Histopathological Diagnosis in Applied Sciences

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 7886

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa
Interests: histopathology; histomorphology; tissue and organ toxicology; immunohistochemistry; cytochemistry; immunofluorescence; macroscopic and microscopic morphological changes; molecular toxicity; cellular/cytological toxicity of food additives; chemical-drug–tissue interactions; reactive oxygen species; endothelial cell biology; cardiotoxicity; computerized histopathology; neurohistopathology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Histopathology is the branch of pathology and histology concerned with changes in tissues that underpin a disease state. It is of critical significance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of disease. Currently, histopathology is complemented by molecular techniques which allow the detection of molecular “lesions” underlying the development of disease. It therefore utilizes the microscopic examination of cells, biopsy, and surgical or animal specimens in the characterization of disease types, diagnosis and in determining the severity, progression and pattern of a disease. Several structural and functional aspects of diagnosis may be induced by a broad spectrum of factors. Therefore, this Special Issue is focused on gathering histological, biochemical, and genetic evidence in cells, tissues, and organs underlying several diseases, therapeutics, adjuvants, and environmental toxins to identify new potential diagnostic criteria at histopathological and molecular levels. An understanding of the changes that occur in the normal structure and function of different tissues is essential for interpreting the changes that occur during the disease process, as well as intervention studies including impact of herbal extracts. This Special Issue welcomes original research articles and reviews involving fresh, fixed, processed, and homogenized specimens assayed and analyzed using computerized imaging analysis, RT-PCR, cyto-histological correlations, immunohistochemistry, and special histology stains as tools to visualize specific structural and biochemical pathologies relative to diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics in different disease conditions.

Dr. Ejikeme Felix Mbajiorgu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • oxidative stress
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • metabolic syndrome
  • diabetes
  • environmental toxicity
  • drug toxicosis
  • time-dependent autophagy
  • histomorphology
  • drug–tissue interactions
  • embryotoxicity and teratology
  • forensic histopathology and toxicology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 30527 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Perinatal Resveratrol on Bisphenol A Exposure-Induced Cardiovascular Alterations and Hepatic Steatosis in Adult Offspring Mice: A Histopathological Study
by Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla, Mohamed Al-Mushaiqri, Fatma Al Ghafri, Nadia Al-Abri and Isehaq Al-Huseini
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13163; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413163 - 11 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure promotes the risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Currently, there is a dire need to develop new therapeutic strategies and options to treat the adverse fetal programming consequences of this exposure. The present study explored the protective effects [...] Read more.
Perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure promotes the risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Currently, there is a dire need to develop new therapeutic strategies and options to treat the adverse fetal programming consequences of this exposure. The present study explored the protective effects of perinatal resveratrol (Rsv) administration on BPA exposure-induced adverse cardiovascular changes and hepatic steatosis in adult offspring mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were exposed to BPA in drinking water (1 μg/mL) or to both BPA (1 μg/mL) and Rsv (oral; 20 mg kg−1 day−1) during the gestation and lactation periods. Tissues from the heart, liver, left kidney, and brachiocephalic artery from adult offspring (20 weeks old) were processed for staining with H and E, Masson’s trichrome, and Verhoeff–van Gieson and subsequent histology analysis. In both female and male mice who received Rsv supplementation, the following changes were observed in the brachiocephalic arterial wall: (a) a reduction in the BPA exposure-induced increased thickness ratio of the tunica intima to tunica media from 1.3 ± 1.1 µm to 0.5 ± 0.37 µm (p = 0.027) and 0.72 ± 0.58 µm to 0.29 ± 0.25 µm (p = 0.038), respectively, (b) a reduction in the number of elastic lamina breaks (p < 0.05), and (c) the prevention of the BPA exposure-induced progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Further, it also reduced the BPA exposure-induced increased left ventricular thickness by 135 µm and 131 µm in female and male offspring, respectively. The BPA exposure-induced hepatic steatosis score was also significantly reduced with Rsv treatment in female offspring mice (p = 0.02). Renal cortical cytoplasmic vacuolation was identified in both BPA and/or Rsv-treated groups. Our findings suggest that Rsv could be a potential protective candidate against perinatal BPA exposure-induced cardiovascular changes and hepatic steatosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histopathological Diagnosis in Applied Sciences)
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23 pages, 6981 KiB  
Article
Impact of Concurrent Exposure of Diabetic Male Sprague Dawley Rats to Alcohol and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) on Reproductive Capacity
by Elna Owembabazi, Pilani Nkomozepi and Ejikeme F. Mbajiorgu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 5096; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13085096 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
The prevalence of diabetic patients who abuse alcohol while on combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART) therapy is rising in society. Little is known about the impact of this scenario on the testes and male reproductive viability, and therefore, these factors were evaluated. Thirty [...] Read more.
The prevalence of diabetic patients who abuse alcohol while on combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART) therapy is rising in society. Little is known about the impact of this scenario on the testes and male reproductive viability, and therefore, these factors were evaluated. Thirty 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were distributed into five groups of six rats each: control, diabetic only (DM), diabetic treated with alcohol (DM+A), diabetic treated with Atripla, fixed-dose cART (DM+cART), and diabetic treated with both alcohol and cART (DM+A+cART). After 90 days of treatment, rats were terminated, and blood and testes were harvested for immunoassay, histological, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Testicular perturbations of varying severity were recorded in all treated groups for most of the parameters. The DM+A treated group showed the most severe perturbations, followed sequentially by the treated groups DM+A+cART, DM, and DM+cART. Alterations in the testes and seminiferous tubule morphometry as well as the spermatogenic, Sertoli, and Leydig cells were found in all treated groups. Further, a significant decrease in Johnsen’s testicular scores, the appearance of seminiferous tubule lesions, changes in the basement membrane and capsule thickness, and a reduction in the testis connective tissue fibers were demonstrated in the treated groups. Additionally, reproductive hormone levels were altered, and the number and staining intensity of Sertoli and Leydig cells expressing androgen receptors reduced significantly in all treated animals. The study results reveal that the consumption of alcohol and/or the use of cART in diabetic individuals induces a derangement in circulating reproductive hormone levels and in the testicular structure and function, which consequently leads to a decline in the male reproductive capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histopathological Diagnosis in Applied Sciences)
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Review

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16 pages, 22478 KiB  
Review
Genomic Alterations in Melanocytic Tumors: A Review of Spitz Tumors, Blue Nevi, Deep Penetrating Melanocytomas and Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytomas
by Rayan Saade and Rami N. Al-Rohil
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14051863 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The arena of melanocytic histopathology has experienced tremendous growth in the last decade. The advancement is attributed to incorporating various molecular tests in benign, intermediate, and malignant melanocytic tumors. Most molecular testing has been mainly applied in clinically advanced-stage melanoma to determine the [...] Read more.
The arena of melanocytic histopathology has experienced tremendous growth in the last decade. The advancement is attributed to incorporating various molecular tests in benign, intermediate, and malignant melanocytic tumors. Most molecular testing has been mainly applied in clinically advanced-stage melanoma to determine the molecular alteration to help guide therapy (e.g., BRAF inhibitors in BRAF mutated melanomas). However, with more availability and, to a certain degree, affordability of certain molecular tests, multiple studies have been conducted on benign/intermediate lesions in an attempt to understand further the driving molecular alterations allowing for the proliferation of certain melanocytic lineages. This review article discusses and illustrates examples of recently recognized entities with their corresponding genomic alterations in the Spitz lineage, blue nevi, deep penetrating melanocytomas, and pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histopathological Diagnosis in Applied Sciences)
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15 pages, 739 KiB  
Review
Paneth Cells and Lgr5+ Intestinal Stem Cells in Radiation Enteritis
by Thifhelimbilu Luvhengo, Uzayr Khan and Thomas Kekgatleope Marumo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052758 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4197
Abstract
Cancer is the leading cause of death in adults and majority of cancers involve abdominal and pelvic organs. Radiotherapy is used in the management of around half of patients who have abdominal and pelvic malignancies and 70% of the treated patients will develop [...] Read more.
Cancer is the leading cause of death in adults and majority of cancers involve abdominal and pelvic organs. Radiotherapy is used in the management of around half of patients who have abdominal and pelvic malignancies and 70% of the treated patients will develop radiation enteritis. The onset of radiation enteritis may delay the completion of treatment or lead to life-threatening conditions such as bowel perforation or obstruction. High-dose ionizing radiation can affect all the layers of the small intestine leading to weakening of its structural integrity, dysbiosis, malabsorption, and derangement of the innate immunity. Advances in the management of cancer has not led to an improvement in the treatment of radiation enteritis as the available preventative or treatment options are still ineffective. Severe acute and chronic radiation enteritis result from the damage to the crypt-based intestinal stem cells and their derivatives, which include the Paneth cells. Paneth cells regulate the proliferation and differentiation of the intestinal stem cells. The other roles of the Paneth cells are protection and nourishment of the intestinal stem cells, and control of the gut microbiota. Paneth cells can also de-differentiate and replace irreversibly damaged intestinal stem cells. This article reviews the anatomy of the epithelium of the small intestine and the intestinal epithelial cells including the Paneth cells. The effect of ionizing radiation on the intestinal stem cells and its derivatives, and the knowledge can be used to develop effective treatment of radiation enteritis is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histopathological Diagnosis in Applied Sciences)
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