Technology and Application of Microwave Communication and Antenna Design

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2024 | Viewed by 5016

Special Issue Editors

Institute for microelectronics and microsystems, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: electromagnetism; antennas; metamaterials; microwave devices; microwave microscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute for microelectronics and microsystems, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: leaky waves and leaky-wave antennas; localized waves; wireless power transfer; graphene electromagnetics; meta-surfaces; THz devices and communications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antennas are one of the key components in actual and future wireless systems, and with many emerging modern applications, the need for more performant and multi-applications systems is fast becoming a future vision. However, different wireless systems have different requirements, challenging designs for more complex and integrated systems. Key aspects to be addressed are antenna and system performance in a multifunctional environment. For this Special Issue, submissions may focus on novel materials and manufacturing processes, numerical modeling, simulations, optimization methods. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences aims to provide an opening for the recent progress in advanced antenna design, technologies, and system analyses. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Recent advances in antenna analysis and design;
  • Optimization design of antenna;
  • Novel materials and metamaterial structures for antennas;
  • Antennas for various applications;
  • Multi-use high-frequency systems.

Dr. Giovanni Maria Sardi
Dr. Walter Fuscaldo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antenna design
  • antenna technologies
  • numerical methods
  • metamaterials antenna
  • meta-surface antennas
  • communication systems
  • remote sensing
  • automotive assistance

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 2488 KiB  
Communication
Computational Design of a Broadband In-Line Coaxial-to-Rectangular Waveguide Transition
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010074 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 581
Abstract
This Communication presents a computational design approach for a broadband in-line coaxial-to-rectangular waveguide transition having a 2.83:1 bandwidth. Existing designs have a bandwidth ranging from 1.36:1 to 2:1. The proposed transition consists of a four-step ridge transformer and three sections of the rectangular [...] Read more.
This Communication presents a computational design approach for a broadband in-line coaxial-to-rectangular waveguide transition having a 2.83:1 bandwidth. Existing designs have a bandwidth ranging from 1.36:1 to 2:1. The proposed transition consists of a four-step ridge transformer and three sections of the rectangular waveguide. The proposed design approach extends the bandwidth of the transition by a theory-based design of the width and height of the three-section waveguides and by a computer-aided optimization of the stepped-ridge transformer. The dimensions of the three waveguide sections are determined such that the transition operates from very close to the TE10-mode cutoff to slightly less than the TE30-mode cutoff. A four-step ridge transformer was computer-optimized for a low reflection coefficient over a broad bandwidth. The proposed design approach was applied to the design of a coaxial-to-WR75 transition whose reflection coefficient is less than −22.6 dB at 8.14–23.00 GHz (2.83:1 bandwidth). The dimensions of the proposed transition were obtained using an electromagnetic simulation tool. The increased bandwidth of the transition can be very useful, especially in measurement applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1686 KiB  
Communication
Designing Advanced Multistatic Imaging Systems with Optimal 2D Sparse Arrays
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212138 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 482
Abstract
This study introduces an innovative optimization method to identify the optimal configuration of a sparse symmetric 2D array for applications in security, particularly multistatic imaging. Utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs) in a sophisticated optimization process, the research focuses on achieving the most favorable antenna [...] Read more.
This study introduces an innovative optimization method to identify the optimal configuration of a sparse symmetric 2D array for applications in security, particularly multistatic imaging. Utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs) in a sophisticated optimization process, the research focuses on achieving the most favorable antenna distribution while mitigating the common issue of secondary lobes in sparse arrays. The main objective is to determine the ideal configuration from specific design parameters, including hardware specifications such as number of radiating elements, minimum spacing, operating frequency range, and image separation distance. The study employed a cost function based on the the point spread function (PSF), the system response to a point source, with the goal of minimizing the secondary lobe levels and maximizing their separation from the main lobe. Advanced simulation algorithms based on physical optics (PO) were used to validate the presented methodology and results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 9688 KiB  
Article
An Optimization Design of Bi-log Hybrid Antenna with Taguchi’s Method for EMI Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11792; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111792 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive design approach for a biconical log-periodic dipole array (Bi-log) hybrid antenna optimized specifically for electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements. The antenna’s elements, scaling function, feed structure, balanced-to-unbalanced (Balun) geometry, and key parameter selection are carefully considered to achieve enhanced [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive design approach for a biconical log-periodic dipole array (Bi-log) hybrid antenna optimized specifically for electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements. The antenna’s elements, scaling function, feed structure, balanced-to-unbalanced (Balun) geometry, and key parameter selection are carefully considered to achieve enhanced broadband testing capabilities. The proposed compact Bi-log hybrid antenna is optimized using Taguchi’s method within the frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz. The optimization focuses on the discontinuity of the antenna factor (AF), incorporating miniaturized elements. The dimensions of the proposed antenna are minimized, with a length of 95 cm, width of 148.5 cm, height of 60 cm, and weight of 2.5 kg. Simulation results and experimental validations demonstrate its efficacy through comparison. Optimization results indicate that the voltage standing wave ratio VSWR < 2 (with 5 dB attenuator) and symmetry < ±0.5 dB also meet the regulatory standards according to ANSI C 63.4. This makes the proposed antenna suitable for use in various types of semi-anechoic chambers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3238 KiB  
Communication
Through-Wire Microstrip-to-Empty-Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide Transition at Ka-Band
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9762; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179762 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The advantages of the Substrate-Integrated Waveguide (SIW) in terms of low profile, integration with Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and low cost are maintained by the Empty Substrate-Integrated Waveguide (ESIW). Moreover, as the dielectric fill is avoided, other advantages are also added: resonators with [...] Read more.
The advantages of the Substrate-Integrated Waveguide (SIW) in terms of low profile, integration with Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and low cost are maintained by the Empty Substrate-Integrated Waveguide (ESIW). Moreover, as the dielectric fill is avoided, other advantages are also added: resonators with higher quality factor and lower insertion losses. Since 2014, when it was proposed, several devices for X-band to Ka-band applications have been accurately designed and manufactured. In this way, transitions are one of the most important components, as they allow the connection between the ESIW and other planar transmision lines such as microstrip. To accomplish this aim, different transitions have been proposed in the literature: based on sharp dielectric tapers combining metallized and non-metallized parts, which increases the manufacture complexity; with a broadened ESIW section, that is less complex at the cost of increasing reflection and radiation losses due to the abrupt discontinuity; based on tapered artificial dielectric slab matrix, more difficult to mechanize; using a tapered microstrip transition, with high radiation losses; and even transitions for multilayer devices. Among all the transitions, the most versatile one is the through-wire transition, as microstrip and ESIW can be implemented in different layers and allows any feeding angle between the microstrip line and the ESIW. In this paper the through-wire transition has been properly validated at Ku- and Ka-bands. Moreover, a back-to-back transition has been accurately manufactured in Ka-band with measured insertion losses lower than 3.7 dB and return losses higher that 11.7 dB, concluding that the transition is not frequency dependent. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 73312 KiB  
Article
Defining Breast Tumor Location Using a Four-Element Wearable Circular UWB MIMO Antenna Array
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8067; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148067 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to develop a wearable circular UWB MIMO antenna array, consisting of four elements, that is capable of detecting and locating tumor cells within a heterogeneous breast phantom. The antenna element operates within a bandwidth from 2.4 GHz [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to develop a wearable circular UWB MIMO antenna array, consisting of four elements, that is capable of detecting and locating tumor cells within a heterogeneous breast phantom. The antenna element operates within a bandwidth from 2.4 GHz to 10.6 GHz when FR4 is used as the substrate, and extends from 2.57 GHz to 12.6 GHz when a Dacron fabric is used instead. The antenna is fabricated and measured, yielding highly similar results to the simulated outcomes. In the suggested detection system, one antenna is used for transmission, while the other antennas receive the transmitted signal. The employed antenna demonstrates gains of 5.49 dBi, 9.87 dBi, 11.9 dBi, and 14.7 dBi at resonant frequencies of 2.84 GHz, 3.87 GHz, 5.83 GHz, and 8.24 GHz, respectively, when a Dacron fabric is used as the substrate. Moreover, the proposed antenna exhibits a flexible shape with minimal vertical and horizontal bending effects across the entire operating frequency band. The antenna has a compact size of 42.85 × 42.85 mm2 and is printed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.5 and a thickness of 1.6 mm for testing purposes. The S-parameters of the suggested system can effectively identify and precisely locate small tumors. Furthermore, the SAR findings indicate that the amount of power absorbed by the breast phantom tissues complies with the IEEE standards, thus confirming the suitability of the recommended antenna for the early detection and localization of breast cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2905 KiB  
Article
Two-Wire Power Line Microwave Communication Using Low-Loss Modes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7846; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137846 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 500
Abstract
A closed-form solution for the common and differential modal currents induced on a pair of infinitely long parallel conductors by a source, field coupled to a power line, is derived. For lossy conductors, the current consists of a continuous spectrum of radiation modes [...] Read more.
A closed-form solution for the common and differential modal currents induced on a pair of infinitely long parallel conductors by a source, field coupled to a power line, is derived. For lossy conductors, the current consists of a continuous spectrum of radiation modes and (for the common mode) a modified low-loss Sommerfeld–Goubau (SG) mode and (for the differential mode) a quasi-TEM mode. This model is used to investigate the influence of a parallel conductor on microwave power line communication systems. When the complete current spectrum is used, it is shown that the SG mode is not the primary reason why low-loss communication is possible on power lines for distances on the order of 100 m. Nevertheless, and consistent with previous research, microwave communication using power lines has advantages over free space communication, and for typical parameters, the performance of these systems can be enhanced if the power line contains more than one conductor. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: A compact branch line coupler with wide harmonic suppression using lumped component
Authors: Saeed Roshani
Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Ira

Title: Designing Advanced Multistatic Imaging Systems with Optimal 2D Sparse Arrays
Authors: Lorena Perez-Eijo; Marcos Arias; Borja Gonzalez-Valdes; Yolanda Rodriguez-Vaqueiro; Oscar Rubiños; Antonio Pino; Ignacio Sardinero-Meirás; Elías Antolinos; Jesús Grajal
Affiliation: Universidade de Vigo; Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Abstract: This work presents an optimization method to find the best possible configuration for a sparse symmetric 2D array for multi-static imaging in security applications. The main objective is to obtain an optimal configuration based on a set of given parameters, such as the number of radiating elements, the minimum distance between them, the operating frequency range, the standoff imaging distance, and so on. A complex optimization based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to converge to the best solution and to minimize the effect of the secondary lobes that are so typical in this type of configuration. In this type of architecture, it is desirable that the secondary lobes are small and as far away from the main one as possible. For this purpose, an ad-hoc cost function is designed based on the system response to a point objective function (PSF). Advanced simulation algorithms based on Physical Optics (PO) were used to generate the results presented to validate the proposed methodology. In addition to finding designs that optimize the PSF of the system, post-processing techniques are applied to improve the imaging performance.

Back to TopTop