of the reverse-bias voltage and calculating the heat dissipation and temperature rise. This work suggested that −13 V is the criterion and was close to the known value of reverse voltage for Si cells. The current technology inspects solar cells before assembly to the module, and there is no way of inspecting in the product test or detecting after degradation that can be covered by the proposed method in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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27 pages, 7461 KiB  
Article
PV Sizing for EV Workplace Charging Stations—An Empirical Study in France
by Bruno Robisson, Van-Lap Ngo, Laurie Marchadier, Mohammed-Farouk Bouaziz and Alexandre Mignonac
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10128; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810128 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 829
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) powered Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (PVCS) have received extensive attention recently due to the complementary relationship of PV energy and electric vehicles. This paper proposes a methodology aimed at assisting a Charging Point Operator (CPO) in determining the size of the [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) powered Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (PVCS) have received extensive attention recently due to the complementary relationship of PV energy and electric vehicles. This paper proposes a methodology aimed at assisting a Charging Point Operator (CPO) in determining the size of the main components of such PVCS. The modular structure of the method gives flexibility for possible use on a new sizing problem by modifying key parameters such as the EV charging demand (i.e., arrival/departure times and energy needed to fill the battery), the EV charging strategy or the business model, independently from each other. It is of particular interest for a CPO that sizes many PVCS operated in the same environment (for example, a car park at a workplace). In that case, the CPO first has to apply the method on a representative charging station. Next, he can re-use parts of the obtained results to drastically speed up (from weeks to hours) the sizing of the other charging stations. The proposed method has been applied to the EVCS of an industrial research complex in southern France. The input dataset used to apply the method consists of more than 32,000 charging transactions spanning over 6 years with 350 EV users and 80 charging points. Three charging strategies with different levels of complexity are investigated, including Mean Power, Plug and Charge, and Solar Smart Charging. The considered business model is based on the maximization of the self-production rate. The numerical findings reveal that employing a straightforward charging strategy, such as Mean Power, leads to a substantial reduction of nearly half in the required size of the PV plant compared to the basic Plug and Charge mode. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that Solar Smart Charging has the potential to decrease the PV plant size by nearly three times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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23 pages, 5348 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Peer-to-Peer PV Trading Strategies under the Influence of Network Constraints with Prosumer Sensitivity towards Network Coefficients
by Sheroze Liaquat, Tanveer Hussain, Fadi Agha Kassab, Berk Celik, Robert Fourney and Timothy M. Hansen
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10044; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810044 - 06 Sep 2023
Viewed by 672
Abstract
With the increase in rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems at the residential level, customers owning such renewable resources can act as a source of generation for other consumers in the same network. Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading refers to a local trading platform where the [...] Read more.
With the increase in rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems at the residential level, customers owning such renewable resources can act as a source of generation for other consumers in the same network. Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading refers to a local trading platform where the residential customers having excess PV power (prosumers) can interact with their neighbors without PV resources (customers) to improve the social welfare of society. However, the performance of a P2P market depends on the power system network constraints and trading strategy adopted for local energy trading. In this paper, we compare different trading strategies, i.e., the rule-based zero intelligent (ZI) strategy and the preference-based game theory (GT) approaches, for a constrained P2P platform. Quadratic trading loss and impedance-based network utilization fee models are suggested to define the network constraints for the P2P system. Additionally, a reluctance-based prosumer-sensitive model is developed to adjust the trading behavior of the participants under the heavy distribution losses/network fee. The presented results show that the suggested trading strategies enhanced the average welfare of the participants by approximately 17%. On average, the customers saved about $33.77 monthly, whereas the average monthly earnings of the prosumers were around $28.3. The ZI strategy enhanced the average monetary advantages of all the market participants by an average of 7% for a system having small distribution losses and a network fee as compared to the GT approach. Contrarily, for a system having high losses/a utilization fee, the GT approach improved the average welfare of the prosumers by around 75% compared to the ZI strategy. However, both trading strategies yielded competitive results compared to the traditional market under the standard values of network coefficients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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19 pages, 6556 KiB  
Article
Integrated Photovoltaics Potential for Passenger Cars: A Focus on the Sensitivity to Electrical Architecture Losses
by Fathia Karoui, Bertrand Chambion, Fabrice Claudon and Benjamin Commault
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8373; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148373 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Vehicle integrated photovoltaics (VIPV) are among the identified solutions to reduce the environmental impacts of the transport sector. The model developed here simulates the VIPV system. It considers various usage patterns and vehicle types, several characteristics of the photovoltaic system and all the [...] Read more.
Vehicle integrated photovoltaics (VIPV) are among the identified solutions to reduce the environmental impacts of the transport sector. The model developed here simulates the VIPV system. It considers various usage patterns and vehicle types, several characteristics of the photovoltaic system and all the losses that may decrease energy yield. Focusing on a passenger car, simulations indicate the order of influence of the parameters on the outputs of the model: geographic locality, shading, thresholds due to extra-consumption needed to charge the vehicle’s battery from the photovoltaic (PV) system and occurrence of recharge with the grid. With technology projections for 2030, with 30% shading, VIPV will cover a distance of up to 1444 km per year. This represents up to 12% of the driven mileage. For the best month, it can reach up to 14 km/day. For average Europe and realistic conditions, VIPV cover 648 km per year. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a solarized passenger car shows a negative balance for a low-carbon electricity mix and average solar irradiance. In favorable conditions, the carbon footprint is up to 489 kg of CO2-equivalent avoided emissions on a 13-year lifespan. Beyond the focus on km and LCA, VIPV may provide useful functions in non-interconnected zones and for resilience in disaster areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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21 pages, 6576 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Arrays Using an Improved Soft Computing Algorithm
by Kuei-Hsiang Chao and Shu-Wei Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 6952; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13126952 - 08 Jun 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
This paper presents an improved version of the firefly algorithm (FA) by which a maximum power point (MPP) tracker was developed to track down the global maximum power point (GMPP) of a partially shaded photovoltaic module array (PVMA). As the first step, our [...] Read more.
This paper presents an improved version of the firefly algorithm (FA) by which a maximum power point (MPP) tracker was developed to track down the global maximum power point (GMPP) of a partially shaded photovoltaic module array (PVMA). As the first step, our team developed a high-voltage step-up converter where a coupled inductor was used to store the energy so that the duty cycle can be reduced so as to raise the voltage gain. The single-peaked P-V output characteristic curve of a PV array turns out to contain multiple peaks when the array is partially shaded. As a consequence, conventional MPP trackers occasionally track down a local maximum power point (LMPP), instead of the desired GMPP, and the output power of the array falls accordingly. Therefore, an improved version of the FA is proposed as a way to ensure that the GMPP can be tracked down in a more efficient way. Using the Matlab software, the MPP tracking performance of the proposed tracker was finally simulated in five scenarios. As it turned out, the proposed converter provided a high voltage gain at a relatively low duty cycle, and the improved version of the FA outperformed the original in terms of tracking time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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17 pages, 5411 KiB  
Article
A Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Grid-Connected PV System Operation in Niš (Serbia) under Temperate Continental Climatic Conditions
by Dragana D. Todorović, Marija Stojanović Krasić, Slavica Jovanović, Branko Drljača and Tijana Kevkić
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6229; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106229 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
This study analyzes the grid-connected PV system performances over a 10-year period under temperate continental conditions in Niš. Based on the experimental results, we found the following: the 10-year yearly average values of PV system efficiency, Yf, CF, and PR are 10.49%, 1178.51 [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the grid-connected PV system performances over a 10-year period under temperate continental conditions in Niš. Based on the experimental results, we found the following: the 10-year yearly average values of PV system efficiency, Yf, CF, and PR are 10.49%, 1178.51 kWh/kWp, 13.45%, and 0.87, respectively. The yearly average value of PV performances for a 10-year measurement indicates that the behavior of the given PV system over 10 years does not change significantly. Besides, a mathematical prediction model was obtained through regression analysis, and ANOVA was applied for testing the model’s validity. It is shown that the obtained model is statistically significant and enables prediction better than a simple average, the mean values of PV electricity are not changed statistically significantly over the 10 observed years, and there is a statistically significant difference in POA mean radiation during the months over 10 years. Based on the obtained model and POA radiation values, a prediction of the PV system output can be made for similar PV installations. The analysis presented in this study significantly impacts energy prediction, PV energy modeling, and the economics and profitability of the grid-connected PV system utilization, as well as the PV systems’ operation planning and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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24 pages, 7709 KiB  
Article
PV-Powered Charging Station with Energy Cost Optimization via V2G Services
by Saleh Cheikh-Mohamad, Berk Celik, Manuela Sechilariu and Fabrice Locment
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5627; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095627 - 03 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Satisfying the increased power demand of electric vehicles (EVs) charged by clean energy sources will become an important aspect that impacts the sustainability and the carbon emissions of the smart grid. A photovoltaic (PV)-powered charging station (PVCS) formed by PV modules and a [...] Read more.
Satisfying the increased power demand of electric vehicles (EVs) charged by clean energy sources will become an important aspect that impacts the sustainability and the carbon emissions of the smart grid. A photovoltaic (PV)-powered charging station (PVCS) formed by PV modules and a stationary storage system with a public grid connection can provide cost-efficient and reliable charging strategies for EV batteries. Moreover, the utilization of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service is a promising solution, as EVs spend most of their time idle in charging stations. As a result, V2G services have the potential to provide advantages to both public grid operators and EV users. In this paper, an energy management algorithm of a PVCS formulated with mixed-integer linear programming is presented to minimize the total energy cost of the participation of EV users in V2G service. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optimization method satisfies EV user demands while providing V2G service and highlights the benefits of the V2G service where the determined costs of the proposed algorithm perform significantly better compared to the baseline scenario (simulation without optimization). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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22 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Electric Bus Operation and Charging Process: Potential Contribution of Local Photovoltaic Production
by Nathanael Dougier, Berk Celik, Salim-Kinnou Chabi-Sika, Manuela Sechilariu, Fabrice Locment and Justin Emery
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4372; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074372 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The transition from diesel to electric buses allows the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of charging strategies on the quality of bus services and the utility grid must be assessed to ensure the feasibility of the energy transition in the [...] Read more.
The transition from diesel to electric buses allows the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of charging strategies on the quality of bus services and the utility grid must be assessed to ensure the feasibility of the energy transition in the public transportation sector. This study investigates the performances of different locations and sizes of charging infrastructures by presenting the comprehensive modelling of a bus network. It also estimates the potential benefits of a local photovoltaic (PV) production to reduce negative impacts on the utility grid. The presented approach is used for modelling one urban bus line in Compiègne, France, and simulations are performed for various case studies. The results demonstrate that the proposed method allows analysing the impact of the charging process on the quality of bus services by determining the delays of arrivals. The simulations also show the impacts of charger placement on bus on-board battery capacity, total peak power demand of battery charging, and PV self-consumption ratio. The amount of PV energy used directly to charge buses remains low, although it varies between scenarios. PV energy during winter is not sufficient to fully charge buses; however, it can be enough with additional stationary storage in the summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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18 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Selection of a Photovoltaic Panel Cooling Technique Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
by Zakariya Kaneesamkandi and Ateekh Ur Rehman
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031949 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Photovoltaic panel performance in terms of its efficiency and durability is severely affected by operating temperature when the temperature is much higher than the nominal operating cell temperature in hot climates. Different cooling methods have been reported over several decades, but photovoltaic panel [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic panel performance in terms of its efficiency and durability is severely affected by operating temperature when the temperature is much higher than the nominal operating cell temperature in hot climates. Different cooling methods have been reported over several decades, but photovoltaic panel manufacturers or users are yet to adopt a popular method of panel cooling. This is the main concern of the present work. Potential cooling solutions differ in terms of their criteria for performance evaluation, which are efficiency enhancement, costs, reliability, environmental aspects and ergonomics. Hence, there is a need to identify the optimum cooling method. Eight different cooling methods were identified, and the analysis was made with the multi-criteria analysis tool on the different possible attributes. Two different climate zones with different weight schemes are considered for the evaluation process, and the best to the worst cooling solutions have been identified. Five different scenarios depending on the importance given to each evaluation criterion are analyzed. The best cooling method to the worst cooling method has been arranged under each scenario. When the efficiency of operation was given maximum weight, aluminum fin cooling proved to be the best panel cooling method. When the emission reduction criterion was given maximum weight, thermosiphon cooling was the best cooling option. A comparison of the results indicates that thermosiphon works out to be the best option. The second-best method was found to be forced convection cooling when equal weights were applied and thermosiphon cooling when a 40% weight on efficiency enhancement criteria was applied, which is a more practical weight distribution. Phase change cooling and forced convection cooling had the poorest performance among the different cooling methods for all the weighing scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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20 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
A Holistic Approach for Design and Assessment of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics Systems
by David Restrepo-Herrera, Walter Martinez, Luz Adriana Trejos-Grisales and Bonie Johana Restrepo-Cuestas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020746 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
This article addresses the application of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems through the analysis of a case study with different operating conditions and geospatial locations. The research is carried out with customer-made photovoltaic modules supported by computational aids. The results obtained from real-life BIPV [...] Read more.
This article addresses the application of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems through the analysis of a case study with different operating conditions and geospatial locations. The research is carried out with customer-made photovoltaic modules supported by computational aids. The results obtained from real-life BIPV installation are contrasted, simulated, and improved through different scenarios where aspects such as software deviation, shadowing influence, installed capacity, and project profitability are analyzed to establish viability pathways for BIPV projects. As a result, the most relevant factors to improve the technical and economic conditions of the BIPV system are the total capacity installed, the use of the available area, and the strategic location of the modules to avoid shading surfaces. In this way, this work addresses the analysis of BIPV systems through the assessment of a case study implemented in a real residential structure in Colombia. The proposed methodology includes simulations to evaluate the solar energy potential considering the elements in the neighborhood of the BIPV system and technical aspects, such as the wiring and power interface, an economical study to find the feasibility of the project, and an analysis of different operating scenarios. As a result, the most important factors that affect the operation of BIPV systems under Colombian weather conditions were identified: total installed capacity, use of the available area, and strategic location of the modules to avoid shading surfaces. Such factors can then be considered in the early stage of designing for future BIPV applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 3164 KiB  
Review
Review on Optimization Techniques of PV/Inverter Ratio for Grid-Tie PV Systems
by Hazim Imad Hazim, Kyairul Azmi Baharin, Chin Kim Gan, Ahmad H. Sabry and Amjad J. Humaidi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053155 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3513
Abstract
In the literature, there are many different photovoltaic (PV) component sizing methodologies, including the PV/inverter power sizing ratio, recommendations, and third-party field tests. This study presents the state-of-the-art for gathering pertinent global data on the size ratio and provides a novel inverter sizing [...] Read more.
In the literature, there are many different photovoltaic (PV) component sizing methodologies, including the PV/inverter power sizing ratio, recommendations, and third-party field tests. This study presents the state-of-the-art for gathering pertinent global data on the size ratio and provides a novel inverter sizing method. The size ratio has been noted in the literature as playing a significant role in both reducing power clipping and achieving system optimization. The majority of researchers observed that due to varying irradiance distributions and operating temperatures at particular sites, the sizing ratios were dependent on geographic latitude. This study will identify the issue that makes it challenging to acquire dependable and optimum performance for the use of grid-connected PV systems by summarizing the power sizing ratio, related derating factor, and sizing formulae approach. The present study recommends a Deep Learning technique that might, due to the dynamic behavior of the PV technologies, provide fully automatic computation for the DC/AC sizing ratio, and effectively lower the whole return on investment (ROI) over a variety of circumstances and climatic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Power System: Modeling and Performance Analysis)
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