3D-Printed Soft Robots and 4D Printing: Modeling, Fabrication, and Control

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2021) | Viewed by 15086

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing, and particularly three-dimensional (3D) printing has found its path in almost every research sector from biomedical science to robotic industry, from macro scale products to micro and nano scale mechanisms, and from highly rigid metals to soft biological materials. This Special Issue will focus on an interdisciplinary research platform of 3D printing of adaptive dynamic structures, also known as 4-dimensional (4D) printing, with highly versatile applications in mesoscale and macroscale platforms including microfluidics, wearable electronics agricultural applications and medical assisted soft robots.

We are the guest editors for a Special Issue entitled “3D-printed Soft Robots and 4D printing: Modeling, Fabrication, and Control” to be published in the open access journal Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417; IF: 2.217, Q1 in Engineering). Given your renowned expertise and significant contributions to this field, we would like to invite you to contribute in this special issue.

Dr. Ali Zolfagharian
Dr. Mahdi Bodaghi
Prof. Akif Kaynak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Soft robotics
  • 4D printing
  • 3D printed sensors
  • 3D printed actuators
  • Finite element analysis
  • Machine learning modeling
  • Control

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 7036 KiB  
Article
Influence of Infill Patterns Generated by CAD and FDM 3D Printer on Surface Roughness and Tensile Strength Properties
by Mohammadreza Lalegani Dezaki, Mohd Khairol Anuar Mohd Ariffin, Ahmad Serjouei, Ali Zolfagharian, Saghi Hatami and Mahdi Bodaghi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7272; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167272 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5710
Abstract
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a capable technology based on a wide range of parameters. The goal of this study is to make a comparison between infill pattern and infill density generated by computer-aided design (CAD) and FDM. Grid, triangle, zigzag, and concentric [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a capable technology based on a wide range of parameters. The goal of this study is to make a comparison between infill pattern and infill density generated by computer-aided design (CAD) and FDM. Grid, triangle, zigzag, and concentric patterns with various densities following the same structure of the FDM machine were designed by CAD software (CATIA V5®). Polylactic acid (PLA) material was assigned for both procedures. Surface roughness (SR) and tensile strength analysis were conducted to examine their effects on dog-bone samples. Also, a finite element analysis (FEA) was done on CAD specimens to find out the differences between printing and simulation processes. Results illustrated that CAD specimens had a better surface texture compared to the FDM machine while tensile tests showed patterns generated by FDM were stronger in terms of strength and stiffness. In this study, samples with concentric patterns had the lowest average SR (Ra) while zigzag was the worst with the value of 6.27 µm. Also, the highest strength was obtained for concentric and grid samples in both CAD and FDM procedures. These techniques can be useful in producing highly complex sandwich structures, bone scaffolds, and various combined patterns to achieve an optimal condition. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 2340 KiB  
Review
Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems
by Ali Zolfagharian, Akif Kaynak, Mahdi Bodaghi, Abbas Z. Kouzani, Saleh Gharaie and Saeid Nahavandi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093020 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 8252
Abstract
Building on the recent progress of four-dimensional (4D) printing to produce dynamic structures, this study aimed to bring this technology to the next level by introducing control-based 4D printing to develop adaptive 4D-printed systems with highly versatile multi-disciplinary applications, including medicine, in the [...] Read more.
Building on the recent progress of four-dimensional (4D) printing to produce dynamic structures, this study aimed to bring this technology to the next level by introducing control-based 4D printing to develop adaptive 4D-printed systems with highly versatile multi-disciplinary applications, including medicine, in the form of assisted soft robots, smart textiles as wearable electronics and other industries such as agriculture and microfluidics. This study introduced and analysed adaptive 4D-printed systems with an advanced manufacturing approach for developing stimuli-responsive constructs that organically adapted to environmental dynamic situations and uncertainties as nature does. The adaptive 4D-printed systems incorporated synergic integration of three-dimensional (3D)-printed sensors into 4D-printing and control units, which could be assembled and programmed to transform their shapes based on the assigned tasks and environmental stimuli. This paper demonstrates the adaptivity of these systems via a combination of proprioceptive sensory feedback, modeling and controllers, as well as the challenges and future opportunities they present. Full article
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