Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages: Analysis and Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2023) | Viewed by 9784

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, 1810 Hinman Ave., Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Interests: food microbiology; food fermentation; food safety; lactic acid bacteria; health impact of fermented food and microbiome evolution
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Guest Editor
Food and Technology Area, Institute for Mountain Agriculture and Food Technology, Research Centre Laimburg, 39040 Auer, Italy
Interests: fermentation for alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages; food fermentation; functional food compound; yeast; lactic acid bacteria; food safety; food technology; distillation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2019, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), together with a panel of experts, developed a new definition of fermented foods and described their role in the human diet, characterizing fermented foods and beverages as: “foods made through desired microbial growth and enzymatic conversions of food components”. This definition requires the activity of microorganisms. Although endogenous or exogenous enzymes from plants, animals, or other sources might be present, the activities of these enzymes alone are insufficient for a food to be regarded as fermented. The most common fermented foods and beverages require lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic acid bacteria (AAC), bacilli or other bacteria, yeasts, or filamentous fungi. This definition is sufficiently broad to include not only the fermentations noted above, but also to distinguish fermentation from its microbiological counterpart, namely food spoilage. Although both processes occur via microbial growth and enzymatic activity on food constituents, spoilage is unintentional, while fermentation is deliberate and controlled to generate desirable attributes.

The new definition of fermented foods and beverages accommodates the many products made globally from diverse starting materials. Together with the importance of food preservation and quality, current evidence suggests that diets rich in fermented foods can reduce human disease risk and enhance longevity, health, and quality of life by strengthening the immune system. In this context, we wish to promote the development and diffusion of fermented products, highlighting new theories, methods, and applications of advanced techniques for safe fermented food and beverage production.

We expect that many interesting works will be created on this topic, the results of which will be disseminated and published in this Special Issue.

Dr. Maria Luisa Savo Sardaro
Dr. Lorenza Conterno
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fermented food
  • fermented beverages
  • food fermentation
  • food safety of fermented food
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • yeast
  • health impact of fermented food and microbiome evolution

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
A Model for Probiotic Fermented Food Production
by Maria Luisa Savo Sardaro, Silvia Zaini and Katherine Ryan Amato
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11123; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011123 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
The past few decades have demonstrated how important the human gut microbiota is for human health. Because of this, the use of microbiota-modulating dietary interventions such as probiotics and prebiotics is growing in popularity amongst consumers, food manufacturers, healthcare professionals, and regulators. In [...] Read more.
The past few decades have demonstrated how important the human gut microbiota is for human health. Because of this, the use of microbiota-modulating dietary interventions such as probiotics and prebiotics is growing in popularity amongst consumers, food manufacturers, healthcare professionals, and regulators. In particular, there is interest in making a wider variety of foods with probiotic properties. However, as a solution for food manufacturers to produce fermented foods compatible with the “probiotic foods” label definition, we used an impedometric analysis to identify the survival and growth capacity of microbial strains in specific environmental contexts. Using this approach, manufacturers can more effectively select the strains with the highest growth rate for use in probiotic fermented food production trials. To provide a proof of concept, we tested three Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus probiotic strains growing in milk at different temperatures. We quantified the probiotic’s growth using species-specific primers and quantitative real-time PCR. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of this type of model in facilitating the production of probiotic fermented foods by allowing manufacturers to select strains able to grow under specific conditions. Our model can be used to develop, increase, and target the beneficial health properties of a multitude of fermented foods produced worldwide. Full article
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20 pages, 5014 KiB  
Article
Torulaspora delbrueckii Strain Behaviour within Different Refermentation Strategies for Sparkling Cider Production
by Noemi Tocci, Magdalena Egger, Philipp Hoellrigl, Christof Sanoll, Beata Beisert, Silvia Brezina, Stefanie Fritsch, Sylvia Schnell, Doris Rauhut and Lorenza Conterno
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 4015; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13064015 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Torulaspora delbrueckii is known for improving the aroma quality in wine and beer, but information for cider manufacturing is scarce. We explored the behaviour of two commercial strains of T. delbrueckii in apple juice fermentation to produce cider and sparkling cider. The influence [...] Read more.
Torulaspora delbrueckii is known for improving the aroma quality in wine and beer, but information for cider manufacturing is scarce. We explored the behaviour of two commercial strains of T. delbrueckii in apple juice fermentation to produce cider and sparkling cider. The influence of the strain, method, and strain–method interaction on the physicochemical parameters of cider was analysed by enzymatic and chromatographic assays. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and a principal component analysis. Both strains also showed regular fermentation kinetics under pressure. Ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and glycerol were produced with significant differences between strains and production methods. Then, 26 volatile compounds were identified, with higher alcohols being the quantitatively most abundant group. Strain A was associated with a higher production of methyl butanol, 2-phenyl ethanol, and butyric, propionic, and succinic acid esters, while strain B was associated with higher amounts of hexanoic acid, and acetate and valerate esters. In addition, 13 compounds showed significant differences between methods, and 14 were influenced by the method–strain interaction. Our findings encourage the further investigation of the application of T. delbrueckii as a solo player to produce ciders with a unique flavour. Full article
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14 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Malolactic Starters in White and Rosé Winemaking of Moschofilero Wines
by Maria Dimopoulou, Vicky Troianou, Spiros Paramithiotis, Niki Proksenia and Yorgos Kotseridis
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5722; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115722 - 04 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to induce malolactic fermentation (MLF) after alcoholic fermentation (AF) of must of the Moschofilero cultivar, the only ‘gris’ native grape variety that is cultivated in Greece. For this purpose, Oenococcus oeni strains Viniflora® CH16, Viniflora [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to induce malolactic fermentation (MLF) after alcoholic fermentation (AF) of must of the Moschofilero cultivar, the only ‘gris’ native grape variety that is cultivated in Greece. For this purpose, Oenococcus oeni strains Viniflora® CH16, Viniflora® Oenos and Viniflora® CiNe were inoculated after the completion of AF driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UCLM S325. Growth of the aforementioned starter cultures was assessed during fermentation by classical microbiological techniques, and verification of their dominance was performed by (GTG)5 fingerprinting. Assessment of standard enological parameters and colorimetric analysis were performed by established approaches. Identification and quantification of organic acids, ethanol and glycerol was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the solid-phase microextraction method (SPME), coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was employed for the identification and quantification of volatile compounds. Finally, sensory analysis took place according to ISO 13299:2016. The suitability of the starter cultures employed to drive AF and MLF was exhibited; AF and MLF of the white and rosé wines were completed after 15 days. Upon completion of AF, substantial differences were observed in the chemical characteristics of the white and rosé wines, which were also reflected in the balance descriptor. MLF also resulted in significant changes. In all cases total acidity decreased and volatile acidity and pH value increased, while the vanilla and butter descriptors increased. Interestingly, the color intensity of the rosé wines also increased. A series of strain-dependent changes in the chemical composition and sensory analysis of both white and rosé wines was also observed. Full article
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9 pages, 419 KiB  
Article
Towards Recreation of Food Commodities Based on Ancient Texts; The Case of Avyrtake
by Spiros Paramithiotis, Maria K. Syrokou, Anastasia Papadia-Nikolaidou, Georgios Papoutsis and Eleftherios H. Drosinos
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031697 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to attempt the recreation of a highly appreciated food commodity of antiquity, called avyrtake, using information derived from ancient texts. The available information included the raw materials, the texture and the taste of the raw materials. [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to attempt the recreation of a highly appreciated food commodity of antiquity, called avyrtake, using information derived from ancient texts. The available information included the raw materials, the texture and the taste of the raw materials. On the contrary, the relative proportion of the raw materials as well as the production procedure had to be inferred on the basis of their modern-day use. For that purpose, and based on the above, a mixture of shredded cabbage and leek, salt, pomegranate seeds, raisins, and shredded garlic, as well as ground green cardamon and mustard seeds were pressed into a fermentation jar in order to form a brine and left at 18 °C for fermentation to take place. The latter was driven by lactic acid bacteria, mostly by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. The final product had a sour character, which matched the organoleptic description available from the ancient texts, and it received high ranks. Full article
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10 pages, 628 KiB  
Article
ATP Bioluminescence for Rapid and Selective Detection of Bacteria and Yeasts in Wine
by Saverio Monica, Elena Bancalari, Vincenzo Castellone, Jos Rijkx, Sarah Wirth, Anika Jahns and Benedetta Bottari
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4953; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114953 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3609
Abstract
Microbial contamination may represent a loss of money for wine producers as several defects can arise due to a microorganism’s growth during storage. The aim of this study was to implement a bioluminescence assay protocol to rapidly and simultaneously detect bacteria and yeasts [...] Read more.
Microbial contamination may represent a loss of money for wine producers as several defects can arise due to a microorganism’s growth during storage. The aim of this study was to implement a bioluminescence assay protocol to rapidly and simultaneously detect bacteria and yeasts in wines. Different wines samples were deliberately contaminated with bacteria and yeasts at different concentrations and filtered through two serial filters with decreasing mesh to separate bacteria and yeasts. These were resuscitated over 24 h on selective liquid media and analyzed by bioluminescence assay. ATP measurements discriminated the presence of yeasts and bacteria in artificially contaminated wine samples down to 50 CFU/L of yeasts and 1000 CFU/L of bacteria. The developed protocol allowed to detect, rapidly (24 h) and simultaneously, bacteria and yeasts in different types of wines. This would be of great interest for industries, for which an early detection and discrimination of microbial contaminants would help in the decision-making process. Full article
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