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Eco-Friendly Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019) | Viewed by 13902

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Interests: polymer design; polymer synthesis and characterization; polymer modification; copolymerization; solid state properties; thermal properties and crystallization kinetics; mechanical characterization; bio-based monomers; bio-based polymers; nano-polymer; nanocomposites; gas barrier behaviour; polymer compostability; biopolymers for engineering tissue; polymeric for controlled drug delivery; biodegradation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanocomposites based on polymer matrix and nanoscale fillers have appeared as good candidates for a broad range of applications.

Recent trends in the nanocomposites field show bio-based/environmentally friendly materials to be among the components in these nanocomposite materials. Particular attention has been paid to the use of bio-based/biodegradable polymers as a matrix component in nanocomposite applications, because of their great widespread potential and advantages over other traditional synthetic materials. In this view, eco-friendly nanocomposites are becoming a subject of intensive research, owing to their inherent properties such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability as well as improved structural and functional properties.

In particular, the applicability of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites to biomedical applications is a rapidly emerging area of development. One area of intense research involves electrospinning for the production of bioresorbable nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Other areas concern hemodialysis membranes; diffusion-controlling membranes; membrane carriers for enzyme immobilization in biosensors; coating materials for drugs and drug-releasing scaffolds.

Prof. Dr. Nadia Lotti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bio-based polymer
  • biodegradable polymer
  • bio-nanoscale fillers
  • biocompatibility
  • biodegradability
  • scaffold

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 6617 KiB  
Article
Nanostructured Composites of Sodium Montmorillonite Clay and PEO Used in Dissolution Improvement of Aprepitant Drug by Melt Mixing
by Christina Pappa, Stavroula Nanaki, Dimitrios Giliopoulos, Konstantinos Triantafyllidis, Margaritis Kostoglou, Apostolos Avgeropoulos and Dimitrios Bikiaris
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050786 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
In this work, aprepitant (APR) was loaded in a high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and PEO/clay nanocomposites via the melt-mixing process in order to investigate the combined effect of the PEO and PEO/clay phases on the dissolution profile of APR. Various drug (5, 10, [...] Read more.
In this work, aprepitant (APR) was loaded in a high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and PEO/clay nanocomposites via the melt-mixing process in order to investigate the combined effect of the PEO and PEO/clay phases on the dissolution profile of APR. Various drug (5, 10, 20 wt %) and Cloisite-Na+ microgranuled nanoclay (5 and 10 wt %) loadings were used for the preparation of the solid dispersions using a twin screw melt mixer at temperatures below the drug’s melting point. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR) data of the prepared formulations confirmed that the semicrystalline structure of the PEO and the structure of APR have remained intact. The PEO chain intercalation in the intragallery space between the clay nanolayers was also confirmed by XRD, especially in the APR/PEO formulations containing 5 wt % microgranuled nanoclay. The in vitro release study demonstrated that in all formulations, the dissolution rate of APR was substantially enhanced compared to neat drug. Immediate release formulations have been prepared, and the combination of PEO/5 wt % clay nanocomposite phase with 5 or 10 wt % drug loading gives much higher maximum dissolution (reaching 98 and 85%, respectively) compared to the neat drug (40%). This improved performance was attributed to the highly intercalated/exfoliated state of clay nanolayers in the APR/PEO/5 wt % clay formulations. A model was also investigated to explain the physical mechanism of drug release in all formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Friendly Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications)
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10 pages, 7194 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Investigation of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Dopamine Delivery
by Andrea Ragusa, Paola Priore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Giuseppe Ciccarella and Antonio Gaballo
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040474 - 21 Mar 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4503
Abstract
Chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) have been widely exploited for the delivery of various types of drugs due to their biocompatibility, availability, ease of functionalization and other advantages. Nevertheless, despite their wide use, their mechanism of action is not very clear and many aspects [...] Read more.
Chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) have been widely exploited for the delivery of various types of drugs due to their biocompatibility, availability, ease of functionalization and other advantages. Nevertheless, despite their wide use, their mechanism of action is not very clear and many aspects still need to be investigated in detail, with only a few studies having studied the behavior of this polymer. We prepared CS NPs encapsulating dopamine (DA) and studied the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant effect of the neurotransmitter in detail. Encapsulation of the drug and its subsequent sustained release significantly reduced the oxidation rate in vitro, thus potentially exerting neuroprotective effects. ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells was investigated through a H2O2 assay, while a deeper study of the enzymatic activity allowed us to determine the significant contribution of both GPx and SOD enzymes in preventing oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Friendly Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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30 pages, 1217 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Nanocomposites Based on Aliphatic Polyesters: Design, Synthesis, and Applications in Regenerative Medicine
by Ilaria Armentano, Matteo Gigli, Francesco Morena, Chiara Argentati, Luigi Torre and Sabata Martino
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091452 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4619
Abstract
In the last decade, biopolymer matrices reinforced with nanofillers have attracted great research efforts thanks to the synergistic characteristics derived from the combination of these two components. In this framework, this review focuses on the fundamental principles and recent progress in the field [...] Read more.
In the last decade, biopolymer matrices reinforced with nanofillers have attracted great research efforts thanks to the synergistic characteristics derived from the combination of these two components. In this framework, this review focuses on the fundamental principles and recent progress in the field of aliphatic polyester-based nanocomposites for regenerative medicine applications. Traditional and emerging polymer nanocomposites are described in terms of polymer matrix properties and synthesis methods, used nanofillers, and nanocomposite processing and properties. Special attention has been paid to the most recent nanocomposite systems developed by combining alternative copolymerization strategies with specific nanoparticles. Thermal, electrical, biodegradation, and surface properties have been illustrated and correlated with the nanoparticle kind, content, and shape. Finally, cell-polymer (nanocomposite) interactions have been described by reviewing analysis methodologies such as primary and stem cell viability, adhesion, morphology, and differentiation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Friendly Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications)
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