Novel Developments in the Bioproduction of Biochemicals and Biomaterials

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 21769

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Egas Moniz Center for Interdisciplinary Research (CiiEM), Egas Moniz School of Health & Science, 2829-511 Caparica, Almada, Portugal
Interests: bioprocess engineering; fermentation technology; biomaterials; PHA; residual feedstocks; environmentally sustainable processes; microbial biotechnology; downstream processing
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Guest Editor
UNIPRO—Oral Pathology and Rehabilitation Research Unit, University Institute of Health Sciences, CESPU, CRL, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
Interests: cancer cell metabolism; multidrug resistance in cancer cells; Pgp activity; pH regulators in cancer; new anticancer drugs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue on Novel Developments in the Bioproduction of Biochemicals and Biomaterials in Applied Sciences intends to assemble recent advances and breakthroughs regarding the biological production of commercially important biomolecules. Manuscripts describing specific studies on new environmentally friendly approaches, together with new perspectives that envisage a shift towards sustainable alternatives to conventional production routes, as envisaged by the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, are welcome.

The recent border closure following the pandemic crisis has set important challenges for the global market. Local solutions should be exploited in the adaptation to a new world reality. These can include the development of new technologies based on renewable resources (from both marine and specific terrestrial ecosystems), agricultural wastes, and industrial byproduct valorization. The development of biorefineries producing valuable compounds using biomass as substrate will have an important role in the near future. New strategies need to be addressed in order to boost the recovery of industries and the economy of many countries.

The wide scope of this issue is, however, limited to the production of biochemicals and biomaterials with nonfuel applications. Instead, processes that originate biochemical building blocks, biochemicals, biopolymers, and/or high end-value bioproducts for medical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and nutrition markets are preferred. We thus invite you to submit your research in this field in the form of original research papers, mini-reviews, and perspective articles.

Prof. Catarina Dias de Almeida
Prof. Odília Queirós
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable bioproduction
  • Byproduct valorization
  • Biorefinery
  • Building blocks
  • Biochemicals
  • Biomaterials
  • Biopolymers
  • Extraction of biomolecules
  • Fermentation technology
  • Environmentally friendly downstream processes

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 191 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Novel Developments in the Bioproduction of Biochemicals and Biomaterials”
by Catarina Dias de Almeida and Odília Queirós
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010631 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Bioprocesses with new environmentally friendly approaches, along with new perspectives that favor a transformation from conventional production routes to sustainable alternatives, as envisioned in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, will play an important role in the near future [...] Full article

Research

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10 pages, 928 KiB  
Communication
Valorization of Carrot Pomace: UVC Induced Accumulation of Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds
by Juan Carlos Sánchez-Rangel, Jorge Benavides and Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10951; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210951 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
Carrot pomace is the main waste residue obtained during carrot juice extraction. Plant tissues respond to abiotic stresses (i.e., wounding stress and ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation) by accumulating bioactive compounds. Due to the mechanical damage occurring during juice extraction, carrot pomace undergoes extreme [...] Read more.
Carrot pomace is the main waste residue obtained during carrot juice extraction. Plant tissues respond to abiotic stresses (i.e., wounding stress and ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation) by accumulating bioactive compounds. Due to the mechanical damage occurring during juice extraction, carrot pomace undergoes extreme wounding stress. In this study, the effects of UVC light (11.8 W m−2, 0–120 min) and storage time (48 h, 25 °C) on the accumulation of phenolics compounds and the antioxidant activity (AOX) of carrot pomace were evaluated. Carrot pomace that was non-treated with UVC (control) showed a 709.5% increase in total phenolics at 48 h. A high correlation of AOX values against total phenolics (R2 = 0.87) was observed, indicating that phenolics were the main contributors to the AOX of the tissue. After UVC treatment, the pomace that was radiated for 120 min with UVC showed an increase (40.4%) in chlorogenic acid (CHA) content. At 24 h, protocatechuic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, which were not detected before storage, showed accumulation by 166.5 mg/kg and 169.4 mg/kg, respectively, in UVC treated pomace. Chlorogenic acid showed the highest increase (143.6%) at 48 h in the control. Valorization of carrot pomace was achieved by increasing its concentration of antioxidant phenolics through UVC radiation. Full article
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16 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Biovalorization of Lignocellulosic Materials for Xylitol Production by the Yeast Komagataella pastoris
by Diana Araújo, Tatiana Costa and Filomena Freitas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5516; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125516 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3143
Abstract
The main goal of this study was to screen different lignocellulosic materials for their ability to support the cell growth of the yeast Komagataella pastoris and the production of xylitol. Several lignocellulosic materials, namely banana peels, brewer’s spent grains (BSGs), corncobs, grape pomace, [...] Read more.
The main goal of this study was to screen different lignocellulosic materials for their ability to support the cell growth of the yeast Komagataella pastoris and the production of xylitol. Several lignocellulosic materials, namely banana peels, brewer’s spent grains (BSGs), corncobs, grape pomace, grape stalks, and sawdust, were subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain sugar rich solutions that were tested as feedstocks for the cultivation of K. pastoris. Although the culture was able to grow in all the tested hydrolysates, a higher biomass concentration was obtained for banana peels (15.18 ± 0.33 g/L) and grape stalks (14.58 ± 0.19 g/L), while the highest xylitol production (1.51 ± 0.07 g/L) was reached for the BSG hydrolysate with a xylitol yield of 0.66 ± 0.39 g/g. Cell growth and xylitol production from BSG were improved by detoxifying the hydrolysate using activated charcoal, resulting in a fourfold increase of the biomass production, while xylitol production was improved to 3.97 ± 0.10 g/L. Moreover, concomitant with arabinose consumption, arabitol synthesis was noticed, reaching a maximum concentration of 0.82 ± 0.05 g/L with a yield on arabinose of 0.60 ± 0.11 g/g. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lignocellulosic waste, especially BSG, as feedstock for the cultivation of K. pastoris and the coproduction of xylitol and arabitol. Additionally, it demonstrates the use of K. pastoris as a suitable microorganism to integrate a zero-waste biorefinery, transforming lignocellulosic waste into two high-value specialty chemicals with high market demand. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 2825 KiB  
Review
Microbial Biosynthesis of Lactones: Gaps and Opportunities towards Sustainable Production
by Rui Silva, Eduardo Coelho, Tatiana Q. Aguiar and Lucília Domingues
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8500; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188500 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4512
Abstract
Lactones are volatile organic compounds widely present in foods. These chemicals are applied as flavors and fragrances in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, the potential of lactones as green solvents and fuel precursors reinforced their role as platform compounds of future [...] Read more.
Lactones are volatile organic compounds widely present in foods. These chemicals are applied as flavors and fragrances in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, the potential of lactones as green solvents and fuel precursors reinforced their role as platform compounds of future bio-based economies. However, their current mode of production needs to change. Lactones are mainly obtained through chemical synthesis or microbial biotransformation of hydroxy fatty acids. The latter approach is preferred but still needs to use more sustainable substrates. Hydroxy fatty acids are non-abundant and non-sustainable substrates from environmental, health and economic points of view. Therefore, it is urgent to identify and engineer microorganisms with the rare ability to biosynthesize lactones from carbohydrates or renewable lipids. Here, we firstly address the variety and importance of lactones. Then, the current understanding of the biosynthetic pathways involved in lactone biosynthesis is presented, making use of the knowledge acquired in microorganisms and fruits. From there, we present and make the distinction between biotransformation processes and de novo biosynthesis of lactones. Finally, the opportunities and challenges towards more sustainable production in addition to the relevance of two well-known industrial microbes, the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, are discussed. Full article
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19 pages, 924 KiB  
Review
Xylose Metabolism in Bacteria—Opportunities and Challenges towards Efficient Lignocellulosic Biomass-Based Biorefineries
by Rafael Domingues, Maryna Bondar, Inês Palolo, Odília Queirós, Catarina Dias de Almeida and M. Teresa Cesário
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8112; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178112 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5267
Abstract
In a sustainable society based on circular economy, the use of waste lignocellulosic biomass (LB) as feedstock for biorefineries is a promising solution, since LB is the world’s most abundant renewable and non-edible raw material. LB is available as a by-product from agricultural [...] Read more.
In a sustainable society based on circular economy, the use of waste lignocellulosic biomass (LB) as feedstock for biorefineries is a promising solution, since LB is the world’s most abundant renewable and non-edible raw material. LB is available as a by-product from agricultural and forestry processes, and its main components are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Following suitable physical, enzymatic, and chemical steps, the different fractions can be processed and/or converted to value-added products such as fuels and biochemicals used in several branches of industry through the implementation of the biorefinery concept. Upon hydrolysis, the carbohydrate-rich fraction may comprise several simple sugars (e.g., glucose, xylose, arabinose, and mannose) that can then be fed to fermentation units. Unlike pentoses, glucose and other hexoses are readily processed by microorganisms. Some wild-type and genetically modified bacteria can metabolize xylose through three different main pathways of metabolism: xylose isomerase pathway, oxidoreductase pathway, and non-phosphorylative pathway (including Weimberg and Dahms pathways). Two of the commercially interesting intermediates of these pathways are xylitol and xylonic acid, which can accumulate in the medium either through manipulation of the culture conditions or through genetic modification of the bacteria. This paper provides a state-of-the art perspective regarding the current knowledge on xylose transport and metabolism in bacteria as well as envisaged strategies to further increase xylose conversion into valuable products. Full article
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22 pages, 382 KiB  
Review
Macroalgae as Protein Sources—A Review on Protein Bioactivity, Extraction, Purification and Characterization
by Mariana Gordalina, Helena M. Pinheiro, Marília Mateus, M. Manuela R. da Fonseca and M. Teresa Cesário
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7969; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177969 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4999
Abstract
The increased demand for protein sources combined with a decrease in the available land and water resources have led to a growing interest in macroalgae as alternative protein sources. This review focuses on strategies for macroalgae protein extraction, enrichment and characterization. To date, [...] Read more.
The increased demand for protein sources combined with a decrease in the available land and water resources have led to a growing interest in macroalgae as alternative protein sources. This review focuses on strategies for macroalgae protein extraction, enrichment and characterization. To date, the protein extraction methods applied to algae include enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes and chemical extraction. Novel methods, such as pulsed electric field, microwave-assisted, pressurized liquid and supercritical fluid extractions, and the application of smart solvents are discussed. An overview of the use of membranes and other processes to generate high-value protein concentrates from algae extracts is also presented, as well as some examples of the methods used for their characterization. The potential bioactivities from macroalgae-derived proteins and peptides, including novel glycoproteins and lectins, are briefly reviewed. Full article
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