Cryogenic Liquid Storage, Transportation and Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Fluid Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 2990

Special Issue Editors

Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: liquid hydrogen storage; thermal insulation technique; energy storage technique; cold energy recovery
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
Interests: heat and mass transfer; energy-efficient heat pump; ejector cooling; computational fluid dynamics; green building
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
Interests: cryogenic fluid flow and heat transfer; fluid sloshing; HVAC and refrigeration; underground energy storage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the coming years, cryogenic liquids will play more important roles in supplying clean fuels, renewable energy storage and frontier science research. The storage, transportation and application of cryogenic liquids (such as liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid natural gas and liquid nitrogen) are being paid more attention because complicated thermophysical problems, new materials, and even economic and safety issues need more investigation. Therefore, this Special Issue aims to present the recent advances in technologies and practical engineering about the storage, transportation and application of cryogenic liquids.

This Special Issue will publish high-quality, original research papers. Topics that are relevant to cryogenic liquid storage, transportation and applications include, but are not limited to:

  • Economic assessment of cryogenic engineering on cryogen storage and transportation;
  • Safety issues around cryogenic liquid storage, transportation and applications;
  • Simulation and experimental studies on cryogenic liquid storage and transportation;
  • Monitoring and control in fields of cryogen storage and transportation;
  • High-vacuum-based thermal insulation technologies;
  • New materials for liquid hydrogen processing.

Dr. Hongbo Tan
Dr. Jia Yan
Dr. Zhan Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cryogenic liquid storage and transportation
  • thermodynamic analysis
  • economic analysis
  • mechanical analysis
  • safety issues
  • simulation based on computed fluid dynamics
  • thermal management
  • new materials

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 6347 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on the Large-Volume Liquid Hydrogen Release in an Open Space
by Zhao Zhang, Gang Lei, Ruofan Sun, Liang Pu, Tianxiang Wang, Wei Dong, Qiang Chen, Qiufan Wei, Mu Liu, Yongchen He, Zhi Zheng and Shengqi Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(9), 3645; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14093645 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Liquid hydrogen is one of the high-quality energy carriers, but a large leak of liquid hydrogen can pose significant safety risks. Understanding its diffusion law after accidental leakage is an important issue for the safe utilization of hydrogen energy. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
Liquid hydrogen is one of the high-quality energy carriers, but a large leak of liquid hydrogen can pose significant safety risks. Understanding its diffusion law after accidental leakage is an important issue for the safe utilization of hydrogen energy. In this paper, a series of open-space large-volume liquid hydrogen release experiments are performed to observe the evolution of visible clouds during the release, and an array of hydrogen concentration sensors is set up to monitor the fluctuation in hydrogen concentration at different locations. Based on the experimental conditions, the diffusion of hydrogen clouds in the atmosphere under different release hole diameters and different ground materials is compared. The results show that with the release of liquid hydrogen, the white visible cloud formed by air condensation or solidification is generated rapidly and spread widely, and the visible cloud is most obvious near the ground. With the termination of liquid hydrogen release, solid air is deposited on the ground, and the visible clouds gradually shrink from the far field to the release source. Hydrogen concentration fluctuations in the far field in the case of the cobblestone ground are more dependent on spontaneous diffusion by the hydrogen concentration gradient. In addition, compared with the concrete ground, the cobblestone ground has greater resistance to liquid hydrogen extension; the diffusion of hydrogen clouds to the far field lags. The rapid increase stage of hydrogen concentration at N8 in Test 7 lags about 3 s behind N12 in Test 6, N3 lags about 7.5 s behind N1, and N16 lags about 8.25 s behind N14. The near-source space is prone to high-concentration hydrogen clouds. The duration of the high-concentration hydrogen cloud at N12 is about 15 s, which is twice as long as the duration at N8, increasing the safety risk of the near-source space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryogenic Liquid Storage, Transportation and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4098 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Theoretical Study on Operation Characteristics of an Oscillating Heat Pipe
by Yunzhi Ling, Xiaozhao Li, Xiaosong Zhang, Zhan Liu and Peng Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8479; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148479 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
An oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is an effective heat transfer device for the thermal management of electronic devices. However, the heat transfer mechanism of the OHP was not fully understood due to its complicated operation characteristics. In this paper, the thermal performance of [...] Read more.
An oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is an effective heat transfer device for the thermal management of electronic devices. However, the heat transfer mechanism of the OHP was not fully understood due to its complicated operation characteristics. In this paper, the thermal performance of an OHP was experimentally studied. The condensation and evaporation temperature variations were monitored under different heat inputs and were then used to evaluate the OHP system operating characteristics. Thermal resistance was used as a key parameter to evaluate the thermal performance of the OHP system. The results indicated that as the heat input increased from 25 to 100 W, the average thermal resistance decreased while the stable evaporating and condensing temperatures increased. The equivalent heat transfer coefficient was derived theoretically. It showed that the reciprocal of the radial heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing liquid film thickness. Based on this result, an empirical correlation was proposed to evaluate the thermal resistance of an OHP system. This correlation was validated using both the experimental data provided in this study and the data collected from the open literature. The comparison results indicated that the proposed empirical correlation could reasonably predict the thermal resistance under different filling ratios and heat inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryogenic Liquid Storage, Transportation and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
Determination of Hydrogen’s Thermophysical Properties Using a Statistical Thermodynamic Method
by Zhangliang Xu, Hongbo Tan and Hao Wu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7466; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137466 - 24 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Accurate determination of the thermophysical properties of hydrogen is a crucial issue in hydrogen system design. By developing computational programs, a statistical thermodynamic model based on fundamental equations of state was implemented to determine hydrogen’s thermophysical properties, including the ortho-hydrogen fraction in equilibrium [...] Read more.
Accurate determination of the thermophysical properties of hydrogen is a crucial issue in hydrogen system design. By developing computational programs, a statistical thermodynamic model based on fundamental equations of state was implemented to determine hydrogen’s thermophysical properties, including the ortho-hydrogen fraction in equilibrium hydrogen, para-ortho hydrogen conversion heat, isobaric heat capacities and enthalpies. The deviations of calculated para-hydrogen enthalpies from REFPROP data were within 2.22%, ranging from 20 K to 300 K at 0.1 MPa, and within 2.32% between 100 K and 1500 K at pressures from 0.1 MPa to 20 MPa. To quantitatively assess the convenience of the statistical thermodynamic method, the running speeds of programs with different methods for determining hydrogen’s thermophysical properties were compared. The time required for statistical thermodynamic calculation was 7.95% that required for treading REFPROP data when the performance of the variable density multilayer insulation combined with a one vapor-cooled shield and para-ortho hydrogen conversion was calculated. The programs developed based on the statistical thermodynamic method can be used to determine the thermophysical properties of hydrogen or other fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryogenic Liquid Storage, Transportation and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop