Microgrids/Nanogrids Implementation, Planning, and Operation, 2nd Volume

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2024 | Viewed by 6224

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme (UMR CNRS 6027 IRDL), University of Brest, 29238 Brest, France
Interests: fault detection and diagnosis; failure prognosis; cyberattack detection; fault-resilient control; machine learning
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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, American University in Dubai, Dubai 28282, United Arab Emirates
Interests: microgrids; energy management; smart grid; power system optimization; cyber–physical system security; applied artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microgrids can allow for a better integration of distributed energy storage capacity and renewable energy sources into the power grid, therefore increasing the grid’s efficiency and resilience to natural and man-caused disruptive events. In addition, microgrids and nanogrids are potential solutions for providing a better electrical service to both insufficiently supplied and remote areas. Microgrid networking with an optimal energy management will lead to a smart grid with numerous benefits, such as reduced cost, and enhanced reliability and resiliency.

The objective of this Special Issue is to address and disseminate state-of-the-art research and results on the implementation, planning, and operation of microgrids/nanogrids, for which energy management is one of the core issues. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Implementation of control and optimization techniques in grid-connected and islanded modes;
  • Peer-to-peer energy management systems in community microgrids;
  • Peer-to-peer energy trading in microgrids;
  • Power grid resilience enhancement through microgrid facilities;
  • Self-healing strategies for resilience purposes;
  • Power quality assessment and improvement;
  • Power converter control for microgrid operation;
  • Power converter topologies for microgrid components;
  • Microgrids transformed into virtual power plants;
  • Mobility-aware vehicle-to-grid control in microgrids;
  • Building an (nanogrid-) integrated energy management and monitoring system;
  • Maritime applications: shipboard microgrids, offshore platforms, and port electrification;
  • Aerospace applications: satellite microgrids, spacecraft power systems, and Moon/Mars station microgrids;
  • Applied IoT architecture and communication technologies and cyber security for smart microgrids;
  • Smart-enabling technologies for the effective penetration of microgrids.

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Benbouzid
Prof. Dr. S. M. Muyeen
Dr. Muhammad Fahad Zia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 11407 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Renewable Energy Planning in the Indonesian Context: A Lombok Island Study Case
by Meisam Rajabnia, Majid Ali, Juan C. Vasquez, Yajuan Guan, Josep M. Guerrero, Baseem Khan, Fransisco Danang Wijaya and Adam Priyo Perdana
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12860; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312860 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
In recent years, community microgrids have expanded their power systems with many aims. One of the most important goals of microgrids is to increase resiliency. The main objective of this paper is to develop effective planning tools for community microgrids within electrical distribution [...] Read more.
In recent years, community microgrids have expanded their power systems with many aims. One of the most important goals of microgrids is to increase resiliency. The main objective of this paper is to develop effective planning tools for community microgrids within electrical distribution networks, with a specific focus on ensuring the provision of critical loads during natural disasters. Additionally, this paper emphasized emphasises long-term planning considerations by using DIgSILENT 15.2 tools. The primary goal of this issue is to create the best planning tools for community microgrids in order to increase the network’s resilience to natural disasters, with a focus on important loads like hospitals and hotels. Also, the second goal is an optimization that seeks to reduce overall expenses. Finally, we’ll talk about how to get two results: one is to choose a few microgrid-based loads to link to the electrical distribution network, and the other is to show that each microgrid has the power needed to support both its local loads and the system’s vital loads in the event of a natural disaster. In this paper, the use of community microgrids for energy access against natural disasters in Indonesia is investigated by considering the case study of microgrids on Lombok Island. The study results, using the proposed framework, show that the presence of a microgrid structure in the distribution network expansion planning helps to improve operating conditions and supply critical loads in natural disasters. Full article
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26 pages, 8312 KiB  
Article
Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Reliability and Cost Evaluation Based on Monte Carlo Simulation
by Eduardo Quiles-Cucarella, Adrián Marquina-Tajuelo, Carlos Roldán-Blay and Carlos Roldán-Porta
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11623; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111623 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
In rural regions with limited access to the power grid, self-reliance for electricity generation is paramount. This study focuses on enhancing the design of stand-alone photovoltaic installations (SAPV) to replace conventional fuel generators thanks to the decreasing costs of PV modules and batteries. [...] Read more.
In rural regions with limited access to the power grid, self-reliance for electricity generation is paramount. This study focuses on enhancing the design of stand-alone photovoltaic installations (SAPV) to replace conventional fuel generators thanks to the decreasing costs of PV modules and batteries. This study presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for the reliable and cost-effective sizing of SAPV systems. The proposed method considers the variability of PV generation and domestic demand and optimizes the system design to minimize the total cost of ownership while ensuring a high level of reliability. The results show that for the PSO method with 500 iterations, the error is around 2%, and the simulation time is approximately 2.25 s. Moreover, the PSO method allows a much lower number of iterations to be used in the Monte Carlo simulation, with a total of 100 iterations used to obtain the averaged results. The optimization results, encompassing installed power, battery capacity, reliability, and annual costs, reveal the effectiveness of our approach. Notably, our discretized PSO algorithm converges, yielding specific parameters like 9900 W of installed power and a battery configuration of five 3550 Wh units for the case study under consideration. In summary, our work presents an efficient SAPV system design methodology supported by concrete numerical outcomes, considering supply reliability and installation and operational costs. Full article
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20 pages, 6957 KiB  
Article
Optimising a Biogas and Photovoltaic Hybrid System for Sustainable Power Supply in Rural Areas
by Carlos Roldán-Porta, Carlos Roldán-Blay, Daniel Dasí-Crespo and Guillermo Escrivá-Escrivá
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042155 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
This paper proposes a method for evaluating the optimal configuration of a hybrid system (biomass power plant and photovoltaic plant), which is connected to the electrical grid, to achieve minimum energy costs. The study is applied to a small rural municipality in the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method for evaluating the optimal configuration of a hybrid system (biomass power plant and photovoltaic plant), which is connected to the electrical grid, to achieve minimum energy costs. The study is applied to a small rural municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain, as an energy community. The approach takes into account the daily energy demand variation and price curves for energy that are either imported or exported to the grid. The optimal configuration is determined by the highest internal rate of return (IRR) over a 12-year period while providing a 20% discount in electricity prices for the energy community. The approach is extrapolated to an annual period using the statistical data of sunny and cloudy days, considering 23.8% of the year as cloudy. The methodology provides a general procedure for hybridising both plants and the grid to meet the energy needs of a small rural population. In the analysed case, an optimal combination of 140 kW of rated power from the biogas generator was found, which is lower than the maximum demand of 366 kW and 80 kW installed power in the photovoltaic plant, resulting in an IRR of 6.13% over 12 years. Sensitivity studies for data variations are also provided. Full article
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18 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
A Proactive Microgrid Management Strategy for Resilience Enhancement Based on Nested Chance Constrained Problems
by Sangjun Park and Hunyoung Shin
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412649 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 834
Abstract
As the frequency of extreme weather events rises, the resilience of power systems is becoming increasingly important. This paper proposes a proactive microgrid management strategy for enhancing the resilience of microgrids (MGs) based on nested Mixed Integer Linear Programming problems with chance constraints. [...] Read more.
As the frequency of extreme weather events rises, the resilience of power systems is becoming increasingly important. This paper proposes a proactive microgrid management strategy for enhancing the resilience of microgrids (MGs) based on nested Mixed Integer Linear Programming problems with chance constraints. In the proposed method, MGs operate in a special operating mode referred to as the “preparation mode” to protect the vital load and maximize resource operation efficiency when an external grid outage warning is issued. The preparation mode problem is formulated to reflect both the normal and emergency mode operation conditions. The on-event phase-operation problem under emergency-mode operation conditions is nested within the pre-scheduling problem under normal-mode operation conditions in the preparation mode. Further, according to their importance, loads are divided into critical and non-critical ones in the problems. The former is represented by a chance constraint, and the latter is represented by the expected cost of load shedding in the cost function. The numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed preparation mode enables the MG to guarantee a high chance that the critical load will survive and to lower the cost of the non-critical load shedding with a minor increase in resource operation costs. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1616 KiB  
Review
On Hybrid Nanogrids Energy Management Systems—An Insight into Embedded Systems
by Maria Bitar, Tony El Tawil, Mohamed Benbouzid, Van Binh Dinh and Mustapha Benaouicha
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041563 - 15 Feb 2024
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Abstract
In recent years, the growing demand for efficient and sustainable energy management has led to the development of innovative solutions for embedded systems. One such solution is the integration of hybrid nanogrid energy management systems into various applications. There are currently many energy [...] Read more.
In recent years, the growing demand for efficient and sustainable energy management has led to the development of innovative solutions for embedded systems. One such solution is the integration of hybrid nanogrid energy management systems into various applications. There are currently many energy management systems in different domains, such as buildings, electric vehicles, or even naval transport. However, an embedded nanogrid management system is subject to several constraints that are not sufficiently studied in the literature. Indeed, such a system often has a limited energy reserve and is isolated from any energy supply for a long time. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of research, advancements, and challenges in the field of hybrid nanogrid energy management systems. Furthermore, it offers a comparative analysis between hybrid nanogrids and microgrids and the implications of their integration in embedded systems. This paper also discusses the key components, operation principles, optimization strategies, real-world implementations, challenges, and future prospects of hybrid nanogrid energy management systems. Moreover, it highlights the significance of such systems in enhancing energy efficiency, reducing carbon footprints, and ensuring reliable power supply. Full article
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