Functional Food and Chronic Disease II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 21980
Related Special Issue: Functional Food and Chronic Disease

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnam-dae ro, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si 13120, Republic of Korea
Interests: bioactive compounds; phytochemicals; antioxidants; inflammation; brown cell; chronic diseases; in vitro mechanism; animal model; clinical trials; epidemiological study; systemic review
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Guest Editor
Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong 53064, Republic of Korea
Interests: health functional food; health functional cosmetics; in vitro mechanism; animal model; clinical trials; toxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, “Functional Food and Chronic Disease II”.

Chronic diseases are multifactorial pathological conditions considered to be a serious public health problem, accounting for about 60% of deaths worldwide. A disease is considered chronic if it has a duration of more than 3 months since its incidence. Chronic diseases are difficult to recover from, and owing to the associated after-effects, require long-term treatment and observation. Foods and natural products or ingredients can be used to help treat, suppress, or prevent chronic diseases. Claims linking the consumption of functional foods or food ingredients with health outcomes require sound scientific evidence. Therefore, research into the impact of food or natural products on chronic diseases is under demand, and the results should provide useful data on food to guide health policies toward the promotion of health.

Chronic diseases include various cancers; cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke; chronic liver diseases, such as diabetes and hepatocirrhosis; chronic kidney failure; dyslipidemia; arthritis and osteoporosis; obesity; asthma and other atopic diseases; and chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In particular, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the implementation of national-level measures by designating cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, and cancers with high disease burdens worldwide as major chronic diseases.

Health functional foods have been studied widely and are used to prevent such chronic diseases and to relieve the associated symptoms. This Special Issue, “Functional Food and Chronic Disease II”, focuses on the functional evaluation and mechanistic research of functional foods and ingredients in the prevention and suppression of chronic diseases. Articles on a wide range of related topics are also welcome. The target materials can include the food itself, food extracts, natural substances, specific ingredients of food, and any other subject of relevance to the topic. For this Special Issue, we welcome submissions covering a broad range of article types, such as research methods including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies; reviews; systemic reviews; and clinical trials.

We look forward to your participation.

Prof. Dr. Hae-Jeung Lee
Prof. Dr. Jae-Suk Choi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • functional food
  • food ingredients
  • nutraceuticals
  • food consumption
  • chronic disease
  • functionality evaluation
  • mechanism verification
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular disease
  • chronic liver disease
  • chronic kidney failure
  • arthritis and osteoporosis
  • obesity
  • asthma and atopic diseases
  • chronic respiratory disease

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 715 KiB  
Article
Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Vitamin D Intake with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: 2013–2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
by Su-In Yoon, Jae-Yeon Min, Sun Yung Ly, SuJin Song and Jin Ah Cho
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3748; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063748 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Korea and an insufficient vitamin D status increases the risk of various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, dietary vitamin D intake, and MetS. The 2013–2014 Korea [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Korea and an insufficient vitamin D status increases the risk of various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, dietary vitamin D intake, and MetS. The 2013–2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey’s (KNHANES) included participants (n = 4.541; 1145 men; 1368 women) who were aged ≥19. In men, higher serum 25(OH)D levels were correlated with significantly increased protein intake (p = 0.032) and saturated fatty acid intake (p = 0.006), but significantly decreased fat intake (p = 0.027), monounsaturated fatty acid intake (p = 0.005), and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (p = 0.003), and significantly decreased serum triglycerides levels (p = 0.002), whereas women had no association with any dietary intake or biochemical markers. Furthermore, our study found a significant negative correlation between abdominal obesity (OR, 0.970; CI, 0.946, 0.994) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 0.974; CI, 0.950, 0.998) and serum 25(OH)D levels in men, as well as a significant decrease in hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 0.980; CI, 0.961, 0.999) with vitamin D intake. However, women had a significantly negative correlation between serum LDL cholesterol (β, −1.751; p = 0.018) and vitamin D intake. By increasing the vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D levels, Korean adults could reduce their risk of MetS-related factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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13 pages, 3712 KiB  
Article
Caraway Oil as a Multimodal Therapy for Neuropathic Pain: Investigating the Mechanisms of Action in Rats with Chronic Constriction Injury
by Faisal K. Alkholifi, Sushma Devi, Aftab Alam, Mehnaz Kamal and Hasan S. Yusufoglu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052989 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Neuropathic pain, a prevalent concern associated with various pathological conditions, poses a significant public health risk due to its poorly understood pathophysiology and treatment complexities. Multimodal therapy is often the most efficacious approach to managing neuropathic pain, yet it is also highly labour [...] Read more.
Neuropathic pain, a prevalent concern associated with various pathological conditions, poses a significant public health risk due to its poorly understood pathophysiology and treatment complexities. Multimodal therapy is often the most efficacious approach to managing neuropathic pain, yet it is also highly labour intensive. The exact underlying causes of neuropathic pain are unclear; evidence suggests that cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotrophic factors may play a role in its pathogenesis. The current study aimed to investigate the anti-neuropathic pain activity of caraway oil and the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in rats with CCI, a model of neuropathic pain. Behavioural evaluations of cold allodynia, heat hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia were conducted using the acetone spray test, hot plate test, Von Frey hair test, and pinprick test, respectively. Additionally, the level of TNF-α in the sciatic nerve was examined as an indicator of inflammation, and NGF and substance P levels were determined in the DRG to identify mechanistic processes. Rats were administered caraway oil orally at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 21 days. Results indicated that caraway oil administration significantly reduced behaviour associated with injury-related pain and elevated TNF levels. After an anti-NGF injection on the 21st day, significant attenuated behavioural effects were observed. Furthermore, caraway oil administration was able to inhibit the upregulation of NGF in DRG caused by CCI and minimize the increase in substance P in DRG. These findings suggest that caraway oil has promising therapeutic potential for managing neuropathic pain by targeting peripheral and secondary sensitization mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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18 pages, 2810 KiB  
Article
Sargassum horneri Extract Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis through Modulation of mTOR Axis and Intestinal Microbiota
by Yuri Im, Qunzhe Wang, Jumin Park, Heeseob Lee and Hyemee Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031742 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by colonic mucosal inflammation, intestinal microflora imbalance, and intestinal permeability. It is essential to develop natural compounds with anti-inflammatory and intestinal bacterial imbalance correction properties. The brown alga Sargassum horneri is rich in polyphenols, [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by colonic mucosal inflammation, intestinal microflora imbalance, and intestinal permeability. It is essential to develop natural compounds with anti-inflammatory and intestinal bacterial imbalance correction properties. The brown alga Sargassum horneri is rich in polyphenols, such as fucoxanthin and chromene, which have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. In results, S. horneri ethanol extract (SHE) reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels as well as Pi3k/Mtor/S6k mRNA expression in LPS-treated RAW264.7 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, SHE treatment decreased the expression of genes associated with inflammation and the mTOR axis in the co-culture system while increasing the expression of tight junction factors. In a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, SHE treatment improved intestinal length, histological scores, and the expression of genes related to tight junctions while decreasing the expression of genes related to inflammatory markers and the mTOR axis. The gut microbiota of mice treated with SHE exhibited a decrease in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidota, which had been increased by DSS treatment and an increase in beneficial bacteria. Therefore, SHE consumption may be a useful natural alternative, as it improves gut microbiota, alleviates colitis symptoms, and prevents their onset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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29 pages, 6524 KiB  
Article
Oral Combination Treatment of Gefitinib (IressaTM) and Sasam-Kyeongokgo: Synergistic Effects on the NCI-H520 Tumor Cell Line
by Jeong-Hoon Oh, Joo Wan Kim, Chul-Jong Jung, Jae-Suk Choi and Sae Kwang Ku
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13021090 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The aim of this research was to confirm the possible synergic effects of sasam-Kyeongokgo (SKOG) on the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib using athymic nude mice bearing the human non-small-cell lung squamous cell carcinoma (NSCLC) NCI-H520 cell line after continuous oral combination treatment provided [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to confirm the possible synergic effects of sasam-Kyeongokgo (SKOG) on the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib using athymic nude mice bearing the human non-small-cell lung squamous cell carcinoma (NSCLC) NCI-H520 cell line after continuous oral combination treatment provided daily for 35 days within a timeframe of 5 min, as a developing process of novel preventive and therapeutic regimes for various types of lung cancer. After 35 days, BW, tumor volume and weight, and lymphatic and periovarian fat pad weight measurements, as well as serum IFN-γ and IL-6 level, NK cell activity, and splenic cytokine content measurements, together with histopathological observations, and immunohistochemistry measurements of the treated and control mice, were performed. The results suggest that the co-administration of SKOG 400, 200, or 100 mg/kg with gefitinib markedly increased the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib through immunostimulatory effects and also dramatically inhibited cancer cachexia through the immunostimulatory effect, potentiating the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib, with favorable anti-cachexia effects. Therefore, the co-administration of over 100 mg/kg of SKOG and gefitinib can provide an effective novel treatment regimen for various lung cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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11 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Effects of Rosemary Extract on C2C12 Myoblast Differentiation and 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleoside (AICAR)-Induced Muscle Cell Atrophy
by Jun Ho Lee, Jung Yoon Jang, Young Hoon Kwon, Seung Ho Lee, Cheol Park, Yung Hyun Choi and Nam Deuk Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020986 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Sarcopenia is an aging-related disease that involves the gradual loss of muscle mass and function. However, no suitable therapeutic drugs are currently available. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rosemary extract (RE) in inducing myotube differentiation [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is an aging-related disease that involves the gradual loss of muscle mass and function. However, no suitable therapeutic drugs are currently available. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rosemary extract (RE) in inducing myotube differentiation and inhibiting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced muscle atrophy in mouse C2C12 cells. Morphological changes associated with the onset of RE-induced differentiation were evaluated by measuring myotube diameter, and the expression of proteins related to muscle differentiation and atrophy was measured using western blot analysis. Treatment with RE increased myotube thickness and the expression of the myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) and myogenin proteins. The effect of RE treatment on 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), MyoD, myogenin, muscle atrophy factors forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a), MAFbx/atrogin-1, and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) protein expression in AICAR-induced muscle-atrophied C2C12 cells was evaluated using western blot analysis. Treatment with RE reduced FoxO3a, MAFbx/atrogin-1, and MuRF-1 expression and significantly increased MyoD and myogenin expression. These findings suggest that RE has the potential to be used as an active ingredient in sarcopenia treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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18 pages, 5187 KiB  
Article
Loquat Leaf Extract Inhibits Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis via AMPK and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways in C2C12 Cells
by Young Hoon Kwon, Jung Yoon Jang, Jun Ho Lee, Young Whan Choi, Yung Hyun Choi and Nam Deuk Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010572 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract exhibits bioactive properties against a variety of diseases. However, it remains unclear whether loquat leaf extract can protect myoblasts from oxidative damage. To investigate the protective effect of loquat leaf ethanol extract (LE) against hydrogen peroxide [...] Read more.
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract exhibits bioactive properties against a variety of diseases. However, it remains unclear whether loquat leaf extract can protect myoblasts from oxidative damage. To investigate the protective effect of loquat leaf ethanol extract (LE) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in C2C12 murine myoblasts and the effect of LE on cellular differentiation in C2C12 cells. LE inhibited H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and reduced both the expression level of γ-H2AX and reactive oxygen species formation. LE also inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis, which resulted in the upregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and pro-caspase-3 and inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and the dysfunction of mitochondria under H2O2-induced oxidative stress, which inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. Moreover, LE upregulated p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and downregulated Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 in H2O2-treated C2C12 cells. In addition, LE promoted the differentiation of C2C12 cells into myotubes and increased the expression levels of myogenic proteins, myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) and myogenin. These findings suggest that LE may be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating oxidative stress-mediated myoblast injury and enhancing cellular differentiation of C2C12 murine myoblasts into myotubes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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12 pages, 3011 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Immune and Hematopoietic Functions by Litsea japonica Fruit Extract in Cyclophosphamide-Treated BALB/c Mice
by Seon Yeong Ji, EunJin Bang, Hyun Hwangbo, Min Yeong Kim, Da Hye Kim, Young Tae Koo, Jin Soo Kim, Ki Won Lee, Sun Young Park, Chan-Young Kwon, Hyesook Lee, Gi-Young Kim and Yung Hyun Choi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010145 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Loss of immunity is an important cause in the pathology of infectious disease. This study investigates the effect of Litsea japonica fruit extract (LJFE) as a potential functional food on immunity and hematopoietic function in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Immunity-stimulating activity was observed in [...] Read more.
Loss of immunity is an important cause in the pathology of infectious disease. This study investigates the effect of Litsea japonica fruit extract (LJFE) as a potential functional food on immunity and hematopoietic function in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Immunity-stimulating activity was observed in mice supplemented with LJFE at low (25 mg/kg), medium (50 mg/kg), and high (100 mg/kg) dosage for seven days after administration of cyclophosphamide. LJFE treatment significantly improved spleen injury score (p < 0.001) and body weight (p < 0.02) by approximately two-fold with a high dosage of LJFE (100 mg/kg). Spleen-derived lymphocyte analysis demonstrated that the numbers of clusters of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8+ T-cells were notably increased by approximately two-fold (p < 0.001) with a high dosage of LJFE (100 mg/kg). In mouse splenocytes differentiated into T- and B-lymphocytes, LJFE significantly induced proliferation up to approximately 90% of control for T- (p < 0.001) and B-lymphocytes (p < 0.01) with a high dosage of LJFE (100 mg/kg). Furthermore, LJFE significantly recovered the numbers of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that serum levels of immune-related cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-2, and interferon (IFN)-γ, were notably Increased. In addition, serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, and IgG were restored by LJFE treatment. This study provides a reference to use L. japonica as a functional food ingredient to improve immunity and hematological function in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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11 pages, 1333 KiB  
Article
Effects of Aloe vera on the Regulation of Thyroxine Release in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells
by Jin-Ah Ryuk, Hiroe Go and Byoung-Seob Ko
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 11919; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122311919 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3131
Abstract
To determine whether Aloe vera (AV), a traditional herbal medicine, could maintain homeostasis, we investigated its ability to regulate the production of hormones, particularly thyroid hormones. T4 ELISA assay with (6H media) and without thyrotropin (TSH) (5H media) showed that AV functions [...] Read more.
To determine whether Aloe vera (AV), a traditional herbal medicine, could maintain homeostasis, we investigated its ability to regulate the production of hormones, particularly thyroid hormones. T4 ELISA assay with (6H media) and without thyrotropin (TSH) (5H media) showed that AV functions to maintain endocrine homeostasis. To understand the mechanisms by which AV regulates thyroxine release, we confirmed the protein expression of key upstream factors of thyroid hormone synthesis, such as phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt). Although the protein expression of phosphorylated ERK and CREB were decreased in 6H media, they were increased and unchanged, respectively, in 5H media. However, protein expression of phosphorylated Akt was not changed by AV in both 6H and 5H media. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 eliminated AV-induced phosphorylation of ERK in 5H media. However, the inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X did not eliminate AV-induced ERK phosphorylation in 5H media. These results suggested that AV has TSH-like activity and could regulate thyroxine release through the TPO and PKA pathways. AV may regulate thyroid function to maintain a constant level of thyroid hormones in the body, and could be a candidate for thyroid disease therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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13 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Immunoenhancement Effects of the Herbal Formula Hemomine on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice
by Hyemee Kim, Joo Wan Kim, Yeon-Kye Kim, Sae Kwang Ku and Hae-Jeung Lee
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 4935; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12104935 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Hemomine is an herbal blend comprising Angelicae Gigantis Radix and other herbs known to have immunomodulatory effects. We examined the immunopotentiating effect of this herbal blend on cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced immunosuppression. Male mice were assigned to one of six groups: the intact control and [...] Read more.
Hemomine is an herbal blend comprising Angelicae Gigantis Radix and other herbs known to have immunomodulatory effects. We examined the immunopotentiating effect of this herbal blend on cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced immunosuppression. Male mice were assigned to one of six groups: the intact control and five CPA treatment groups (one control, one reference (β-glucan), and three with the application of hemomine at different concentrations; 4, 2, or 1 mL/kg; n = 10 per group). Mice were injected with CPA to induce myelosuppression and immunosuppression, after which they received one of the experimental treatments. In immunosuppressed mice, hemomine treatment alleviated the noticeable reductions in body, spleen, and submandibular lymph node weights caused by CPA; caused changes in hematological markers; induced the reduced levels of serum IFN-γ and spleen TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 by CPA; improved natural killer cell activities in the spleen and peritoneal cavity; and also improved lymphoid organ atrophy in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrate that hemomine, a mixture of six immunomodulatory herbs, is an effective immunomodulatory agent, with the potential to enhance immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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Review

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21 pages, 1711 KiB  
Review
Immunomodulatory Properties of Probiotics and Their Derived Bioactive Compounds
by Christina Thoda and Maria Touraki
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4726; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084726 - 09 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5100
Abstract
Immune system modulation is an intriguing part of scientific research. It is well established that the immune system plays a crucial role in orchestrating cellular and molecular key mediators, thus establishing a powerful defense barrier against infectious pathogens. Gut microbiota represent a complex [...] Read more.
Immune system modulation is an intriguing part of scientific research. It is well established that the immune system plays a crucial role in orchestrating cellular and molecular key mediators, thus establishing a powerful defense barrier against infectious pathogens. Gut microbiota represent a complex community of approximately a hundred trillion microorganisms that live in the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract, contributing to the maintenance of gut homeostasis via regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, impairment in the crosstalk between intestinal immunity and gut microbiota may reflect on detrimental health issues. In this context, many studies have indicated that probiotics and their bioactive compounds, such as bacteriocins and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), display distinct immunomodulatory properties through which they suppress inflammation and enhance the restoration of microbial diversity in pathological states. This review highlights the fundamental features of probiotics, bacteriocins, and SCFAs, which make them ideal therapeutic agents for the amelioration of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. It also describes their underlying mechanisms on gut microbiota modulation and emphasizes how they influence the function of immune cells involved in regulating gut homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the future perspectives and challenges of their administration to individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Food and Chronic Disease II)
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