Functional Bakery Products: Technological, Chemical and Nutritional Modification

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 9801

Special Issue Editors

Department of Plant Food Technology and Gastronomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8 Street, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
Interests: cereal-based products; food rheology; bakery and pasta technology; dietary fiber; physicochemical properties
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Department of Plant Food Technology and Gastronomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
Interests: cereal-based products; food rheology; bakery and pasta technology; dietary fiber; cereal milling; physicochemical properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Biological Bases of Food and Feed Technologies, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: management of by-products; cold pressing oil technology; bakery products; textural properties; nutritional value of food
Department of Analysis and Food Quality Assessment, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
Interests: pulse electric fields; bioaccumulation; food analysis; sensory analysis; bacteria cells biomass; yeast cells biomass
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bakery products such as bread, rolls, cookies, pies, pastries, bars and muffins are an important part of the diet of today’s consumer. The growing consumer interest in the health benefits of food has forced the development of new food products and the introduction of changes in the recipes and technology of traditionally consumed products. These trends also apply to bakery products, which are usually prepared from flour or meal derived from different kinds of grain (both cereal and noncereal). Depending on the main and additional ingredients, bakery products can be an excellent source of complex carbohydrates, including starch, dietary fiber, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals with targeted beneficial effects on the human body. Bakery products can be functional by themselves or can be made functional by applying any technological or biotechnological means to increase the concentration of, add, remove or modify a particular component as well as to improve its bioavailability. The functional and health properties of food depend not only on the content of nutrients, non-nutrients, and chemical pollutants, but also on the various methods food treatment.

You are cordially invited to submit review articles and original research papers focused on:

  • The development of new bakery products with functional properties;
  • Advances in bakery processing and the influence of processing on functional properties;
  • Fortified and reformulated recipes;
  • Nutritional and functional properties of bakery products;
  • Bioactive substances in bakery products;
  • Safety and functional aspects of bakery products.

Dr. Anna Wirkijowska
Dr. Piotr Zarzycki
Dr. Agata Blicharz-Kania
Prof. Dr. Urszula Pankiewicz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health properties
  • fortification
  • cereal-based food
  • nutritional quality
  • food quality
  • bioactive substances
  • food processing
  • innovative technology

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

25 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Shortbread Cookies Enriched with Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus Powders
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14051938 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Mushrooms, due to their basic composition and the presence of numerous mycochemicals, can be used to improve various food matrices. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of replacing wheat flour (2%, 4%, 6% w/w) with mushroom [...] Read more.
Mushrooms, due to their basic composition and the presence of numerous mycochemicals, can be used to improve various food matrices. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of replacing wheat flour (2%, 4%, 6% w/w) with mushroom lyophilisates from cultivated mushrooms—A. bisporus and P. ostreatus—on the technological quality, basic nutritional and elemental composition, antioxidant activity (ABTS, FRAP), total polyphenol content (TPC), and sensory evaluation of shortbread cookies. The functional properties of blended flours were also determined, such as bulk density (BD), water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC, OHC), swelling capacity (SW), and water solubility index (WSI). The results show that the amounts of protein, fiber, and ash were higher in cookies enriched with mushrooms than in control cookies. The enriched products, depending on the amount of mushroom powder used and the mushroom species, had a higher content of zinc, iron, magnesium, potassium, and copper. The increase in the addition of mushroom powder resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the TPC content and antioxidant properties. The use of composite flours contributed to a significant increase in hardness (at 6% mushroom powder) and a change in color parameters, with lower whiteness and a greater ΔE recorded for cookies with A. bisporus lyophilisate. In the sensory evaluation, the samples enriched with P. ostreatus powder received higher scores compared with control samples, while the cookies with A. bisporus flour were evaluated lower than the control. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1522 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Value, Physical Properties, and Sensory Quality of Sugar-Free Cereal Bars Fortified with Grape and Apple Pomace
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10531; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810531 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Cereal bars are so-called convenience foods. Consumers value these products as a healthier alternative to traditional chocolate bars. Since these snacks usually contain added dried fruit, they have high potential for the utilisation of waste materials from the fruit industry. The study aimed [...] Read more.
Cereal bars are so-called convenience foods. Consumers value these products as a healthier alternative to traditional chocolate bars. Since these snacks usually contain added dried fruit, they have high potential for the utilisation of waste materials from the fruit industry. The study aimed to determine the effect of fortification of cereal bars with grape and apple pomace on their nutritional value, physical properties, and sensory quality. The control recipe was modified by replacing 10 or 20 g of sultanas with apple or grape pomace. The fortification with these food by-products resulted in a significant increase in the moisture content of the products, an increase in soluble fibre content, and a decrease in the level of antioxidant compounds. The strength of the cereal bars supplemented with grape and apple pomace increased. In addition, the panellists noticed a colour difference compared to the unmodified product (2 < ΔE < 5). A positive effect of the addition of the fruit pomace on the visual characteristics of the cereal bars was also observed. No changes were observed in the tastiness of the product. On the other hand, the aroma of the modified products and the texture of the bars containing the apple residue were less acceptable. In conclusion, cereal bars containing grape pomace and up to 10 g of apple pomace are characterised by high soluble dietary fibre content and desirable sensory and mechanical properties and are therefore recommended for industrial production. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Effect of Plant Extracts Addition on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Biscuits
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9674; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179674 - 27 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
Biscuits are one of the most consumed bakery products that contain a high content of fat, sugar, and different additives that may cause various health problems. This has led to an increased focus on enriching bakery products with plant extracts to improve their [...] Read more.
Biscuits are one of the most consumed bakery products that contain a high content of fat, sugar, and different additives that may cause various health problems. This has led to an increased focus on enriching bakery products with plant extracts to improve their nutritional and sensory properties. The objective of the current work was to investigate the effect of replacing wheat flour with plant extracts such as blueberry and cranberry (at concentrations of 3%, 6%, and 9%) and compare with control biscuits regarding the physico-chemical and color parameters. In addition, sensory analysis was conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of the enriched biscuits. The enrichment of biscuits with blueberry powder significantly increased the moisture content and decreased pH values (p < 0.05). Similarly, cranberry-enriched biscuits had a significantly higher moisture content, water activity, and decreased pH values compared to control samples (p < 0.05). On the other hand, enrichment of biscuits with either blueberry or cranberry powder significantly decreased lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), chroma value (C*), and h-value (h) but increased the redness values (a* value) of samples (p < 0.05). Our results showed that with increasing concentrations of plant extract addition in biscuits, the sensory attributes such as odor and taste were significantly improved. The results of the study suggest that the addition of plant extracts to biscuits improved their physico-chemical and sensory properties. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3003 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Tomato and Pepper Processing Waste on Bread Quality
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9312; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169312 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Worldwide, there is a significant amount of food waste, highlighting the need to reduce waste throughout the production process. This study investigated the impact of incorporating vegetable processing waste from tomatoes (TP) and bell peppers (PB) on dough characteristics and bread quality, with [...] Read more.
Worldwide, there is a significant amount of food waste, highlighting the need to reduce waste throughout the production process. This study investigated the impact of incorporating vegetable processing waste from tomatoes (TP) and bell peppers (PB) on dough characteristics and bread quality, with concentrations of TP and PB ranging from 3% to 12% based on flour weight. The addition of TP and PB influenced the farinograph characteristics, increasing water absorption, dough development, and softening while reducing stability time. However, the changes in bread quality, including baking yield, loss, volume, and crumb porosity, were not significant. The texture properties, such as hardness, chewiness, and cohesiveness of the crumb, showed no significant changes within the supplemented levels up to 9%. Additionally, the TP and PB had a significant impact on the color of the bread crumb, increasing redness and yellowness, particularly with PB. Fortification with TP and PB up to 9% resulted in baking characteristics comparable to 100% wheat bread. The addition of TP and PB changed nutrient content, particularly dietary fiber, without significantly altering the caloric value of the bread. However, semi-consumer sensory evaluation indicated a decrease in aroma and taste when PB exceeded 9%, and a similar effect on taste was indicated when TP exceeded 9%. In conclusion, TP and PB at supplementation levels up to 9% can enhance the nutritional profile of bread and maintain its baking quality. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Sourdough Wheat Bread Enriched with Grass Pea and Lupine Seed Flour: Physicochemical and Sensory Properties
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8664; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158664 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
Legume seeds, such as grass pea, yellow lupine, and narrow-leaf lupine, are highly nutritious and offer a wide range of health benefits. The objective of this research was to explore the possibility of partially replacing wheat flour (at levels of 10, 15, 20, [...] Read more.
Legume seeds, such as grass pea, yellow lupine, and narrow-leaf lupine, are highly nutritious and offer a wide range of health benefits. The objective of this research was to explore the possibility of partially replacing wheat flour (at levels of 10, 15, 20, and 25%) with flour derived from these legume seeds in sourdough wheat bread and examine its impact on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the bread. The physical properties of the dough were also assessed. The substitution of wheat flour with ground legume seeds resulted in increased water absorption (from 54.1 to 63.5%) and prolonged dough development time (from 2.0 to 13.5 min). Ground lupine seeds reduced the volume of the bread and increased its crumb density, consequently making the bread harder. The most significant increase in hardness was observed when narrow-leaf lupine flour was added to the wheat flour (from 8.4 to 22.5 N). Narrow-leaf lupine had the greatest impact on enhancing the protein content in the enriched bread (from 11.5 to 20%), while yellow lupine caused the highest increase in fiber content (from 1.9 to 6.9%). The proposed additives slightly but significantly (p < 0.05) increased the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the bread samples. Importantly, for all legume seeds, replacing up to 15% of the wheat flour allowed the production of bread with high consumer acceptability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2620 KiB  
Article
Effect of Type of Flour and Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) on the Rheological, Microstructural, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Vegan Muffins
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7632; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137632 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a recipe for vegan muffins using wheat flour (100%) and a blend of whole-grain spelt flour (50%) and wheat flour (50%) enriched with microalgae (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (g/100 g flour)). Replacing wheat flour [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop a recipe for vegan muffins using wheat flour (100%) and a blend of whole-grain spelt flour (50%) and wheat flour (50%) enriched with microalgae (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (g/100 g flour)). Replacing wheat flour with whole-grain spelt flour and adding microalgae while eliminating egg white from a recipe can affect the rheological properties of the dough and also the microstructure and texture of the muffins. The study analyzed the effects of the type of flour and the addition of microalgae on the rheological properties of the raw dough, measured through the oscillatory method, as well as the texture and microstructure, determined via X-ray microtomography. Additionally, the sensorial quality of the muffins was analyzed. The use of spelt flour in the formulation of muffins affected the rheological properties of the dough irrespective of the addition of microalgae. The dough made with spelt flour exhibited higher viscosity (consistency coefficient (K) was 74.7 Pa·sn), but it was more cohesive and less springy compared to the dough made with wheat flour alone, which had a K = 58.3 Pa·sn. Incorporating a mixture of spelt and wheat flour along with a 1.5% addition of microalgae made the dough more viscous (K = 118.6 Pa·sn), leading to a fine, porous microstructure (porosity was 69.7%) and a crumbly texture (hardness was 52.2 N) in the muffins. On the other hand, the wheat flour dough with 1.5% microalgae had a consistency coefficient of 69.3 Pa·sn, while the muffin porosity was 67.1% and the hardness 61.8 N. The microstructure had a strong effect on the texture of the muffin crumb. The new wheat flour products with microalgae exhibited a higher proportion of closed pores in their microstructure, whereas samples containing spelt flour and microalgae showed the opposite trend, with more open pores. The greatest difference in closed pores was observed with the addition of 1.5% of microalgae (33.4% in wheat muffins and 26.9% in spelled muffins). The presence of closed porosity contributed to the harder and less consistent texture observed in the muffins. However, despite the instrumental evaluation results, all the new products were accepted by consumers in terms of appearance, taste, and overall quality. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Fungistatic Properties of Calendula officinalis L. Water Extract and the Effect of Its Addition on the Quality of Wheat Bread
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7286; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127286 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The potential of Calendula officinalis water extract against fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. and the effect of extract addition on the quality of wheat bread were investigated. In vitro, the extract reduced the mycelial growth and biomass production of A. niger, [...] Read more.
The potential of Calendula officinalis water extract against fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. and the effect of extract addition on the quality of wheat bread were investigated. In vitro, the extract reduced the mycelial growth and biomass production of A. niger, but there was no inhibitory effect on Penicillium sp. Enriched bread showed significantly higher total phenolic content, by about 77% and 95% in the bread, in which 10% and 15% of the water was replaced with extract, respectively. The antioxidant potential against DPPH• was significantly higher (compared to the control) in both variants used in the experiment, and the level of antioxidant activity increased with the addition of extract. The enriched bread had good quality characteristics—lower baking losses and higher volume than the control. The moisture content and acidity of the crumb of the extract-enriched bread were also higher. The extract additive used did not affect the sensory properties of the bread. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 1222 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Aquafaba as a Structure-Shaping Additive in Plant-Derived Food Technology
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4122; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074122 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3479
Abstract
Aquafaba is the water solution left over from cooking legumes, mainly chickpeas. The liquid can also be obtained from canned beans. Aquafaba is currently very popular as an egg replacement in vegan diets. The chemical composition of aquafaba depends on the type of [...] Read more.
Aquafaba is the water solution left over from cooking legumes, mainly chickpeas. The liquid can also be obtained from canned beans. Aquafaba is currently very popular as an egg replacement in vegan diets. The chemical composition of aquafaba depends on the type of legume, variety, genotype and parameters during production, such as cooking time or proportions of water to seeds. Aquafaba can be used for its nutritional properties. Aquafaba is starting to be used more widely in food technology as well, due to its innovative texture-shaping properties. The foaming, emulsifying, gelling and thickening properties of aquafaba can be used in plant-based food recipes, but also in animal-based food recipes and 3D printing. So far, aquafaba has been used to make meringues, cakes, cookies, bread, crackers and vegan dairy substitutes. This raw material is used for the production of low-calorie food and for people on an egg-free diet. Perhaps the potential of this product is greater. The use of waste from legumes will be the answer from food producers to the needs of consumers, for whom environmental protection or the clean label trend are particularly important. In order to effectively use aquafaba in food technology, it is necessary to standardize its production process and conduct further research on the potential of using other legumes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop