Variability of the Usability of Advanced Innovation Technologies of BIM, AI, VR, IoT in Research and Practice

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Industrial Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 12555

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnologies, Institute of Earth Resources, Technical University of Košice, Park Komenskeho 19, 042 00 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: customization; sustainable manufacturing; circular economy; innovative technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies with a seat in Prešov, Technical University of Košice, Bayerova 1, 08001 Prešov, Slovakia
Interests: quality assurance engineering; industrial engineering; mechanical engineering; Industry 4.0; ICT; composites; waste materials; manufacturing; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most industrial sectors are generally considered conservative. Nevertheless, innovations frequently emerge, and new trends in technologies, materials, and construction systems are promoted. In addition to new technologies, individual processes and materials and digitization elements significantly change project preparation, planning, implementation, and realization. All these innovative elements and procedures are tools brought by the fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0. The Industry 4.0 concept seeks to digitize industrial processes to create an adaptable large-scale network of production and services. The concept of the industrial revolution embodies digitization, automation, and increased use of information and communication technologies in all sectors. The construction industry in particular uses technologies for efficiency and sustainability within the individual phases of the project, such as BIM, AI, VR, IoT, etc.

This Special Issue aims to present new ideas and experimental results in the field of using innovative technologies in all industry sectors

Dr. Annamária Behúnová
Dr. Lucia Knapčíková
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • innovation technologies
  • BIM
  • AI
  • VR
  • IoT

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 4706 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Traffic Flows Sustainability on Highway Network Stretches
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9307; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169307 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Assessing the transport flow robustness is a significant aspect of a qualitative solution to traffic management problems. Therefore, management should be based on appropriate criteria, accounting for different factors characterizing traffic flow sustainability. That’s why it is crucial to establish the impact rate [...] Read more.
Assessing the transport flow robustness is a significant aspect of a qualitative solution to traffic management problems. Therefore, management should be based on appropriate criteria, accounting for different factors characterizing traffic flow sustainability. That’s why it is crucial to establish the impact rate for each group of factors on the robustness criterion. Therefore, the current study aims to obtain the dependence of the criterion changes for traffic flow sustainability on the traffic jam occurrence when changing the gradients’ product of traffic flow density and its speed. The value of the robustness criterion allows for performing an impact rating for input factors on traffic flow sustainability. All factors affecting transport flow robustness are divided into three groups. Based on simulation results, factors rating that impact the robustness margin value of the traffic flow is presented. Length and weight of automobiles are at first place according to impact terms on the sustainability loss of the traffic flow. In second place of impact on sustainability loss are the temporary factors group and factors group that considers the roadway environment’s infrastructure. Hence, the results can be used to analyze sustainability traffic flows in controlled highway network stretches and develop measures to increase sustainability reserve. Full article
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14 pages, 2600 KiB  
Article
Advanced Innovation Technology of BIM in a Circular Economy
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7989; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137989 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
The traditional concept of the primary, secondary, tertiary and later quaternary economy is based on several structurally divided and related tasks and processes in processing raw materials and earth resources. Gradually, a new concept of the functioning of the economy was created, called [...] Read more.
The traditional concept of the primary, secondary, tertiary and later quaternary economy is based on several structurally divided and related tasks and processes in processing raw materials and earth resources. Gradually, a new concept of the functioning of the economy was created, called “circular economy” or “circular economy”. Its basis is the transformation of linear economic processes managing the use of raw materials to create a sustainable economic growth model. The circular economy transforms economic activity associated with the consumption of limited resources into the more efficient reuse of resources. Based on the above, the presented article aims, based on theoretical and empirical analysis, to identify the potential of processing and using non-energy raw material—recycled aggregate—in the construction industry and to propose a concept for information modeling of the parameters of sustainable construction using this non-energy raw material per the principles of the circular economy. The solution to this research problem is realized through theoretical analysis and comparison of approaches to the circular economy, reuse of non-energy raw materials in the construction industry and analysis for the creation of a concept based on the use of information needed for sustainable construction planning through building information modeling (BIM). Based on my research, my results will be presented, the applicability of which is verified through a case study. The object of the case study is the construction of a new building, which will represent a set of five similar constructions interconnected by underground floors (garages, technical facilities of buildings) and communication spaces (corridor, hall). The priority of the construction of the centre is to build a sustainable building, i.e., to implement the work using sustainable methods with the greatest possible use of sustainable materials and procedures, which will reduce the impact on the ecosystem and support the goals of the circular economy. Traditional, natural raw materials will be replaced by recycled secondary raw materials within individual constructions and elements. When choosing suitable raw materials, the design of the BIM library of sustainable elements will help. The BIM library will act as a link between manufacturers and BIM digital replicas of real building products and components. Full article
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14 pages, 4131 KiB  
Article
Virtual Reality in Discrete Event Simulation for Production–Assembly Processes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095469 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
The connection of simulation models with virtual reality (VR) technology is of great importance in implementing Industry 4.0 in industrial practice. The article deals with the use of virtual reality in discrete event simulation (DES) using the Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software to visualize, [...] Read more.
The connection of simulation models with virtual reality (VR) technology is of great importance in implementing Industry 4.0 in industrial practice. The article deals with the use of virtual reality in discrete event simulation (DES) using the Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software to visualize, analyze and optimize the modelled production–assembly process. The importance of virtual reality is evident in the academic sphere in connection with interactive teaching and its use for industrial practice. The article presents a case study focused on creating a virtual environment and optimizing the production–assembly process in the TX Plant Simulation software environment. During the mentioned study, the analysis of production–assembly flows, the processing of input data into the simulation model, the creation of 3D elements for the needs of virtualization—which are not part of the TX Plant Simulation software library—and the visualization that simulates the real environment based on computational algorithms were carried out. Virtualization was solved using the Oculus Rift S Headset. The output is a generally applicable procedure for modelling and testing a virtual model with its verification on a case study. Full article
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21 pages, 9696 KiB  
Article
Simulating a Digital Factory and Improving Production Efficiency by Using Virtual Reality Technology
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 5118; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13085118 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The main goal of every production is an optimally set and stable production process with the lowest possible costs. Such settings can only be achieved through many years of experience or very specific research, which focuses on several critical factors. An example of [...] Read more.
The main goal of every production is an optimally set and stable production process with the lowest possible costs. Such settings can only be achieved through many years of experience or very specific research, which focuses on several critical factors. An example of such factors can be the size and use of available space or the location of the production line and the logistical location of individual production sites, which is individual for each production process. Specific research can be carried out, for example, by means of the TX Plant simulation application, which was used in the present article for the production process of making fiber from pellets. The output of this research is the effective use of the so-called “Digital factory” to make the process in the already created conditions more efficient. This was achieved by the TX Plant simulation application, resulting in a reduced production time and increasing overall productivity. An intuitive interaction with factory equipment is possible with this approach, which allows users to immerse themselves in the virtual factory environment. As a result, a layout’s efficiency of surface use, flow of martial, and ergonomics can be assessed in real time. This paper aims to demonstrate how virtual reality (VR) can be used to simulate a digital factory to aid in decision making and enhance factory efficiency. Full article
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16 pages, 4940 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Stress Prediction of an Aircraft Torque Tube Based on the Neural Network Application
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4215; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074215 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The use of a predictive approach in the aviation industry is an important factor in aircraft maintenance. The main goal of this study was to create a new method for stress prediction during the operation of parts and to apply it on an [...] Read more.
The use of a predictive approach in the aviation industry is an important factor in aircraft maintenance. The main goal of this study was to create a new method for stress prediction during the operation of parts and to apply it on an aircraft torque tube (ATT). The method operates in real time during taxiing, takeoff, and landing using a neural network (NN). The stress calculated by the proposed method can be used in the future to calculate fatigue life and to save maintenance costs related to ATTs. This can play an important role in the evaluation of tests, such as unobserved crack failure. The main contribution of the presented methodology is in the fourth part of this study, where a new method of mechanical-stress prediction using a NN is described. The method essentially replaces finite element methods (FEMs), which require large amounts of time. The new method is much faster than commonly available methods, as the NN predicts the mechanical ATT stress in 0.00046 s, whereas the solution time using FEM is 1716 s for the same load step. In total, 36 regimes were calculated by FEMs in 17 h, 9 min and 36 s, whereas the novel method calculated the ATT stress for 36 regimes in 0.0166 s. The accuracy was also high, with R above 0.99. The main innovation presented in this study is the development of a method that can predict ATT stress in a very short time with a high percentage of accuracy and that can be used for stress and life prediction during the operation of parts. The partial results from the experimental tensile tests are also presented, and they are used for FEM calculations. The FEM results are used as inputs for the stress prediction by the NN. Full article
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17 pages, 2391 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Aviation Maintenance through Algorithmic Approach of Real-Life Data
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3824; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063824 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3829
Abstract
The aviation industry has been undergoing significant changes in recent years, driven by technological advancements and the increasing demand for safe and efficient air transportation. One area that has seen significant advancements is aircraft maintenance, with the implementation of progressive technologies playing a [...] Read more.
The aviation industry has been undergoing significant changes in recent years, driven by technological advancements and the increasing demand for safe and efficient air transportation. One area that has seen significant advancements is aircraft maintenance, with the implementation of progressive technologies playing a crucial role. The use of digital technologies has revolutionized the way aircraft maintenance is carried out. For instance, the adoption of predictive maintenance algorithms has enabled airlines to predict when their aircraft will require maintenance, reducing downtime and increasing operational efficiency. This has been made possible by the integration of real-time data. Another technology that has transformed aircraft maintenance is the use of augmented reality and virtual reality. These technologies allow maintenance engineers to carry out procedures with greater accuracy and efficiency, as they can see instructions and parts overlaid on their real-world view. This has been particularly useful for complex and critical tasks, where human error could result in significant consequences. The algorithmization and digitalization of processes is one of the many pillars of the Industry 4.0 concept, which, if used correctly, can dramatically enhance the execution of processes. The algorithmic approach presented in this study can be easily adapted to other industries, and could potentially lead to similar optimizations in other fields. Overall, the implementation of progressive technologies in aircraft maintenance has improved safety, reduced downtime, and increased operational efficiency. Full article
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13 pages, 3453 KiB  
Article
3D Modeling of a Virtual Built Environment Using Digital Tools: Kilburun Fortress Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031577 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
The reliable reconstruction of cultural or historical heritage objects is an urgent problem for humanity. It can be successfully solved using up-to-date 3D modeling tools. The proposed technique allows for modeling virtual environments at an even higher level. This study aimed to develop [...] Read more.
The reliable reconstruction of cultural or historical heritage objects is an urgent problem for humanity. It can be successfully solved using up-to-date 3D modeling tools. The proposed technique allows for modeling virtual environments at an even higher level. This study aimed to develop an approach for designing historical heritage objects with sufficient accuracy using a built environment. The Kilburun Fortress was chosen as the object of study. The modeling procedure includes monitoring the object’s territory, analyzing archival, librarian, and cartographic sources, and further modeling and reproducing the research object in a virtual environment using various software tools. The following stages were implemented during this study: analysis and processing of preliminary data (analysis of plans and schemes, overlapping maps); the scaling of graphical objects for the reliable reproduction of the studied object; the design of a working 3D model using AutoCAD and SketchUp; the rendering and final processing of textures using Quixel; and visualization using Twinmotion. As a result, a model of the historical heritage object was created using 3D means. The model can also be integrated into ArchiCAD and Revit software. Full article
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