In Situ Cleanup of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 4534

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Industrial Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, Höchstädtplatz 6, 1200 Wien, Austria
Interests: system process engineering; bioplastics; in situ brownfield remediation; additive manufacturing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a huge number of contaminated sites, where previous industrial or other activity has led to hydrocarbons, heavy metals, or other compounds in the soil and groundwater.

Traditional remediation technologies work by excavating and disposing of the contaminated material. This procedure is costly and associated with significant environmental burdens.

Novel approaches aim to carry out a cleanup directly on the spot (in situ).

The advantages of in situ techniques are time and costs. However, they are not always known or utilized.

This Special Issue collects in situ processes for brownfield remediation. The Special Issue will provide an up-to-date overview of what in situ techniques allow to achieve.

Dr. Maximilian Lackner
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • brownfield
  • remediation
  • in situ
  • pollutants
  • mineral hydrocarbons
  • aromatic hydrocarbons
  • enzymes
  • heavy metals

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Sodium and Sulphur Content in Plants after Lime, Charcoal, and Loam Application to Soil Contaminated with Fluorine
by Radosław Szostek, Mirosław Wyszkowski, Zdzisław Ciećko and Elżbieta Rolka
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010169 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study on the effect of fluorine pollution of soil, including soil amendments, on the concentration of sodium and sulphur in six species of crops. The experiment consisted of six pot trials performed in a greenhouse. Two [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study on the effect of fluorine pollution of soil, including soil amendments, on the concentration of sodium and sulphur in six species of crops. The experiment consisted of six pot trials performed in a greenhouse. Two factors were taken into consideration: (I) Increasing doses of fluorine (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg F kg−1 of soil for narrow-leaf lupine and 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg F kg−1 of soil for yellow lupine, winter oilseed rape, spring triticale, black radish, and phacelia) and (II) neutralizing substances (lime–1 HAC, charcoal and loam–3% relative to the soil mass). The highest sodium content was in t roots of winter oilseed rape, and the lowest was in the grain of spring triticale. Large differences were detected in the Na content between the analyzed organs of phacelia. The roots of this plant contained 16-fold more sodium than aerial parts. The highest average content of sulphur was in yellow lupine aerial parts, and the lowest was in spring triticale aerial biomass. The increasingly severe soil pollution with fluorine, in most cases, led to a decline in the sodium and sulphur content in the analyzed crops. The highest degree of soil contamination with fluorine had the strongest negative effect in this regard. The content of the analyzed macronutrients concerned the species and organs of a crop, the dose of the tested xenobiotic, and the substance applied to soil for the inactivation of fluorine. A decrease in the sodium content in most of the tested crops could be attributed to the fact that fluorine ‘reacts’, i.e., binds sodium into compounds that are hardly soluble in water, thereby limiting sodium phytovailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Situ Cleanup of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater)
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18 pages, 9672 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Aged Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soil Using Plant-Oil-in-Water Emulsions Combined with Oil/Water Separation by Reusable Non-Wovens
by Maximilian Lackner, Thomas Hribernig, Markus Lutz, Markus Plank and Karl Putz
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6179; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126179 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
A novel technique for the in situ removal of mineral hydrocarbons from aged brownfields is described. The approach uses emulsions of plant oil (5–10%, rapeseed) in water, which were found to extract 50–85% of mineral hydrocarbons in one leaching step from the non-saturated [...] Read more.
A novel technique for the in situ removal of mineral hydrocarbons from aged brownfields is described. The approach uses emulsions of plant oil (5–10%, rapeseed) in water, which were found to extract 50–85% of mineral hydrocarbons in one leaching step from the non-saturated zone. The emulsion was allowed to travel though the ground and was pumped off from the groundwater level. Approximately 15–50% of the plant oil stayed in the soil. By flushing the area with water afterwards, that amount can be reduced to 10–30%, and in some cases to <5%. This process is only suitable for sand, not for clay. It can be a good preparation for subsequent enzymatic cleavage and microbiological degradation, as part of a multi-stage in situ treatment process. Additionally, plant oil that infiltrated into the saturated zone was used to flush mineral hydrocarbons, which could be pumped off from the groundwater level. It was further tested whether the separation of mineral oil/plant oil and water can be performed by oil-absorbing, reusable non-wovens. Residual concentrations of <2% of water in oil, and 0.3–0.7 mg/L of oil in water were found. In this work, lab trials led to field trials, where more than 500 m3 of water were sent over a pilot installation for oil/water separation using non-wovens. A slightly better separation performance than by oil separators was observed. This process has the potential to be combined with a regular oil separator to allow water purification to a level at which it can be reintroduced into the ground. The technique was tested on a brownfield in Lower Austria, a former refinery site abandoned approx. 80 years ago with a peak hydrocarbon contamination of 40,000 mg/kg of dry soil and free-floating mineral oil on the groundwater level. Since in situ techniques can be more environmentally benign and less costly than traditional remediation approaches, this novel approach holds an interesting potential, which could be proven at a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Situ Cleanup of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater)
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Review

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25 pages, 4214 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review on Earthworms in Soil Bioremediation
by Francesca Tagliabue, Enrica Marini, Arianna De Bernardi, Costantino Vischetti and Cristiano Casucci
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10239; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810239 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Bioremediation techniques are increasingly popular in addressing soil pollution. Despite this, using earthworms as first actors or adjuvants in decontamination is an open and little-discussed field. This paper focuses on vermiremediation effectiveness alone or combined with other bioremediation methods, such as phytoremediation and [...] Read more.
Bioremediation techniques are increasingly popular in addressing soil pollution. Despite this, using earthworms as first actors or adjuvants in decontamination is an open and little-discussed field. This paper focuses on vermiremediation effectiveness alone or combined with other bioremediation methods, such as phytoremediation and bioaugmentation. Literature was collected following the PRISMA criteria, setting the search with the following keywords: “(vermiremediation) AND (bioremediation OR phytoremediation OR plant*) AND (bioaugmentation OR bacteria)”. The investigation was performed on Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder and Web of Science databases. The article data were collected, compared, elaborated, graphically summarised and discussed to assess if the earthworms’ activities play a critical role in tackling several soil pollutions. Furthermore, the review aimed to identify the most promising techniques in the function of the xenobiotic examined: organic, inorganic or both. Any gaps and criticism were highlighted to facilitate future research in this study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Situ Cleanup of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater)
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