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Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 December 2021) | Viewed by 51982

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Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41124 Modena, Italy
Interests: restorative dentistry; adhesive dentistry; dental materials; implant dentistry; biomaterials; periodontology; dental hygiene
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Almost all fields of dentistry are closely related to newly developed materials, and all clinical improvements often follow or, in any case, always go hand in hand with the creation and the development of innovative and higher performing materials, instruments, and equipment. Thanks to contemporary dental materials application, the effectiveness of clinical dentistry has gained remarkable advances.

In recent years, thanks to digital technology and to the frenetic development of the dental industry, new materials have been developed and proposed in each field of dentistry: prosthesis, restorative dentistry, endodontics, implantology, and orthodontics. Unfortunately, as often happens, this productive challenge is not always accompanied by valid scientific research, and consequently the clinician finds at his disposal materials that are not necessarily better than the previous ones. Further studies are needed to gain relevant evidence for all recently introduced dental materials.

This Special Issue calls for high-quality research articles, clinical studies, review articles, and case reports focused on the latest advances and prospects of dental materials concerning all fields of dentistry.

Prof. Dr. Vittorio Checchi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • dental materials, dental adhesion, ceramics and prosthetic materials, CAD/CAM related materials
  • dental implants, biomaterials, and materials for bone regeneration
  • materials for endodontics, materials for orthodontics

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects
by Vittorio Checchi
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8833; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178833 - 2 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Most fields of dentistry are closely related to newly developed materials, and all clinical improvements often follow or, in any case, go hand in hand with the creation and development of innovative and higher-performing materials, instruments, and equipment [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

12 pages, 3609 KiB  
Article
SEM and FT-MIR Analysis of Human Demineralized Dentin Matrix: An In Vitro Study
by Lucia Memè, Enrico M. Strappa, Riccardo Monterubbianesi, Fabrizio Bambini and Stefano Mummolo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031480 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
Recently, the demineralized dentin matrix has been suggested as an alternative material to autologous bone grafts and xenografts for clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different times of demineralization on the chemical composition and the surface [...] Read more.
Recently, the demineralized dentin matrix has been suggested as an alternative material to autologous bone grafts and xenografts for clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different times of demineralization on the chemical composition and the surface morphology of dentinal particles. Extracted teeth were ground and divided into 5 groups based on demineralization time (T0 = 0 min, T2 = 2 min, T5 = 5 min, T10 = 10 min, and T60 = 60 min) with 12% EDTA. The analysis was performed using Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (p < 0.05). The FT-MIR analysis showed a progressive reduction of the concentration of both PO43− and CO32− in the specimens (T0 > T2 > T5 > T10 > T60). On the contrary, the organic (protein) component did not undergo any change. The SEM examination showed that increasing the times of demineralization resulted in a smoother surface of the dentin particles and a higher number of dentinal tubules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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9 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Prospective Pilot Study of Immediately Provisionalized Restorations of Trabecular Metal-Enhanced Titanium Dental Implants: A 5-Year Follow-Up Report
by Peter van der Schoor, Markus Schlee and Hai-Bo Wen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12030942 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Porous tantalum trabecular metal biomaterial has a similar structure to trabecular bone, and was recently added to titanium dental implants as a surface enhancement. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to describe 5-year survival results and crestal bone level changes around [...] Read more.
Porous tantalum trabecular metal biomaterial has a similar structure to trabecular bone, and was recently added to titanium dental implants as a surface enhancement. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to describe 5-year survival results and crestal bone level changes around immediately-provisionalized Trabecular Metal Dental Implants. Eligible patients were adults in need of ≥1 implants in the posterior jaw. A non-occluding single acrylic provisional crown was in place for up to 14 days before final restoration. Clinical evaluations with radiographs were conducted at each follow-up visit (1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 to 5 years). The primary endpoint was implant survival, characterized using the Kaplan-Meier method. The secondary endpoint was changes in crestal bone level, evaluated using a paired t-test to compare mean crestal bone levels between the baseline, 6-month, and annual follow-up values. In total, 30 patients (37 implants) were treated. Mean patient age was 45.5 years, and 63% were female. There was one implant failure; cumulative survival at 5 years was 97.2%. After the initial bone loss of 0.40 mm in the first 6 months, there were no statistically significant changes in crestal bone level over time up to 5 years of follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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9 pages, 2122 KiB  
Article
Calcium Hydroxide Removal Using Four Different Irrigation Systems: A Quantitative Evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy
by Luigi Generali, Francesco Cavani, Federico Franceschetti, Paolo Sassatelli, Luciano Giardino, Chiara Pirani, Francesco Iacono, Carlo Bertoldi, Daniele Angerame, Vittorio Checchi and Eugenio Pedullà
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010271 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
This study compares conventional endodontic needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, apical negative pressure irrigation, and mechanical activation to remove calcium hydroxide from single straight root canals. Eighty-four mandibular premolars were prepared in a crown-down manner up to size #40. Two teeth represented a [...] Read more.
This study compares conventional endodontic needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, apical negative pressure irrigation, and mechanical activation to remove calcium hydroxide from single straight root canals. Eighty-four mandibular premolars were prepared in a crown-down manner up to size #40. Two teeth represented a negative control, and another two served as a positive control. Calcium hydroxide paste was placed inside root canals. The remaining eighty samples were analyzed based on the activation techniques, and the cleanliness of the canals was quantified using Fiji’s software on 500× magnified SEM backscattered electron micrographs. Considering the whole canal, all instruments showed better performance than conventional endodontic needle irrigation in removing calcium hydroxide (p < 0.05). Irrisafe and XP-endo Finisher could remove a significantly higher amount of calcium hydroxide than Endovac (p < 0.05). Irrisafe and XP-endo Finisher have been able to remove more calcium hydroxide than EndoVac. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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11 pages, 1569 KiB  
Article
Influence of Selected Restorative Materials on the Environmental pH: In Vitro Comparative Study
by Anna Lehmann, Kacper Nijakowski, Michalina Nowakowska, Patryk Woś, Maria Misiaszek and Anna Surdacka
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11975; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411975 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
In dental caries treatment, it is worth using such restorative materials that may limit plaque accumulation. The pH of the filling seems to be an important factor affecting the potential bacterial colonisation. Our study aimed to assess how selected restorative materials influence the [...] Read more.
In dental caries treatment, it is worth using such restorative materials that may limit plaque accumulation. The pH of the filling seems to be an important factor affecting the potential bacterial colonisation. Our study aimed to assess how selected restorative materials influence the environmental pH. A total of 150 specimens (30 of each: Ketac Molar, Riva LC, Riva SC, Filtek Bulk Fill, and Evetric) were placed in 100 sterile hermetic polyethene containers with saline and stored in 37 °C. The pH of each sample was measured using the electrode Halo HI13302 (Hanna Instruments, Poland) at specific points in time for 15 days. The initial pH levels were significantly lower for glass ionomer cements (3.9–4.7) compared to composites (5.9–6.0). With time, the pH increased for samples with glass ionomer cements (by nearly 1.5), whereas it decreased for samples with composites (maximally by 0.8). In the end, all materials were in the pH range between 5.3 and 6.0. The highest final pH was obtained with Ketac Molar at about 5.9. Double samples had lower pH values than single samples, irrespective of the type of material. In conclusion, immediately after application, restorative materials decreased the environmental pH, especially light-cured glass ionomer cements. For glass ionomers, within two weeks, the pH increased to levels comparable with composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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14 pages, 5074 KiB  
Article
Titanium Nitride Plating Reduces Nickel Ion Release from Orthodontic Wire
by Arata Ito, Hideki Kitaura, Haruki Sugisawa, Takahiro Noguchi, Fumitoshi Ohori and Itaru Mizoguchi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9745; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209745 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
The leaching of metal ions from orthodontic appliances is a problem for their use in patients with metal allergies. Despite the development of a number of non-metal orthodontic appliances, including brackets, non-metal wires are not yet available. Therefore, it is necessary to modify [...] Read more.
The leaching of metal ions from orthodontic appliances is a problem for their use in patients with metal allergies. Despite the development of a number of non-metal orthodontic appliances, including brackets, non-metal wires are not yet available. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the surfaces of orthodontic wires to prevent the leaching of metal ions into the oral environment for use in such patients. This study was performed to examine whether plating of orthodontic wire with titanium nitride (TiN), which does not impair its mechanical properties, could prevent the leaching of metal ions from the wire on immersion in acid. To investigate the acid corrosion resistance of the wire, the amount of metal ions eluted from the wire immersed in acid was measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test, the properties of the wire surface were examined by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the surface roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester. The results indicated that TiN plating of orthodontic wire significantly suppressed the elution of metal ions on immersion in acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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14 pages, 6088 KiB  
Article
Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute (Bontree®): From Basic Research to Clinical Case Study
by Joo-Seong Kim, Tae-Sik Jang, Suk-Young Kim and Won-Pyo Lee
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7921; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177921 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3070
Abstract
Bone grafts used in alveolar bone regeneration can be categorized into autografts, allografts, xenografts, and synthetic bones, depending on their origin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercialized octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-based synthetic bone substitute material (Bontree® [...] Read more.
Bone grafts used in alveolar bone regeneration can be categorized into autografts, allografts, xenografts, and synthetic bones, depending on their origin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercialized octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-based synthetic bone substitute material (Bontree®) in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical cases. Material characterization of Bontree® granules (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm) using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that both 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm Bontree® granules were uniformly composed mainly of OCP. The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of MG63 cells were assessed and used to compare Bontree® with a commercial biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (MBCP+TM). Compared with MBCP+TM, Bontree® suppressed RANKL and increased ALP activity. A rabbit tibia model used to examine the effects of granule size of Bontree® grafts showed that 1.0 mm Bontree® granules had a higher new bone formation ability than 0.5 mm Bontree® granules. Three clinical cases using Bontree® for ridge or sinus augmentation are described. All eight implants in the three patients showed a 100% success rate after 1 year of functional loading. This basic research and clinical application demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Bontree® for bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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14 pages, 2882 KiB  
Article
Radiation-Induced Stable Radicals in Calcium Phosphates: Results of Multifrequency EPR, EDNMR, ESEEM, and ENDOR Studies
by Fadis F. Murzakhanov, Peter O. Grishin, Margarita A. Goldberg, Boris V. Yavkin, Georgy V. Mamin, Sergei B. Orlinskii, Alexander Yu. Fedotov, Natalia V. Petrakova, Andris Antuzevics, Marat R. Gafurov and Vladimir S. Komlev
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7727; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167727 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study of radiation-induced defects in various synthetic calcium phosphate (CP) powder materials (hydroxyapatite—HA and octacalcium phosphate—OCP) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at the X, Q, and W-bands (9, 34, 95 GHz for the microwave frequencies, [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study of radiation-induced defects in various synthetic calcium phosphate (CP) powder materials (hydroxyapatite—HA and octacalcium phosphate—OCP) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at the X, Q, and W-bands (9, 34, 95 GHz for the microwave frequencies, respectively). Currently, CP materials are widely used in orthopedics and dentistry owing to their high biocompatibility and physico-chemical similarity with human hard tissue. It is shown that in addition to the classical EPR techniques, other experimental approaches such as ELDOR-detected NMR (EDNMR), electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM), and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) can be used to analyze the electron–nuclear interactions of CP powders. We demonstrated that the value and angular dependence of the quadrupole interaction for 14N nuclei of a nitrate radical can be determined by the EDNMR method at room temperature. The ESEEM technique has allowed for a rapid analysis of the nuclear environment and estimation of the structural positions of radiation-induced centers in various crystal matrices. ENDOR spectra can provide information about the distribution of the nitrate radicals in the OCP structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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10 pages, 1271 KiB  
Article
Observational Study Regarding Two Bonding Systems and the Challenges of Their Use in Orthodontics: An In Vitro Evaluation
by Sorana Maria Bucur, Anamaria Bud, Adrian Gligor, Alexandru Vlasa, Dorin Ioan Cocoș and Eugen Silviu Bud
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7091; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157091 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze and identify a methodology for the improvement of the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with two orthodontic adhesive systems considered to be widely used, Transbond Plus Color Change with Transbond Plus [...] Read more.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze and identify a methodology for the improvement of the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with two orthodontic adhesive systems considered to be widely used, Transbond Plus Color Change with Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer and Fuji Ortho LC with orthophosphoric acid under various enamel conditions: dry, moistened with water and moistened with saliva. The sample size included a group of 120 freshly extracted premolars distributed into six study groups, each one of 20 teeth. A universal testing machine was used to detach the brackets. We determined and compared the strength of the two studied adhesive systems used in different enamel surface conditions. The mean shear bond strength values in groups 1 (TPCC, TSEP, dry), 2 (TPCC, TSEP, water), 3 (TPCC, TSEP, saliva), 4 (Fuji Ortho LC, etched, dry enamel), 5 (Fuji Ortho LC, etched enamel, water) and 6 (Fuji Ortho LC, etched enamel, saliva) were 15.86, 12.31, 13.04, 15.27, 14.14 and 13.11 MPa, respectively. ANOVA test and Student’s t-test showed significant differences between groups. While clinically acceptable shear bond strengths were obtained for all six studied groups, a particular outcome that to the authors’ knowledge has not been documented elsewhere has been obtained: in case of water contamination, it is preferable to use Fuji Ortho LC instead of Transbond Plus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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12 pages, 6070 KiB  
Article
Changes in Crystal Phase, Morphology, and Flexural Strength of As-Sintered Translucent Monolithic Zirconia Ceramic Modified by Femtosecond Laser
by Shanshan Liang, Hongqiang Ye and Fusong Yuan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6925; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156925 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Conventional bonding technology suitable for silica-based ceramics is not applicable to zirconia, due to its polycrystalline phase composition, chemical stability, and acid corrosion resistance. The development of an effective treatment to improve its surface roughness and mechanical properties remains an unresolved problem. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Conventional bonding technology suitable for silica-based ceramics is not applicable to zirconia, due to its polycrystalline phase composition, chemical stability, and acid corrosion resistance. The development of an effective treatment to improve its surface roughness and mechanical properties remains an unresolved problem. Therefore, to solve this problem, this in vitro study evaluated the changes in surface morphology and flexural strength of translucent monolithic zirconia surfaces treated with femtosecond laser technology. As-sintered translucent zirconia specimens were subjected to airborne particle abrasion and femtosecond laser treatments, while control group specimens received no treatment. After treatment, the roughness and morphology of the treated zirconia surfaces were examined. The flexural strength and X-ray diffraction of the treated specimens were measured and analyzed. Statistical inferential analysis included one-way analysis of variance at a set significance level of 5%. The surface roughness after femtosecond laser treatment was significantly improved when compared with the control group and the group that received the airborne particle abrasion treatment (p < 0.05). In comparison with the airborne particle abrasion group, the flexural strength of the group that received the femtosecond laser treatment was significantly improved (p < 0.05). The femtosecond laser approach using appropriate parameters enhanced the roughness of the zirconia without reducing its flexural strength; therefore, this approach offers potential for the treatment of zirconia surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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10 pages, 2427 KiB  
Article
Healing Capacity of Bone Surrounding Biofilm-Infected and Non-Infected Gutta-Percha: A Study of Rat Calvaria
by Daniel Moreinos, Ronald Wigler, Yuval Geffen, Sharon Akrish and Shaul Lin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6710; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156710 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the healing capacity of bony lesions around biofilm-infected and non-infected gutta-percha (GP) points. Bony defects were created in the calvaria of 28 Wistar rats. The rats were divided into three groups: Group 1—Implantation of infected GP particles in [...] Read more.
This paper aims to evaluate the healing capacity of bony lesions around biofilm-infected and non-infected gutta-percha (GP) points. Bony defects were created in the calvaria of 28 Wistar rats. The rats were divided into three groups: Group 1—Implantation of infected GP particles in the bony defect; Group 2—Positive control implantation of non-infected GP particles in the bony defect; and Group 3—Negative control, in which no GP particles were implanted. The biofilm consisted of three strains of bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperation, and histological assessments were performed. In Group 1, the biofilm-infected group, we observed a mild foreign body reaction with a few inflammatory cells adjacent to the capsule and a newly woven bone matrix surrounded by osteoblasts and mature bone. In Group 2, the non-infected GP particles group, minimal inflammatory cell reactions were observed in the adjacent tissue, and a newly woven bone matrix was surrounded by osteoblasts. This study shows that bone healing is possible around both sterile and infected GP points. This contradicts the claim that some root canal treatments fail because of non-microbial factors, including extruded root canal filling materials, which may cause foreign body reactions. The healing observed suggests that overextension should not be considered an indication for endodontic surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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11 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Analysis on Inferior Third Molar Position by Means of Orthopantomography or CBCT: Periapical Band-Like Radiolucent Sign
by Young-Sam Kim, Young-Min Park, Saverio Cosola, Abanob Riad, Enrica Giammarinaro, Ugo Covani and Simone Marconcini
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6389; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146389 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3106
Abstract
Background: Orthopantomography (OPG) is usually used as a primary diagnostic radiological exam in the planning of third molar surgery because it is deeply available in dental clinics and has lower radiation doses compared to Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The OPG provides a bi-dimensional [...] Read more.
Background: Orthopantomography (OPG) is usually used as a primary diagnostic radiological exam in the planning of third molar surgery because it is deeply available in dental clinics and has lower radiation doses compared to Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The OPG provides a bi-dimensional image, but several radiological signs have been proposed to study the position of the lower third molar and to predict surgical risks. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups, the OPG with a radiolucent area (D-group) and the OPG without any sign (C-group) in correspondence of inferior wisdom tooth roots. Results: The mean distance between the inferior third molar root and the lingual cortical mandibular bone was −1.09 ± 1.5 mm. The nearness of the root that is less than 1 mm was more frequent in the D-group (84.85%) compared to the C-group (14.58%) with statistical significance (Odd ratio: 32.8) using the Chi-square test. Conclusions: When the root of the impacted inferior third molar is impacted into the lingual cortical plate, a periapical band-like radiolucent sign may appear in the OPG image. It could be useful for the prediction of root position and surgical risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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10 pages, 2617 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dental Surface after De-Bonding Orthodontic Bracket Bonded with a Novel Fluorescent Composite: In Vitro Comparative Study
by Marco Farronato, Davide Farronato, Francesco Inchingolo, Laura Grassi, Valentina Lanteri and Cinzia Maspero
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6354; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146354 - 9 Jul 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
The use of a new fluorescent composite can reduce some of the problems related to procedures of de-bonding orthodontic bracket (enamel damage, dentine lesions, and composite residuals). The aim of the presented study was to compare the effect of fluorescent and conventional non-fluorescent [...] Read more.
The use of a new fluorescent composite can reduce some of the problems related to procedures of de-bonding orthodontic bracket (enamel damage, dentine lesions, and composite residuals). The aim of the presented study was to compare the effect of fluorescent and conventional non-fluorescent composite on dental surface and composite remnants by in vitro de-bonding tests. De-bonding of florescent composite (DFC) and the de-bonding of standard composite (DSC) were performed by operators on an in vitro sample of 48 teeth under UV light (360–370 nm min 20 mW/cm2). Modified ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index), scored under 5.0×/235 magnification, was used for evaluation of dental surface after the procedure, and the duration required for de-bonding was measured. Significant differences in ARI between the two groups were observed (Pearson two-tailed p = 0.006 1.4 ± 0.1 95% C.I.), and the average duration of de-bonding was 38 s (DFC) and 77 s (DSC) per tooth, respectively (Mann–Whitney test p = 0.015; 57.7 ± 19.9 95% C.I.). The use of fluorescent composite could significantly improve the quality of de-bonding by reducing the quantity of composite residuals and visible enamel damage, while reducing time needed for successful procedure performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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14 pages, 3139 KiB  
Article
Marginal Adaptation Assessment for Two Composite Layering Techniques Using Dye Penetration, AFM, SEM and FTIR: An In-Vitro Comparative Study
by Andrea Maria Chisnoiu, Marioara Moldovan, Codruta Sarosi, Radu Marcel Chisnoiu, Doina Iulia Rotaru, Ada Gabriela Delean, Ovidiu Pastrav, Alexandrina Muntean, Ioan Petean, Lucian Barbu Tudoran and Mihaela Pastrav
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5657; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125657 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Do the new, modern dental resin composites improve the sealing in cavities restorations? The present study was designed to compare the effect of two different, but most used layering techniques of the dental composite in reducing the marginal microleakage when a brand-new material [...] Read more.
Do the new, modern dental resin composites improve the sealing in cavities restorations? The present study was designed to compare the effect of two different, but most used layering techniques of the dental composite in reducing the marginal microleakage when a brand-new material is used; Class I black cavities were prepared on 120 human extracted teeth and then restored using oblique and horizontal layering technique. The dye penetration analysis, the atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) technique were used to assess the adaptation of the restorative material to the dental structures. Some better results were obtained for oblique layering technique, but the differences to the other method have not been statistically validated. The composite layering technique still remains an open quest and, moreover, in vivo studies should be designed in order to assess microleakage in real conditions of the oral environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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11 pages, 8373 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of TiAl6V4 Alloy Produced with SLM Technique and Used for Customized Mesh in Bone Augmentations
by Nicola De Angelis, Luca Solimei, Claudio Pasquale, Lorenzo Alvito, Alberto Lagazzo and Fabrizio Barberis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5622; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125622 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Bone augmentation procedures represent a real clinical challenge. One option is the use of titanium meshes. Additive manufacturing techniques can provide custom-made devices in titanium alloy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the material used, which can influence the outcomes of [...] Read more.
Bone augmentation procedures represent a real clinical challenge. One option is the use of titanium meshes. Additive manufacturing techniques can provide custom-made devices in titanium alloy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the material used, which can influence the outcomes of the bone augmentation procedure. Specific test samples were obtained from two different manufacturers with two different shapes: surfaces without perforations and with calibrated perforations. Three-point bending tests were run as well as internal friction tests to verify the Young’s modulus. Test samples were placed in two different buffered solutions and analyzed with optical microscopy. A further SEM analysis was done to observe any microstructural modification. Three-point flexural tests were conducted on 12 specimens. Initial bending was observed at lower applied stresses for the perforated samples (503 MPa) compared to non-perforated ones (900 MPa); the ultimate flexural strength was registered at 513 MPa and 1145 MPa for perforated and non-perforated samples, respectively. Both microscopic analyses (optical and SEM) showed no significant alterations. Conclusions: A normal masticatory load cannot modify the device. Chemical action in the case of exposure does not create macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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9 pages, 3520 KiB  
Article
Effect of Photofunctionalization with 6 W or 85 W UVC on the Degree of Wettability of RBM Titanium in Relation to the Irradiation Time
by Arturo Sanchez-Perez, Nuria Cano-Millá, María José Moya Villaescusa, José María Montoya Carralero and Carlos Navarro Cuellar
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5427; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125427 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Photoactivation with ultraviolet C light can reverse the effects derived from biological ageing by restoring a hydrophilic surface. Ten titanium discs were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a 6 W group, and an 85 W group. A drop of double-distilled, [...] Read more.
Photoactivation with ultraviolet C light can reverse the effects derived from biological ageing by restoring a hydrophilic surface. Ten titanium discs were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a 6 W group, and an 85 W group. A drop of double-distilled, deionized, and sterile 10 µL water was applied to each of the discs. Each disc was immediately photographed in a standardized and perpendicular manner. Measurements were taken based on the irradiation time (15, 30, 60, and 120 min). UVC irradiation improved the control values in both groups. There was no difference in its effect between the 6 W group and the other groups during the first 30 min. However, after 60 min and up to 120 min, 85 W had a significantly stronger effect. The contact angles with the 85 W ultraviolet light source at 60 and 120 min were 19.43° and 31.41°, respectively, whereas the contact angles for the 6 W UVC source were 73.8° and 61.45°. Power proved to be the most important factor, and the best hydrophilicity result was obtained with a power of 85 W for 60 min at a wavelength of 254 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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12 pages, 14038 KiB  
Article
Effect of Digital Technologies on the Marginal Accuracy of Conventional and Cantilever Co–Cr Posterior-Fixed Partial Dentures Frameworks
by Celia Tobar, Verónica Rodríguez, Carlos Lopez-Suarez, Jesús Peláez, Jorge Cortés-Bretón Brinckmann and María J. Suárez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11072988 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
The introduction of new digital technologies represents an important advance to fabricate metal–ceramic restorations. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of these technologies on the fit of the restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different manufacturing [...] Read more.
The introduction of new digital technologies represents an important advance to fabricate metal–ceramic restorations. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of these technologies on the fit of the restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different manufacturing techniques and pontic design on the vertical marginal fit of cobalt–-chromium (Co–Cr) posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs) frameworks. Methods: Eighty stainless-steel dies were prepared to receive 3-unit FPDs frameworks with intermediate pontic (n = 40) and cantilever pontic (n = 40). Within each design, the specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each) depending on the manufacturing technique: casting (CM), direct metal laser sintering (LS), soft metal milling (SM), and hard metal milling (HM). The frameworks were luted, and the vertical marginal discrepancy was assessed. Data analysis was made using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Results: The vertical marginal discrepancy values of all FPDs were below 50 μm. The HM frameworks obtained the lowest misfit values in both designs. However, no differences were found among intermediate pontic groups or cantilevered groups. Likewise, when differences in a marginal discrepancy between both framework designs were analyzed, no differences were observed. Conclusions: The analyzed digital technologies demonstrated high precision of fit on Co–Cr frameworks and on both pontic designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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7 pages, 2196 KiB  
Article
Hypersensitivity in Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: Superficial Infiltration Treatment
by Alberto Murri Dello Diago, Milena Cadenaro, Rossana Ricchiuto, Federico Banchelli, Enrico Spinas, Vittorio Checchi and Luca Giannetti
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041823 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4655
Abstract
To date, there are no standardized protocols available in the literature for hypersensitivity treatment in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of erosion–infiltration treatments with resin in children with a strong hypersensitivity and also [...] Read more.
To date, there are no standardized protocols available in the literature for hypersensitivity treatment in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of erosion–infiltration treatments with resin in children with a strong hypersensitivity and also to develop a minimally invasive diagnostic–therapeutic pathway for young MIH patients. Patients with clinical signs of MIH were enrolled according to international guidelines. A total of 42 patients (8–14 years old) with sensitivity of at least one molar and patients with post eruptive enamel fractures, but without dentin involvement or cavitated carious lesions were selected. A single superficial infiltration treatment with ICON (DMG, Germany) was performed with a modified etching technique. Sensitivity was tested with the Schiff Scale and Wong Baker Face Scale and was repeated at 12 months follow-up. All patients reported lower sensitivity values at the end of the treatment. Significant differences of sensitivity according to the Schiff scale were reported between T0 and all subsequent follow-ups, p < 0.05. The treatment of erosion infiltration with ICON resin is a minimally invasive preventive treatment that significantly improves the problem of hypersensitivity in permanent molars with MIH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

20 pages, 626 KiB  
Review
Finding the Perfect Membrane: Current Knowledge on Barrier Membranes in Regenerative Procedures: A Descriptive Review
by Sorina-Mihaela Solomon, Irina-Georgeta Sufaru, Silvia Teslaru, Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc and Celina Silvia Stafie
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031042 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5909
Abstract
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) became common procedures in the corrective phase of periodontal treatment. In order to obtain good quality tissue neo-formation, most techniques require the use of a membrane that will act as a barrier, having as [...] Read more.
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) became common procedures in the corrective phase of periodontal treatment. In order to obtain good quality tissue neo-formation, most techniques require the use of a membrane that will act as a barrier, having as a main purpose the blocking of cell invasion from the gingival epithelium and connective tissue into the newly formed bone structure. Different techniques and materials have been developed, aiming to obtain the perfect barrier membrane. The membranes can be divided according to the biodegradability of the base material into absorbable membranes and non-absorbable membranes. The use of absorbable membranes is extremely widespread due to their advantages, but in clinical situations of significant tissue loss, the use of non-absorbable membranes is often still preferred. This descriptive review presents a synthesis of the types of barrier membranes available and their characteristics, as well as future trends in the development of barrier membranes along with some allergological aspects of membrane use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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16 pages, 603 KiB  
Review
A Brief Review on Micro-Implants and Their Use in Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics
by Sorana-Maria Bucur, Luminița Ligia Vaida, Cristian Doru Olteanu and Vittorio Checchi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10719; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210719 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2969
Abstract
The aim of this study was to review the literature and evaluate the failure rates and factors that affect the stability and success of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) used as orthodontic anchorage. Data was collected from electronic databases: MEDLINE database and Google Scholar. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to review the literature and evaluate the failure rates and factors that affect the stability and success of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) used as orthodontic anchorage. Data was collected from electronic databases: MEDLINE database and Google Scholar. Four combinations of term were used as keywords: “micro-implant”, “mini-implant”, “mini-screw”, and “orthodontics”. The following selection criteria were used to select appropriate articles: articles on implants and screws used as orthodontic anchorage, published in English, with both prospective and retrospective clinical and experimental investigations. The search provided 209 abstracts about TADs used as anchorage. After reading and applying the selection criteria, 66 articles were included in the study. The data obtained were divided into two topics: which factors affected TAD success rate and to what degree and in how many articles they were quoted. Clinical factors were divided into three main groups: patient-related, implant related, and management-related factors. Although all articles included in this meta-analysis reported success rates of greater than 80 percent, the factors determining success rates were inconsistent between the studies analyzed and this made conclusions difficult. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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