Natural Products: Sources and Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical and Molecular Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 19857

Special Issue Editors

Centre of Marine Sciences—CCMAR, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: marine biotechnology; halophyte plants; medicinal plants; natural products; marine biology; bioactive compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Centre of Marine Sciences—CCMAR, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: natural products; medicinal plants; halophytes; biological activities; bioactive molecules; biotechnological applications; saline cultivation; in vitro propagation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature has always been a source of products for humankind. Natural products have played a key role in drug discovery, in the development of new foods and feeds, and in the search for novel pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients, among other applications. In recent years, interest in natural products has been revitalized due to technological and scientific developments (such as improved analytical tools) that address previous challenges regarding screening, isolation, and characterization and open up new opportunities. Natural products continue to be an everlasting source of bioactive molecules and this Special Issue on “Natural Products: Sources and Applications” aims to provide researchers with an opportunity to publish studies on natural products in view of their vast potential biotechnological applications in all fields of science. Submissions from scientists and academics from across the world are welcome.

Dr. Catarina Guerreiro Pereira
Dr. Maria João Rodrigues
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural products
  • biological activities
  • bioactive molecules
  • commercial applications
  • industrial applications

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Iberis sempervirens: Antiproliferative Potential from Our Garden
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010346 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Glucosinolates (GSLs) extracted from various parts of Iberis sempervirens L., including seeds, stems, leaves, and flowers, were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The analyses of GSLs were performed by their desulfo counterparts using the UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS technique and by their volatile breakdown products, isothiocyanates, using [...] Read more.
Glucosinolates (GSLs) extracted from various parts of Iberis sempervirens L., including seeds, stems, leaves, and flowers, were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The analyses of GSLs were performed by their desulfo counterparts using the UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS technique and by their volatile breakdown products, isothiocyanates, using the GC-MS technique. The GSL profile comprised various types, including those derived from: methionine, represented by methylsulfinylalkyl GSL (glucoiberin), and methylsulfanylalkyl GSL (glucoibervirin and glucoerucin); phenylalanine (glucotropaeolin); and tryptophan (4-methoxyglucobrassicin). Among these, the highest level of glucoiberin was detected in the leaves, reaching 35.37 µmol/g of dry weight (DW), while the highest level of glucoibervirin was detected in the seeds, reaching 18.51 µmol/g DW. To obtain GSL breakdown products, a variety of isolation methods were employed, including hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus (HD), CH2Cl2 after myrosinase hydrolysis for 24 h (EXT), microwave-assisted distillation (MAD), and microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG). Volatile isolates were tested for their antiproliferative activity using an MTT assay against the human lung cancer cell line A549 and the human bladder cancer cell line T24 during an incubation period of 72 h. HD and MAD showed the best activity against T24, with IC50 values of 0.61 µg/mL and 0.62 µg/mL, respectively, while EXT was the most effective against the A549 cell line, with an IC50 of 1.46 µg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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21 pages, 2549 KiB  
Article
Roasting Extract of Handroanthus impetiginosus Enhances Its Anticancer Activity in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Improves Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Normal Cells
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13171; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413171 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
The family Bignoniaceae includes Handroanthus impetiginosus trees, which are sparsely distributed in the northeast of Brazil. Natural products play a vital role in the discovery of drugs for various diseases. Many plants have been used as sources of medicines because of their chemical [...] Read more.
The family Bignoniaceae includes Handroanthus impetiginosus trees, which are sparsely distributed in the northeast of Brazil. Natural products play a vital role in the discovery of drugs for various diseases. Many plants have been used as sources of medicines because of their chemical diversity and potent bioactivity. Handroanthus impetiginosus has been used traditionally to cure a wide range of illnesses, such as cancer, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This work highlights the cytotoxicity, cell death, and routes of apoptosis in lung cancer cells (A549) and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of roasted Handroanthus impetiginosus (lapacho/taheebo) in normal cells. The cell viability assay indicated that puffing roasted taheebo is nontoxic to a normal cell line up to 500 µg/mL but significantly toxic to A549 cells. The roasted lapacho/taheebo also increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 lung cancer cells, and cellular apoptosis via a mitochondrial intrinsic pathway was confirmed. The roasted lapacho/taheebo significantly inhibited both colony formation and cell migration ability, highlighting its potential as an anticancer agent. Additionally, this study demonstrates that roasted taheebo enhanced the expression of genes for BAX accumulation and decreased Bcl-2 gene expression through the p53 signaling pathway. Furthermore, research on the anti-inflammatory properties of roasted taheebo revealed a strong NO inhibition as well as the inhibition of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, and IL-8) through the NF-κB signaling pathway. However, in H2O2-induced HaCaT cells, roasted taheebo extract significantly reduced oxidative stress by upregulating the level of expression of antioxidative markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST) at 50 μg/mL. As a result, roasted taheebo justifies investigation in animal and clinical trials as a possible source of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory substances, and anti-cancer compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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13 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Profile, Antilipase, Hemoglobin Antiglycation, Antihyperglycemic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11519; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011519 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 668
Abstract
In the present investigation, the phenolic compounds of Solanum elaeagnifolium were identified, and the plant’s anti-lipase and anti-glycation effects on hemoglobin were discovered through in vitro experiments, as well as its short-term antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The chemical compound composition was detected using [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, the phenolic compounds of Solanum elaeagnifolium were identified, and the plant’s anti-lipase and anti-glycation effects on hemoglobin were discovered through in vitro experiments, as well as its short-term antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The chemical compound composition was detected using HPLC-DAD, the anti-lipase activity was tested in vitro using 4-nitrophenyl butyrate as a substrate, and the antiglycation activity of the plant extracts was also tested in vitro using a haemoglobin model. The antihyperglycemic effect was determined by inhibiting pancreatic α-amylase and α-glycosidase activity and performing an in vivo glucose tolerance test on normal rats, and the anti-inflammatory activity was determined by inducing paw inflammation with carrageenan. In both the SEFR (fruit) and SEFE (leaf) extracts, chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, rutin, and quercetin. SEFR inhibited the pancreatic lipase enzyme more effectively, with an IC50 of 0.106 ± 0.00 mg/mL. S. elaeagnifolium extracts demonstrated significant antiglycation activity, with 3.990 ± 0.23 mg/mL of SEFE and 3.997 ± 0.14 mg/mL of SEFR. When compared to positive and negative controls, plant extracts had very significant anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings in this study and previous research on this plant encourage us to investigate other pharmacological activities of this plant besides its duiretic, cictrisant, and anti-ulcer activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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10 pages, 1161 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Antimicrobial Potential of Acorn Extracts (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber)
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6820; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116820 - 04 Jun 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Acorns, frequently left uncollected in the fields, have been a part of the traditional medicine of different cultures. Among the different properties associated with them, their antimicrobial potential is of particular importance. However, this characterization has long been superficial and has not ventured [...] Read more.
Acorns, frequently left uncollected in the fields, have been a part of the traditional medicine of different cultures. Among the different properties associated with them, their antimicrobial potential is of particular importance. However, this characterization has long been superficial and has not ventured into other topics such as biofilm inhibition. Thus, the current work aimed to characterize the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of an array of phenolic rich extracts attained from acorns, two different acorn varieties Q. ilex and Q. suber, considering the fruit and shell separately, fresh and after heat-treating the acorns to aid in the shelling process. To accomplish this, the extracts’ capacity to inhibit an array of different microorganisms was evaluated, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined, time-death curves were drawn whenever an MBC was found and the antibiofilm potential of the most effective extracts was drawn. The overall results showed that Gram-positive microorganisms were the most susceptible out of all the microorganisms tested, with the shell extracts being the most effective overall, exhibiting bactericidal effect against S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes as well as being capable of inhibiting biofilm formation via the two S. aureus strains. The attained results demonstrated that acorn extracts, particularly shell extracts, pose an interesting antimicrobial activity which could be exploited in an array of food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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13 pages, 3168 KiB  
Article
Improvement Effect of Membrane-Free Stem Cell Extract on Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4542; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074542 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Membrane-free stem cell extract (MFSCE) derived from adipose tissue has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MFSCE on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin inflammation using house-dust-mite-sensitized NC/Nga mice. Topical application of MFSCE significantly ameliorated AD-like [...] Read more.
Membrane-free stem cell extract (MFSCE) derived from adipose tissue has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MFSCE on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin inflammation using house-dust-mite-sensitized NC/Nga mice. Topical application of MFSCE significantly ameliorated AD-like clinical symptoms including erythema, dry skin, edema, excoriation, erosion, lichenification, and scratching. In addition, the levels of serum immunoglobulin E and inflammatory cytokines were decreased by MFSCE treatment. Furthermore, treatment with MFSCE inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness, infiltration of mast cells, expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, thymus, and activation-regulated chemokines in the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice. In conclusion, MFSCE effectively suppressed AD-like manifestations preclinically, systemically, and topically. Our study suggests that MFSCE may be a useful natural product for AD therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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52 pages, 1883 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Indigenous Plants Knowledge among Traditional Healers in Eastern Morocco: Quali-Quantitative Approach (Part I)
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12773; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412773 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Background: This is the first ethnobotanical study focused on medicinal plants traditionally recommended by traditional healers (THs) of Eastern Morocco. In this work, we documented the medicinal plants recommended by THs and highlighted the value and importance of medicinal plants recommended by specialist [...] Read more.
Background: This is the first ethnobotanical study focused on medicinal plants traditionally recommended by traditional healers (THs) of Eastern Morocco. In this work, we documented the medicinal plants recommended by THs and highlighted the value and importance of medicinal plants recommended by specialist healers. Methods: A quali-quantitative ethnobotanical method has been performed, snowball sampling and structured interviews were used to evaluate the traditional plant knowledge by traditional healers in the study area. Species identification was performed and verified from the African Plant Database and Plant List. Two Relative Cultural Importance indices were used for this analysis “Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Frequency of Citation (FC)”. Results: A total of 135 plants were inventoried in our surveys. These species belong to 64 families and were reported to be used to treat 23 different categories of ailments. The botanical profile of the plants listed is dominated by LAMIACEAE’s Family with 12 species, followed by FABACEAE (11 species) and ASTERACEAE (10 species). In the category of the digestive system, nutrition problems and nervous system problems seem to be the predominant diseases treated. The Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) results indicated that cancer and gastrointestinal disorders had a higher concordance among informants (ICF = 0.60 and 0.58 respectively). Conclusion: Our results, showed that the Traditional healers, in Eastern Morocco, hold impressive knowledge related to the use of medicinal plants. This observation is reflected in the high number of medicinal plants recommended for the medication of the population. Furthermore, the consistency of healers in this area of study is justified by the ICF values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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28 pages, 3772 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Potential Anticancer Properties of Salvia triloba in Human-Osteosarcoma U2OS Cell Line and Ovarian Adenocarcinoma SKOV3 Cell Line
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211545 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2050
Abstract
Salvia triloba (S. triloba) is an herb inherently linked to traditional medicine systems in the Eastern Mediterranean region. There is minimal experimental evidence however, regarding the anticancer effects of S. triloba in both osteosarcoma and ovarian cancer. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Salvia triloba (S. triloba) is an herb inherently linked to traditional medicine systems in the Eastern Mediterranean region. There is minimal experimental evidence however, regarding the anticancer effects of S. triloba in both osteosarcoma and ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of crude (macerated) S. triloba ethanol and acetone leaf extracts on viability, migratory ability, and the expression of genes regulating these activities in U2OS and SKOV3 cells using MTT assay, scratch-wound healing/trans-well migration assay, and RT-qPCR respectively. MTT assay results indicated that the acetone extract significantly reduced both U2OS and SKOV3 cell viability with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 54.51 ± 1.10 µg/mL and 75.96 ± 1.0237 µg/mL respectively; these concentrations further displayed negligible hemolytic activity. The combination of acetone extract (19 µg/mL) and paclitaxel (0.787 µg/mL) displayed synergy and reduced SKOV3 cell viability by over 90%. Additionally, the trans-well migration assay illustrated that the acetone extract (IC50) inhibited both U2OS and SKOV3 cell migration by more than 50%. Moreover, S. triloba acetone extract significantly downregulated the steady-state mRNA expression of key genes involved in driving select cancer hallmarks. Four fractions were generated from the acetone extract by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the obtained retention factors (Rf) (ranging from 0.2 to 0.8) suggested a mixture of high and moderately polar compounds whose bioactivities require further investigation. In addition, FTIR measurements of the extract revealed peaks corresponding to OH, aliphatic CH, and ester groups suggesting the presence of phenolic compounds, terpenes, and polysaccharides. Altogether, these results suggest that S. triloba possesses potential therapeutic compounds that inhibit cell proliferation and migration, and modulate several genes involved in osteosarcoma and ovarian carcinoma progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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13 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Crude Polysaccharide Fraction from Rosa rugosa Thunb. Root—Chemical Characterisation, Enzyme Inhibitory, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activity
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10126; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910126 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Rosa rugosa Thunb. (Rosaceae) plantations can provide industrial amounts of roots, which contain many biologically active metabolites. Here, we report the first studies of the chemical composition and pharmacological potential of a crude polysaccharide fraction obtained from R. rugosa roots (CPL-Rx). [...] Read more.
Rosa rugosa Thunb. (Rosaceae) plantations can provide industrial amounts of roots, which contain many biologically active metabolites. Here, we report the first studies of the chemical composition and pharmacological potential of a crude polysaccharide fraction obtained from R. rugosa roots (CPL-Rx). It was found that the roots contained water-soluble and -insoluble sugars, including a large amount of β-glucans (12.95 ± 0.30 g/100 g). The water-soluble fraction was found to be mostly composed of sugars (28.94 ± 0.01%), uronic acids (2.61 ± 0.41%), and polyphenols (4.55 ± 0.12%). High-performance capillary electrophoresis analysis showed that glucose was the prevalent monosaccharide (64.31%), followed by a smaller amount of galactose (11.77%), fructose (11.36%), and arabinose (4.27%). SDS-PAGE followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of unbound protein identified as protein plastid transcriptionally active 14-Like. CPL-Rx was found to inhibit the activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase and hyaluronidase) and to have antioxidant potential in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (0.302 ± 0.01 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH radical scavenging effect (EC50 3.92 ± 0.12 mg/mg DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (0.134 ± 0.10 mmol Trolox/g). It also exerted a slight antiproliferative effect on SW480 (colon) and A549 (lung) cancer cell lines. Our research provides the first insights into the composition and pharmacological application of crude polysaccharides from rugosa rose roots. It suggests that CPL-Rx may potentially be used for cosmetic and bio-medical purposes, especially as an antihyaluronidase or chemopreventive agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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17 pages, 2682 KiB  
Article
In Silico Modeling and Quantification of Synergistic Effects of Multi-Combination Compounds: Case Study of the Attenuation of Joint Pain Using a Combination of Phytonutrients
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10013; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910013 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
The quantification of synergistic effects of multi-combination compounds is critical in developing “cocktails” that are efficacious. In this research, a method for in silico modeling and the quantification of synergistic effects of multi-combination compounds is applied for assessing a combination of phytonutrients for [...] Read more.
The quantification of synergistic effects of multi-combination compounds is critical in developing “cocktails” that are efficacious. In this research, a method for in silico modeling and the quantification of synergistic effects of multi-combination compounds is applied for assessing a combination of phytonutrients for joint pain. Joint pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of arthritis. Arthritic pain leads to a reduced quality of life. This research explores the efficacy of a synergistic combination of two plant-based flavonoids—apigenin and hesperidin—on joint pain. The study employs computational systems biology: (1) to identify biomolecular mechanisms of joint pain; (2) to identify the specific effects of apigenin and hesperidin, individually and in combination, on the mechanisms of joint pain; and (3) to predict the quantitative effects of apigenin and hesperidin, individually and in combination, on joint pain and whether these combination effects are synergistic or additive. Four molecular pathways that are affected by apigenin and hesperidin include the following: (1) arachidonic acid metabolism, (2) PGE2 signaling, (3) COX-2 synthesis, and (4) oxidative stress. The combination of apigenin and hesperidin significantly lowered PGE2 production, CGRP production, TRVP-1 synthesis, COX-2 production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our results indicate that the apigenin and hesperidin combination synergistically affected four of the five modalities to attenuate joint pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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16 pages, 2323 KiB  
Article
Nephroprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur Aerial Part
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9272; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189272 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur (T. microphylla), a medicinal herb that grows in arid and desert pastures, has been traditionally utilized by Moroccans to treat many diseases, including kidney failure. This study aims to evaluate the nephroprotective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity [...] Read more.
Thymelaea microphylla Coss. et Dur (T. microphylla), a medicinal herb that grows in arid and desert pastures, has been traditionally utilized by Moroccans to treat many diseases, including kidney failure. This study aims to evaluate the nephroprotective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity (GM), and thus the antioxidant activity of an aqueous extract rich in flavonoids from the aerial part of T. microphylla (APTM). The antioxidant activity of APTM was assessed using the 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test and the β-carotene bleaching assay. The nephroprotective effect of this extract was evaluated in two doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in GM-exposed male rats. Acute toxicity of the APTM was tested out on Swiss albino mice using 2000 mg/kg as the dose limit. The findings showed that the aqueous extract of APTM is abundant in total polyphenols and flavonoids and has significant antioxidant properties against DPPH radicals and β-carotene oxidation. According to the acute toxicity research findings, the administered doses of the APTM extract do not cause toxicity and death. A significant increase in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), and alkaline phosphatase, as well as an increase in urinary volume, water consumption, and relative kidney weight, were all caused by the administration of GM to rats. In addition, a significant reduction in urinary concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, urea, and albumin, and thus the clearance of creatinine and weight gain were observed in rats injected with GM. Also, the administration of GM dramatically raised the malondialdehyde level in the kidneys. Likewise, rats that had been poisoned with GM had histological kidney abnormalities. However, the daily treatment of APTM aqueous extract to rats given GM injections dramatically improved the biochemical and histological parameters affected by GM administration in rats. Finally, APTM extract enhanced GM’s biochemical and histological indicators of nephrotoxicity, supporting its use as an ethnomedicinal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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9 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
The Suppressive Activity of Water Mimosa Extract on Human Gastric Cancer Cells
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6817; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136817 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have evidenced that natural dietary products can prevent or manage gastric cancer. Neptunia oleracea, an aquatic vegetable and edible plant, has been reported to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, N. oleracea extract’s suppression of gastric cancer cells was investigated [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have evidenced that natural dietary products can prevent or manage gastric cancer. Neptunia oleracea, an aquatic vegetable and edible plant, has been reported to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, N. oleracea extract’s suppression of gastric cancer cells was investigated on an in vitro experimental model. We found that ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract inhibited cell proliferation at IC50 value of 172 µg/mL. Moreover, the treatment of EtOAc extract at a concentration of 50 µg/mL for 24 h caused suppression of cancer cell migration. Notably, a real-time PCR assay revealed that EtOAc extract induced the process of apoptosis via upregulating the mRNA expression level of caspase-8, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in cancer cells. In conclusion, N. oleracea had potential anti-cancer activity against gastric cancer cells, suggesting its role in the prevention and management of gastric cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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Review

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19 pages, 767 KiB  
Review
Extraction of Dietary Fibers from Plant-Based Industry Waste: A Comprehensive Review
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9309; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169309 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2418
Abstract
The amount of waste generated by the production of food products has increased over the years, presenting economic and environmental problems. To minimize these problems, it is necessary to valorize food waste in order to explore its further utilization in the food industry [...] Read more.
The amount of waste generated by the production of food products has increased over the years, presenting economic and environmental problems. To minimize these problems, it is necessary to valorize food waste in order to explore its further utilization in the food industry and also in other industries. Such waste usually represents a valuable raw material in terms of dietary fibers or bioactive components. Dietary fibers, especially pectin, are usually derived from apple pomace or citrus peel. Currently, sources of dietary fibers include novel food waste streams and by-products. Also, the utilization of novel extraction techniques is in demand to limit conventional processes. This review provides information about the conventional and innovative extraction approaches for dietary fibers from different food wastes. The extraction of these fibers depends on the materials used and the extraction conditions, such as temperature, solvents, time, pH, and liquid/solid ratio. Novel green techniques may ensure an increase in fiber yield and better quality, as well as a reduction in operating time and toxic solvents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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12 pages, 706 KiB  
Review
Potential of Supercritical Acrocomia aculeata Oil and Its Technology Trends
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8594; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158594 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 757
Abstract
This study discusses the bioactive composition, supercritical extraction, and biological activity of Acrocomia aculeata in publications in the last ten years. Numerous compounds have been identified in A. aculeata, which include fatty acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols, discussed in this article. [...] Read more.
This study discusses the bioactive composition, supercritical extraction, and biological activity of Acrocomia aculeata in publications in the last ten years. Numerous compounds have been identified in A. aculeata, which include fatty acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols, discussed in this article. Although there are several studies with the fruit using conventional extraction to obtain oil, there are only a few involving extraction at high pressures. Therefore, this article emphasized the potential of extraction with supercritical fluid (SFC) to obtain oil due to its good selectivity, fractions distributed in terms of mass yield, and chemical composition of the obtained extracts, which provides a solvent-free product, making it safe for application in the food industry. The biological activity of A. aculeata extracts was also discussed, including antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and photoprotective effects, which can produce effects on human health. This review produces important results that can act as a basis for future studies related to obtaining bioactive compounds from A. aculeata with a high degree of purity and good quality in its applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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Other

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9 pages, 2092 KiB  
Brief Report
The Effect of Food Processing on the Antioxidant Properties of Ipomoea batatas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063723 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
It is known that heat treatment can lead to physical and chemical changes that can decrease or alter the properties of food. This work evaluated the influence on the antioxidant activity of boiling, pressure, and microwave cooking processes on three selected sweet potato [...] Read more.
It is known that heat treatment can lead to physical and chemical changes that can decrease or alter the properties of food. This work evaluated the influence on the antioxidant activity of boiling, pressure, and microwave cooking processes on three selected sweet potato varieties (purple, orange, and yellow). The samples were analyzed for total phenols and anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity. The cooking water of the boiling and pressure processing were also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the purple sweet potato had better phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity profiles than the other varieties studied. On the other hand, the yellow sweet potato was the variety that showed the lowest antioxidant activity after applying the different culinary processes. Microwave processing, particularly when applied to purple sweet potato samples, seemed to be the most suitable cooking process to extract the bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. Related to the cooking water, there were discrepancies between the behavior of different sweet potato varieties, since not all the samples followed similar profiles. In conclusion, it is necessary to study sweet potatoes processed through various cooking methods for antioxidant properties and other characteristics, such as texture, flavor, and nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Sources and Applications)
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