Recent Developments, Emerging Trends and Technologies for Optical Networks

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 7323

Special Issue Editors

Central Chamber for Telecommunication Metrology (Z-12), National Institute of Telecommunications, 04-894 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: modeling and optimization of communication networks; algorithm design; optical networking; 5G transport networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: optical fibers; optical fiber components; fiber optic metrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Computer Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: network optimization; novel internet architecture; energy-efficiency strategies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For many years, we have been observing a continuous increase in the demand for progress in the development of telecommunications networks in order to ensure the ability to carry of more and more traffic at high speed, reliability, and energy efficiency. To meet these requirements, a lot of research is carried out in the field of optical networks and components, including fiber-optic, converged, optical wireless networks, as well as free space communication technologies.

In this Special Issue, we invite article submissions presenting recent trends and advances in the research concerning optical networking as well as photonic technologies utilized in telecommunications. Both theoretical and experimental studies related to the physical and network layers are welcome, as well as comprehensive reviews and survey papers, which cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks;
  • Optical networks for 5G and beyond;
  • Free space optics and visible light communications;
  • Converged optical wireless networking;
  • Optical data center interconnections;
  • Passive optical networks;
  • Software-defined optical networks;
  • Novel node and network architectures;
  • Advances in optical network modelling and optimization;
  • Machine learning and data analytics techniques for optical networks;
  • Quantum technologies in optical networks;
  • Photonic integrated circuits;
  • Passive and active components and devices;
  • Novel optical fibers for future fiber optic communications;
  • Coherent fiber optic communications;
  • Advanced modulation and multiplexing techniques.

Prof. Dr. Mirosław Klinkowski
Prof. Dr. Tomasz Osuch
Prof. Dr. Davide Careglio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • optical networking
  • spectrally/spatially flexible optical networks
  • optical fronthaul, midhaul, and backhaul in 5G networks
  • free-space optical communications
  • visible light communications
  • data center networking
  • softwarization, virtualization, and automation of optical networks
  • optical access networks
  • quantum communications
  • opitcal node and network architectures
  • modelling and optimization of optical networks
  • machine learning and data analytics for optical networks
  • photonic integrated circuits
  • passive/active fiber optic components
  • passive/active devices
  • optical fibers
  • modulation and multiplexing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 3225 KiB  
Article
On the Impact of Wavelength Dependency on Supercontinuum Generation in Photonic Crystal Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041429 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
It is common practice when simulating propagation through an optical fiber to assume that its characteristic parameters are constant and determined solely by the central wavelength of the input pulse. In this paper, we propose a study of the impact that the actual [...] Read more.
It is common practice when simulating propagation through an optical fiber to assume that its characteristic parameters are constant and determined solely by the central wavelength of the input pulse. In this paper, we propose a study of the impact that the actual wavelength dependence of these parameters has on the propagation results. To this end, simulations were carried out considering both the constant model and the wavelength-dependent model, applying them to the case of the especially sensitive effect of supercontinuous generation in a photonic crystal fiber. The results showed differences of up to 20% of the spectrum and, hence, the importance of taking into account the wavelength dependence of the dispersion fiber parameters to obtain more-realistic results in the simulations. Full article
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16 pages, 3412 KiB  
Article
Cost-Aware Optimization of Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers Placement in Packet-Optical xHaul Access Networks
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4862; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084862 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
This work concentrates on the problem of optimizing the cost of a passive wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network used as a transport network for carrying the xHaul packet traffic between a set of remote radio sites and a central hub in a [...] Read more.
This work concentrates on the problem of optimizing the cost of a passive wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network used as a transport network for carrying the xHaul packet traffic between a set of remote radio sites and a central hub in a 5G radio access network (RAN). In this scope, we investigate the flexible use of optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) for the aggregation of traffic from a number of remote sites, where the type/capacity of optical devices—OADMs and optical multiplexers (MUXs)—is selected in accordance with the traffic demand. The approach is referred to as Flex-O. To this end, we formulate the xHaul network planning problem consisting in the joint provisioning of transmission paths (TPs) between the remote sites and the hub with optimized selection and placement of OADMs on the paths and proper selection of MUXs at the ends of the TPs. The problem formulation takes into accounts the optical power budget that limits the maximum transmission distance in a function of the amount and type of optical devices installed on the TPs. The network planning problem is modeled and solved as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization problem. Several network scenarios are analyzed to evaluate the cost savings from the flexible (optimized) use of OADMs. The scenarios differ in terms of the availability of OADMs and the capacity of the WDM devices applied on the TPs. The numerical experiments performed in three mesh networks of different size show that the cost savings of up to between 35 and 45% can be achieved if the selection of OADMs is optimized comparing to the networks in which either single-type OADMs are used or the OADMs are not applied. Full article
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16 pages, 5071 KiB  
Article
Capacity Enhancement Analysis of an OAM-OFDM-SMM Multiplexed Free Space Communication System in Atmospheric Turbulence
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063897 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
To overcome atmospheric turbulence (AT) distortion during signal propagation through the optical link, orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode states employing multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) techniques have recently gained prominence in free space optical communication (FSO). As the various OAM modes propagate [...] Read more.
To overcome atmospheric turbulence (AT) distortion during signal propagation through the optical link, orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode states employing multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) techniques have recently gained prominence in free space optical communication (FSO). As the various OAM modes propagate through the free space optical link, signal attenuation and crosstalk may occur, reducing system capacity and increasing the likelihood of bit errors. In this work, our objective is to propose a spectrally efficient, high-speed and channel capacity efficient crosstalk FSO communication system by combining the features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), spatial mode multiplexing (SMM), and a mode diversity scheme into an existing OAM-FSO communication system. The incorporation of the OFDM-MIMO concept and spatial mode diversity into the existing OAM-MIMO-FSO system is extremely beneficial in enhancing the transmission capacity, mitigating multipath fading and atmospheric turbulence distortions. The Gamma–Gamma (GG) model is used to assess the performance of the proposed system under various atmospheric turbulence conditions in terms of the performance metrics such as BER vs. number of OAM states for different refractive index structure and Rytov constants, link distance, and an optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). A FEC limit of 3.8 × 10−3 and a maximum link distance of 2 km are set to evaluate these performance parameters. Finally, the transmission capacity of the proposed system is compared to that of the existing MIMO and OAM-SMM-MIMO systems for different OSNR values under atmospheric turbulence conditions for the OAM state of l = +1, yielding an overall improvement of 3.3 bits/s/Hz compared to conventional MIMO systems and 1.6 bits/s/Hz for the OAM-SMM-MIMO system. Full article
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14 pages, 5746 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Hybrid PDM-SAC-OCDMA-Enabled FSO Transmission Using ZCC Codes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052860 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The need for a high-speed transmission network has become essential due to the exponential increase in traffic. In this paper, a free-space-optics (FSO) link modelled by integrating two multiplexing techniques, i.e., spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) using zero cross correlation [...] Read more.
The need for a high-speed transmission network has become essential due to the exponential increase in traffic. In this paper, a free-space-optics (FSO) link modelled by integrating two multiplexing techniques, i.e., spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) using zero cross correlation (ZCC) codes and polarization division multiplexing (PDM), is proposed. On the X-polarization (XPolar) state, three users with three different ZCC codes are transmitted. In addition, another three users with the same ZCC codes are transmitted on the Y-polarization (YPolar) state. Each user carries 20 Gbps of information. Weather conditions, such as clear, fog, and snowfall, are considered when assessing the efficacy of our suggested model. The results exhibit 120 Gbps transmission at 10 km under clear weather. For foggy weather, the propagation range varies from 1.6 km to 0.76 km according to the density of the fog. Moreover, the system can transport information up to 1.2 km during wet snowfall, though this range decreases to 0.26 km under dry snowfall showing that the highest attenuation is caused by dry snowfall weather conditions. The achieved ranges are obtained with a bit error rate 109 and Q-factor greater than 6. Consequently, this proposed FSO model is suggested for use in 5G and 6G high speed transmission networks. Full article
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21 pages, 2045 KiB  
Article
Routing, Modulation Format, Spatial Lane, and Spectrum Block Assignment in Static Spatial Channel Networks
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042105 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Spatial channel networks (SCNs) and related key technologies have been proposed to increase the capacity and flexibility of optical networks. We define the network resource allocation problem in a static SCN as the routing, modulation format (MF), spatial lane, and spectrum block assignment [...] Read more.
Spatial channel networks (SCNs) and related key technologies have been proposed to increase the capacity and flexibility of optical networks. We define the network resource allocation problem in a static SCN as the routing, modulation format (MF), spatial lane, and spectrum block assignment (RMSSA) problem and try to solve it. In this paper, we derive the relationship between the traffic bit rate, the transmission distance of optical channels, and MFs in SCNs, and obtain the adoption method of MFs. In addition, we introduce conversion nodes (CNs) into SCNs to perform a modulation format conversion (MFC) for more efficient use of network resources. Moreover, the RMSSA problem in static SCNs is modeled, and heuristic spatial lane and spectrum block minimization based on simulated annealing (LBMSA) algorithm is proposed to solve the RMSSA problem. Simulation results show that when the throughput of SCNs is small, the LBMSA algorithm can carry traffic requests with the least amount of network resources and maximize the network resource utilization. When the network throughput is high, the LBMSA algorithm is more inclined to carry all requests rather than efficient transmission. We also show that network resource utilization can be improved with the LBMSA algorithm by setting CNs to perform the MFC. Full article
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Review

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45 pages, 10364 KiB  
Review
Hollow-Core Optical Fibers for Telecommunications and Data Transmission
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10699; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910699 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Hollow-core optical fibers (HCFs) have unique properties like low latency, negligible optical nonlinearity, wide low-loss spectrum, up to 2100 nm, the ability to carry high power, and potentially lower loss then solid-core single-mode fibers (SMFs). These features make them very promising for communication [...] Read more.
Hollow-core optical fibers (HCFs) have unique properties like low latency, negligible optical nonlinearity, wide low-loss spectrum, up to 2100 nm, the ability to carry high power, and potentially lower loss then solid-core single-mode fibers (SMFs). These features make them very promising for communication networks and similar applications. However, this class of fibers is still in development. Current applications are almost exclusively limited to low-latency data links for High-Speed Trading (HST); other uses are in the trial stage now. In this paper, we comprehensively review the progress in the development of HCFs including fiber design, fabrication and parameters (with comparisons to conventional single-mode fibers) and support technologies like splicing and testing. A variety of HCF applications in future telecom networks and systems is analyzed, pointing out their strengths and limitations. Additionally, we review the influence of filler gas and entry of contaminants on HCF attenuation, and propose a new fusion splicing technique, avoiding the destruction of the fiber’s photonic cladding at high temperature. Full article
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