Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 5807

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Guest Editor
Department of Morphofunctional Sciences II, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iași, Romania
Interests: obesity; diabetes; metabolic syndrome; eating disorders
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet-related diseases include deficiencies or excesses in the diet, obesity, and eating disorders, as well as chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (e.g., arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke), diabetes mellitus, certain cancers, and osteoporosis. The objective of this Special Issue is to present the latest advances and future perspectives on dietary assessment methods using emerging technologies. New technology-based dietary assessment tools, including virtual reality, wearable sensors, personal digital assistants (PDAs), Internet-based tools, social media, tablets, and smartphones and their apps, can improve the accuracy and reduce the cost of dietary data collection and processing. Dietary assessment methods using new technologies can be more engaging and attractive than paper-based methods, especially for children and young adults. These novel evaluation technologies can be used for disease detection and monitoring, enabling the development of innovative and transformative new methods that will provide a better understanding of diet-related diseases.

Prof. Dr. Veronica Mocanu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • pathophysiology
  • dietary assessment
  • virtual reality technologies
  • mobile technologies
  • internet-based technologies
  • smartphone technologies
  • tablet technologies
  • personal digital assistants (PDA) technologies

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 698 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Sugar-Related Dietary Patterns to Personality Traits and Cognitive–Behavioural and Emotional Functioning in Working-Age Women
by Agnieszka Garbacz, Bogusław Stelcer, Michalina Wielgosik and Magdalena Czlapka-Matyasik
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083176 - 10 Apr 2024
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Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigated interactions among sugar-related dietary patterns (DPs), personality traits, and cognitive–behavioural and emotional functioning. The study involved working-age women aged 18–54. Data were collected between Winter and Spring of 2020/21. The survey was conducted using anonymised questionnaires. The ten-item personality [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigated interactions among sugar-related dietary patterns (DPs), personality traits, and cognitive–behavioural and emotional functioning. The study involved working-age women aged 18–54. Data were collected between Winter and Spring of 2020/21. The survey was conducted using anonymised questionnaires. The ten-item personality inventory (TIPI-PL) was used to examine personality traits based on the Big Five personality trait model. A three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ-13) was used to measure the following eating behaviours: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE). The KomPAN questionnaire collected the frequency of the intake. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived by principal component analysis (PCA). A logistic regression (OR) was applied to verify the associations among the DPs, personality traits, and cognitive–behavioural and emotional functioning. Three DPs were identified: sweet-Western (SWDP), pro-healthy (PHDP), and dairy (DDP). Women with high conscientiousness were less likely, by 33%, to adhere to the upper tercile of the SWDP and 80% more likely to the upper tercile of the PHDP. Elevated CR intensity increased by almost twofold (OR: 1.93; p < 0.001) the likelihood of high adherence to the SWDP. The high intensity in the EE decreased by 37% (OR: 0.63; p < 0.01) the likelihood of increased adherence to the SWDP. Personality traits and eating behaviours significantly correlated with the extracted SWDP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods)
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11 pages, 548 KiB  
Article
Supplementation of Nutraceuticals from Dwarf Kiwi and Apple Improves Lipid Profile in Overweight Adults
by Joanna Popiolek-Kalisz, Paweł Glibowski and Ewa Solarska
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041324 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
(1) Background: Overweight and obesity are emerging global problems causing multiple health complications. Excessive fat tissue content leads to chronic inflammation, which is why antioxidative compounds that could potentially reduce these processes are possible agents that could be supplemented in order to prevent [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Overweight and obesity are emerging global problems causing multiple health complications. Excessive fat tissue content leads to chronic inflammation, which is why antioxidative compounds that could potentially reduce these processes are possible agents that could be supplemented in order to prevent metabolic complications of overweight and obesity. Apples and dwarf kiwis are good sources of antioxidative agents such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid. The aim of this study was to assess if apple and dwarf kiwi nutraceutical supplementation can improve the metabolic parameters of overweight adults. (2) Methods: 43 participants were enrolled in the double-blinded pilot study: 21 in the supplementation group and 22 in the placebo group. The one 1000 mg nutraceutical capsule contained 10% Chopin apple peel extract, 10% whole dwarf kiwi fruit extract, 75% Chopin apple core extract, and 5% rapeseed peptides. The supplementation group received two capsules/day for 60 days. (3) Results: The supplementation of the apple and kiwi product resulted in a lowering of ALT in the supplementation group (from 29.65 ± 19.02 UI/L to 23.80 ± 13.76 UI/L; p = 0.01). Subgroup analysis in men and women showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol level (from 220.15 ± 36.69 mg/dL to 208.43 ± 37.09 mg/dL; p = 0.04), non-HDL cholesterol (from 161.17 ± 41.00 mg/dL to 145.69 ± 41.75 mg/dL; p = 0.02) and ALT (from 25.41 ± 12.05 UI/L to 19.07 ± 6.13 UI/L; p = 0.01) in women and triglycerides levels (from 212.74 ± 127.15 mg/dL to 155.63 ± 80.61 mg/dL; p = 0.047) in men. (4) Conclusions: The supplementation of nutraceuticals from apples and dwarf kiwi led to improvements in lipid profile. It can be a possible new agent for counteracting overweight metabolic complications, however, larger group studies and more detailed tests are needed to support these preliminary findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods)
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15 pages, 966 KiB  
Article
Low Relative Handgrip Strength Is Associated with a High Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Italian Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Samantha Maurotti, Roberta Pujia, Elisa Mazza, Maria Francesca Pileggi, Franco Arturi, Maria Grazia Tarsitano, Tiziana Montalcini, Arturo Pujia and Yvelise Ferro
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12489; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212489 - 19 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the presence of low muscle mass (sarcopenia) represent noteworthy health issues. Handgrip strength, a muscle function indicator, is vital for sarcopenia diagnosis. We investigated the link between handgrip strength and hepatic steatosis in Italian adults. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the presence of low muscle mass (sarcopenia) represent noteworthy health issues. Handgrip strength, a muscle function indicator, is vital for sarcopenia diagnosis. We investigated the link between handgrip strength and hepatic steatosis in Italian adults. Methods: We retrospectively assessed 388 adults (≥50 years), measuring muscle function and hepatic steatosis using a dynamometer and transient elastography. We divided participants into handgrip strength tertiles. Results: 207 had NAFLD. The lowest handgrip strength tertile had a higher NAFLD prevalence (64% vs. 46%, p = 0.02). Tertiles I and II exhibited increased odds of NAFLD in comparison to tertile III, with an odds ratio of 5.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.24–12.57, p < 0.001) and 2.56 (95% confidence interval: 1.17–5.59, p = 0.01), respectively. rHGS predicted NAFLD with an AUC of 0.41 (SE = 0.029, p = 0.003). An rHGS of 1.22 achieved 18% sensitivity and 80% specificity for hepatic steatosis prediction. Conclusion: Low handgrip strength is linked to an increased susceptibility to NAFLD among the Italian population, implying its potential utility in the identification of risk for hepatic steatosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods)
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19 pages, 1281 KiB  
Article
Patients with Chronic Coronary Syndrome Can Benefit from Consumption of Enriched Chicken Eggs: The Effects on Microvascular Function, Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Oxidative Status—Randomized Clinical Study
by Željka Breškić Ćurić, Ana Stupin, Ana Marija Masle, Petar Šušnjara, Nataša Kozina, Zrinka Mihaljević, Ivana Jukić, Aleksandar Kibel, Nikolina Kolobarić, Brankica Juranić, Diana Nejašmić, Anita Šporec, Marija Lovrić, Kristina Selthofer-Relatić and Ines Drenjančević
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12442; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212442 - 17 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The aim of this clinical study was to determine the impact of the consumption of chicken eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, vitamin E, and lutein on micro- and macrovascular endothelium-dependent dilation, inflammation biomarkers, and oxidative stress levels in participants with [...] Read more.
The aim of this clinical study was to determine the impact of the consumption of chicken eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, vitamin E, and lutein on micro- and macrovascular endothelium-dependent dilation, inflammation biomarkers, and oxidative stress levels in participants with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study that included 30 CCS participants (9 women, 21 men) randomized into the control group (N = 15), who ate ordinary chicken eggs (three per day), and the Nutri4 group (N = 15), who ate enriched eggs (three per day) for 21 days. Microvascular and macrovascular endothelium-dependent vasodilation was evaluated by measuring forearm skin post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and acetylcholine-induced dilation (AChID) and the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, respectively. The serum lipid profile, anti- and proinflammatory cytokine levels, serum concentration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured before and after the diet protocols. Enriched, but not regular, chicken eggs significantly improved microvascular PORH and AChID and macrovascular FMD, increased the serum concentration of inducible NOS, decreased serum triglyceride levels, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A and TGF-1β levels compared to initial measurements. Patients with CCS can benefit from the consumption of enriched chicken eggs due to improved lipid biomarkers, a more favorable anti-inflammatory milieu, and improved vascular relaxation at micro- and macrovascular levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods)
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Review

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53 pages, 2033 KiB  
Review
Smart Solutions for Diet-Related Disease Management: Connected Care, Remote Health Monitoring Systems, and Integrated Insights for Advanced Evaluation
by Laura-Ioana Coman, Marilena Ianculescu, Elena-Anca Paraschiv, Adriana Alexandru and Ioana-Anca Bădărău
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062351 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
The prevalence of diet-related diseases underscores the imperative for innovative management approaches. The deployment of smart solutions signifies a paradigmatic evolution, capitalising on advanced technologies to enhance precision and efficacy. This paper aims to present and explore smart solutions for the management of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of diet-related diseases underscores the imperative for innovative management approaches. The deployment of smart solutions signifies a paradigmatic evolution, capitalising on advanced technologies to enhance precision and efficacy. This paper aims to present and explore smart solutions for the management of diet-related diseases, focusing on leveraging advanced technologies, such as connected care, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), and remote health monitoring systems (RHMS), to address the rising prevalence of diet-related diseases. This transformative approach is exemplified in case studies focusing on tailored RHMS capabilities. This paper aims to showcase the potential of three RHMS in introducing a novel evaluation method and their customisation for proactive management of conditions influenced by dietary habits. The RO-SmartAgeing System uniquely addresses age-related aspects, providing an integrated approach that considers the long-term impact of dietary choices on ageing, marking an advanced perspective in healthcare. The NeuroPredict Platform, leveraging complex neuroinformatics, enhances the understanding of connections between brain health, nutrition, and overall well-being, contributing novel insights to healthcare assessments. Focused on liver health monitoring, the HepatoConect system delivers real-time data for personalized dietary recommendations, offering a distinctive approach to disease management. By integrating cutting-edge technologies, these smart solutions transcend traditional healthcare boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods)
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16 pages, 645 KiB  
Review
Argininemia: Pathophysiology and Novel Methods for Evaluation of the Disease
by Despoina Nteli, Maria Nteli, Konstantinos Konstantinidis, Anastasia Foka, Foteini Charisi, Iliana Michailidou, Sotiria Stavropoulou De Lorenzo, Marina Boziki, Maria Tzitiridou-Chatzopoulou, Evangelia Spandou, Constantina Simeonidou, Christos Bakirtzis and Evangelia Kesidou
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041647 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Argininemia or arginase-1 deficiency constitutes a rare, genetic, metabolic disorder caused by mutations in arginase 1—the last enzyme of the urea cycle—that hydrolyses L-arginine to ornithine and urea. The disease is associated with progressive development of spasticity and other symptoms, including seizures, developmental [...] Read more.
Argininemia or arginase-1 deficiency constitutes a rare, genetic, metabolic disorder caused by mutations in arginase 1—the last enzyme of the urea cycle—that hydrolyses L-arginine to ornithine and urea. The disease is associated with progressive development of spasticity and other symptoms, including seizures, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and hepatic pathology. The present review attempts to summarize the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of the disease and highlight novel methods for its evaluation. Different factors, such as the accumulation of arginine, ammonia, and guanidino compounds, act as neurotoxins and may account for the neurological sequelae observed in the disease. New markers, such as arginine/ornithine ratio along with metabolomics, machine learning algorithms, and genetic methods, can be useful in the early diagnosis of argininemia, while mobile phone apps can assist argininemic patients in adhering to the strict diet required. Neurophysiology, multi-modal imaging, and new modelling methods, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, hold promise for providing new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. There are still many uncertainties regarding the underlying mechanisms of argininemia, but the use of novel modelling methods and new technology can lead to the decipherment of its pathophysiology, improvement of diagnostic accuracy, and better disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet-Related Diseases: Pathophysiology and Novel Evaluation Methods)
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