Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 9332

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Athanasia Koliadima
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
Interests: physicochemical aspects of food processing; the development of new chromatographic techniques for determining physicochemical quantities; physicochemical studies of alcoholic fermentation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of the Peloponnese, 24100 Kalamata, Greece
Interests: physicochemical aspects in food biotechnology; food quality and safety; kinetic study of alcoholic fermentation; physical chemistry of interfaces
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; probiotics; functional foods; dairy products; meat products; bacterial genetics; genomics; metagenomics; bacteriocins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food production involves various processes that affect the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties of the food produced. The application of these various processes affects the food in terms of stability, texture, taste, colour, etc., but also acquires properties that make the new food suitable for different groups of the population with specific needs or health problems.

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue which will be dedicated to presenting methodologies applied in food production or food modification, and how these processes affect the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties of foods.

Original research articles, short communications, or review articles could be published in this Special Issue.

Dr. Athanasia Koliadima
Dr. John Kapolos
Dr. Konstantinos Papadimitriou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food processing
  • chemical properties of food
  • microbiological stability
  • chemical modification
  • physical properties
  • physical modification
  • texture
  • flavor
  • food perception

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Used Bleaching Earth on the Content of Natural Dyes in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Oils
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010390 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Cold-pressed hemp oils are characterized by an intense color, which is undesirable when used directly. Therefore, research was undertaken on removing chlorophyll and carotenoids effectively. This publication presents the results of tests that verified the adsorption properties of seven bleaching earths (BE1–BE7) in [...] Read more.
Cold-pressed hemp oils are characterized by an intense color, which is undesirable when used directly. Therefore, research was undertaken on removing chlorophyll and carotenoids effectively. This publication presents the results of tests that verified the adsorption properties of seven bleaching earths (BE1–BE7) in two doses (2.5% and 5.0%) in the low-temperature bleaching process of hemp oils. These oils were obtained by cold and hot pressing of the seeds of three varieties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): Finola, Earlina 8FC, and Secuieni Jubileu. The color change and the content of carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in the bleached oils were verified using the colorimetric method (CIE-Lab). The BEs used had different abilities to reduce the content of natural dyes connected with oil decolorization. The conducted research allowed us to characterize the influence of BEs on the organoleptic properties of the tested oils. Hemp oil obtained from the Secuieni Jubileu CP and HP hemp variety should be bleached with unmodified magnesian bentonite at 2.5%. Unmodified attapulgite clay is not recommended for this variety, as it strongly adsorbs carotenoids from the oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing)
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9 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Effect of Drying Temperature of Ambar Pumpkin on Proximate Composition and Content of Bioactive Ingredients
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8302; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148302 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Pumpkins are often used as a fodder component and food due to their high nutritional value and share of bioactive components (e.g., carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs)). Due to their high moisture content, they must be preserved; drying is still the most popular [...] Read more.
Pumpkins are often used as a fodder component and food due to their high nutritional value and share of bioactive components (e.g., carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs)). Due to their high moisture content, they must be preserved; drying is still the most popular method. Our work aimed to assess the optimal drying temperature to keep the best possible nutritional value of the raw material. For this purpose, pumpkin was dried at 40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C. Then, the proximate composition, carotenoid content, fatty acids, and antioxidant properties were determined. The results indicate that the carotenoids were relatively stable up to 60 °C and then decreased sharply. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was the highest at 40 °C and 60 °C. However, in the case of PUFA content, drying at 80 °C was the most effective, probably due to the shorter exposure time to the stimulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing)
12 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Wheat Noodles Supplemented with Soy Protein Isolate for Nutritional, Textural, Cooking Attributes and Glycemic Index
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7772; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137772 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 875
Abstract
The elderly population in developed countries has increased rapidly in recent years; the elderly may be at greater risk of protein deficiency due to dietary, socio-economic, dental, and physical restrictions. Therefore, to address the issue of protein deficiency in elderly people, the present [...] Read more.
The elderly population in developed countries has increased rapidly in recent years; the elderly may be at greater risk of protein deficiency due to dietary, socio-economic, dental, and physical restrictions. Therefore, to address the issue of protein deficiency in elderly people, the present study aimed to enhance the protein content of high-gluten flour noodles, an Asian staple food, by supplementing them with soybean protein isolate (SPI) powder. The effect of SPI addition (5–20%, w/w) on composition, quality, texture, physical and sensory properties, and glycemic index (GI) of high-gluten flour noodles was investigated. The noodles made only from high-gluten flour served as control. In comparison to control noodles, 20% SPI noodles showed a rise in protein and moisture content from 16.17% to 30.64% and 36.06 to 44.84%, respectively. The cooking yield and cooking loss increased with an increase in SPI concentration compared to control noodles. Color characteristics analysis revealed the decreasing trend in brightness and yellowness of SPI noodles with minimal L* and b* values at a 20% SPI concentration. The addition of SPI also resulted in a decrease in the hardness and tensile strength of the noodles. The sensory analysis showed that 5% SPI noodles were more similar to control noodles in terms of flavor, taste, and overall acceptability. Moreover, the addition of SPI to the noodles significantly decreased the GI of the noodles reaching the standard of low-GI food. The findings of the current study indicate that soy protein noodles, besides supplementing the desired nutrients, may also prevent the risk of diabetes in elderly people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing)
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13 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Microbiological Changes Associated with Processing in Dry-Cured Tuna
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 5900; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13105900 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Dry-cured tuna is a traditional product manufactured in the Mediterranean region of Spain, known as mojama. The traditional salting-drying elaboration process attributes new organoleptic characteristics to the final product, changing its flavor, color, and nutritional value. This study aimed to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Dry-cured tuna is a traditional product manufactured in the Mediterranean region of Spain, known as mojama. The traditional salting-drying elaboration process attributes new organoleptic characteristics to the final product, changing its flavor, color, and nutritional value. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters taking place during the process. The physicochemical parameters were affected by the processing steps (salting, salt-washing, and drying), except for total acidity and pH. The water activity value and relative moisture percentage decreased to 0.86 and 33.03%, respectively. Moreover, the addition of salt and the drying step increased the water-holding capacity. The lipid oxidation values increased from raw tuna loins to the final product (1.37 vs. 5.56 mg malondialdehyde/kg). Moreover, the total volatile basic nitrogen values increased in the final product, fundamentally due to the concentration effect caused by the water loss, although may also be due to the degradation of proteins during processing. The microbiological analysis showed that the values obtained in the dry-cured tuna were below the limits established by the reference regulation for dry-cured fish products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing)
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21 pages, 2625 KiB  
Article
Traditional Cultivars Influence on Physical and Engineering Properties of Rice from the Cauvery Deltaic Region of Tamil Nadu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5705; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095705 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 3110
Abstract
Standard unit operations/equipment have not evolved for the traditional rice varieties of the Cauvery Deltaic region of Tamil Nadu. The fame of traditional rice is increasing nowadays owing to its health benefits. Non-standard unit operations may cause rice grains to crack during milling, [...] Read more.
Standard unit operations/equipment have not evolved for the traditional rice varieties of the Cauvery Deltaic region of Tamil Nadu. The fame of traditional rice is increasing nowadays owing to its health benefits. Non-standard unit operations may cause rice grains to crack during milling, accumulating more broken rice and yields in products of inferior quality. As a result, research into the physical properties of rice is crucial for the development of rice processing equipment that minimizes post-harvest losses during milling. Hence, an assessment was made to evaluate 30 traditional rice cultivars on their Physical (grain length, width, thickness, shape, and size), gravimetric (bulk, true, tapped density, porosity, Carr’s index, and Hausner ratio), and engineering characteristics (equivalent, arithmetic, square mean, and geometric mean diameter) using standard protocols, with the goal of reviving and preserving older varieties. The results from the analysis showed significant variations (p < 0.05) between all properties that were evaluated. According to length, a substantial amount of traditional rice varieties were long grain (76.7%), whereas (16.7%) belonged to the medium type and (3.3%) were short-grain types, respectively. There were variations among the three different categories of local rice grains when it comes to size, ranging from 3.26 to 4.69 mm for arithmetic mean diameter, 2.84 to 4.00 mm for geometric mean diameter, and 3.02 to 4.28 mm for square mean diameter, respectively. Sphericity, aspect ratio, and surface area measurements of the samples varied from 37.7% to 81.2%, 0.26 to 1.00, and 25.4 to 50.1 mm2, respectively. Of the 30 varieties, 28 were under the high amylose category, and 2 belonged to the intermediate type. The Pearson correlation was established to study the interrelationships between the dimensions and engineering properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced the dimensionality of 540 data into five principal components (PC), which explained 95.7% of the total variance. These findings suggest that it is possible to revive old landraces through careful selection and analysis of these properties. The superior characteristics of these traditional varieties can be further evaluated for breeding programs in order to improve the cultivation of these cherished rice landraces to enhance nutritional security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing)
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15 pages, 1708 KiB  
Article
Shelf-Life Assessment of Bread Partially Substituted with Soy Protein Isolate
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3960; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063960 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Partial substitution of flour with soy protein isolate in bread making increases the protein content and nutritional value of baked goods as it contains more lysine than wheat flour. However, changes in the bread recipe alter the pH and amino acid content of [...] Read more.
Partial substitution of flour with soy protein isolate in bread making increases the protein content and nutritional value of baked goods as it contains more lysine than wheat flour. However, changes in the bread recipe alter the pH and amino acid content of the baked good, and product assessment is required to determine whether the product is a non-time/temperature control for safety food. This study examines the effects of substituting high-gluten flour with 2–8% soy protein isolate on bread quality and on the shelf life of the bread using the microbiological challenge test. The results indicate that increased soy protein isolate substitution reduces the volume and specific volume of bread. Six percent soy protein isolate-fortified bread also had a poorer taste, and, therefore, the optimal substitution amount is 4%. Based on the yeast and mold growth during the storage period, the 4% soy protein isolate-fortified bread has a shelf life of four days, while the 2% soy protein isolate-fortified bread has a shelf life of five days. The microbiological challenge test results revealed that the substitution of flour with soy protein isolate is conducive to Staphylococcus aureus growth within the bread. To summarize, the optimal soy protein isolate substitution in bread is 4%, which offers a four-day shelf life at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Physical Properties in Food Processing)
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