Asthma and Respiratory Disease: Prediction, Diagnosis and Treatment, Volume II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 16847

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Immunology Department, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz-UAM, Madrid, Spain
2. Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain
Interests: allergy; asthma; biomarkers; epigenetic; genomic; immunoregulation; type 2 inflammation; transcriptomic; regulatory T cells
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Asthma and respiratory diseases are a health and economic problem due to their increasing prevalence in recent years. More than 300 million people suffer from some of these diseases, with the number of cases increasing every year. This Special Issue aims to address the latest findings in the field of these diseases, as well as the most advanced diagnosis and treatment tools. Papers are invited to address new findings in the field of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obstructive sleep apnea, and others. Topics may include cellular and immunological mechanisms, physiopathology, as well as the latest advances in the diagnosis of these diseases and their treatment, including biologics. Literature reviews and real-life clinical cases are also welcome.

Dr. Jose Antonio Cañas
Dr. Blanca Cárdaba
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • asthma
  • immunological mechanisms
  • lung diseases
  • diagnosis
  • innovative treatments
  • cellular processes

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1051 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life in NSAIDs-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease on or off Intranasal Lysine Aspirin Therapy
by Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Joshua Ferreira, Glenis K. Scadding and Peter J. Andrews
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14031162 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Background: Intranasal administration of lysine aspirin (LAS) is a safe and effective method for aspirin treatment after desensitisation (ATAD). Changes in quality of life (QoL) in patients on intranasal LAS have not been documented and we aimed to investigate QoL in N-ERD [...] Read more.
Background: Intranasal administration of lysine aspirin (LAS) is a safe and effective method for aspirin treatment after desensitisation (ATAD). Changes in quality of life (QoL) in patients on intranasal LAS have not been documented and we aimed to investigate QoL in N-ERD patients on or off nasal ATAD. Moreover, an estimate of the cost burden of intranasal LAS is given. Methods: A cross-sectional review was conducted for all challenge-confirmed N-ERD patients who were in follow-up in our rhinology clinic. They were asked to complete a SNOT-22 questionnaire, a visual analogue scale for sense of smell (sVAS). Information on prices of LAS and other consumables used for intranasal ATAD was obtained from our hospital pharmacy to obtain an estimate of the cost burden. Results: Thirty-four patients replied to the email (79.1% response rate). Of these, 21 (61.8%) were on intranasal LAS. A statistically significant lower score in the total SNOT-22 was found amongst patients on intranasal LAS (p = 0.02). The subanalysis of SNOT-22 domains showed that patients on LAS had statistically significant lower scores in the domains “rhinologic symptoms” (p = 0.05), “function” (p = 0.02), and “emotion” (p = 0.01). No significant differences were observed when looking at sVAS. The cost of 1-year treatment of LAS per person was ≈GBP 180.7 with a daily cost of ≈GBP 0.50. Conclusions: This study supports the efficacy of nasal ATAD in the management of N-ERD and suggests that long-term use can lead to QoL improvement with cost benefits. Full article
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11 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Dietary Factors Affecting Asthma Outcomes among Asthmatic Children in California
by Hildemar Dos Santos, Elena Chai, Josileide Gaio, Monideepa B. Becerra, Wenes Pereira Reis, Michael Paalani and Jim E. Banta
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12538; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312538 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Asthma is one of the principal causes of absenteeism from school and the leading cause of emergency department visits for children in the United States. Some dietary habits are associated with asthma prevalence and play a role in the pathogenesis and control of [...] Read more.
Asthma is one of the principal causes of absenteeism from school and the leading cause of emergency department visits for children in the United States. Some dietary habits are associated with asthma prevalence and play a role in the pathogenesis and control of symptoms. The objective of this study was to characterize dietary factors that may affect asthma outcomes among children with asthma in California. The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) is the largest state health survey in the nation. This cross-sectional study included 7687 surveys, representing an estimated annual 710,534 children (ages 2–11) reported to have asthma between 2001 and 2015. Analysis was survey-weighted. We used multivariable regression, adjusting for covariates, to examine the association between dietary factors and asthma outcomes. Asthmatic children consuming two or more servings of sodas per day had more symptoms of asthma than those who did not consume soda daily (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.15). Moreover, those consuming two servings of fruits per day had lower odds of missing school due to asthma. Children with asthma may be affected by certain pro-inflammatory foods that are energy dense. This study provided an additional reason to discourage the consumption of sodas and sugary drinks due to the negative respiratory impact, in addition to their effect on childhood obesity, oral health problems, and future chronic diseases. Full article
12 pages, 1125 KiB  
Article
Glucocorticoid Receptor Polymorphism A3669G Is Associated with Airflow Obstruction in Mild-to-Severe Asthma
by Barbara Mognetti, Daniela Francesca Giachino, Francesca Bertolini, Vitina Carriero, Andrea Elio Sprio and Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7450; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137450 - 23 Jun 2023
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Abstract
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the mainstay therapy for asthmatics. A subset of severe asthmatics fails to respond to steroid-based therapies, leading to important healthcare costs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glucocorticoid receptor genes were associated with a response to GC. We evaluate the [...] Read more.
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the mainstay therapy for asthmatics. A subset of severe asthmatics fails to respond to steroid-based therapies, leading to important healthcare costs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glucocorticoid receptor genes were associated with a response to GC. We evaluate the possible relation of BclI and A3669G SNPs to clinical, biological and functional characteristics of asthmatics. Methods: We recruited 172 mild-to-severe asthmatic outpatients referring to the Severe Asthma and Rare Lung Disease Unit at San Luigi University Hospital. Clinical data were obtained at recruitment when spirometry tests and peripheral blood sampling were performed. Patients were genotyped for BclI and A3669G through the pyrosequencing assay results. Results: Patients with the A3669G AG genotype were younger, allergic and had higher IgE levels compared to AA genotype (p < 0.05). Moreover, asthmatics with the AA genotype had a lower post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio than the GG genotype (p < 0.05), and a higher RV/TLC ratio than the AG genotype (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The A3669G AG genotype might be related to type-2 allergic asthma; in particular, allele A of A3669G SNP was associated with GC response in our asthmatics. In conclusion, this observational cross-sectional study suggests a possible role of A3669G SNP as a predictor of asthma severity and phenotype. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1144 KiB  
Review
Management of Acute Life-Threatening Asthma Exacerbations in the Intensive Care Unit
by Thomas Talbot, Thomas Roe and Ahilanandan Dushianthan
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020693 - 13 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Managing acute asthma exacerbations in critical care can be challenging and may lead to adverse outcomes. While standard management of an acute asthma exacerbation is well established in outpatient and emergency department settings, the management pathway for patients with life-threatening and near-fatal asthma [...] Read more.
Managing acute asthma exacerbations in critical care can be challenging and may lead to adverse outcomes. While standard management of an acute asthma exacerbation is well established in outpatient and emergency department settings, the management pathway for patients with life-threatening and near-fatal asthma still needs to be fully defined. The use of specific interventions such as intravenous ketamine, intravenous salbutamol, and intravenous methylxanthines, which are often used in combination to improve bronchodilation, remains a contentious issue. Additionally, although it is common in the intensive care unit setting, the use of non-invasive ventilation to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation needs further exploration. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the available treatments and the evidence for their use in intensive care. We highlight the ongoing need for multicentre trials to address clinical knowledge gaps and the development of intensive-care-based guidelines to provide an evidence-based approach to patient management. Full article
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27 pages, 1767 KiB  
Review
Diet and Asthma: A Narrative Review
by Mónica Rodrigues, Francisca de Castro Mendes, Luís Delgado, Patrícia Padrão, Inês Paciência, Renata Barros, João Cavaleiro Rufo, Diana Silva, André Moreira and Pedro Moreira
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6398; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116398 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that impacts millions of people worldwide. Recent studies suggest that diet may play a role in asthma pathophysiology. Several dietary factors have been recognized as potential contributors to the development and severity of asthma for its inflammatory [...] Read more.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that impacts millions of people worldwide. Recent studies suggest that diet may play a role in asthma pathophysiology. Several dietary factors have been recognized as potential contributors to the development and severity of asthma for its inflammatory and oxidative effects. Some food groups such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats appear to exert positive effects on asthma disease. On the other hand, a high consumption of dietary salt, saturated fats, and trans-fat seems to have the opposite effect. Nonetheless, as foods are not consumed separately, more research is warranted on the topic of dietary patterns. The mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet fully understood, but it is thought that diet can modulate both the immune system and inflammation, two key factors in asthma development and exacerbation. The purpose of this review is to examine how common food groups and dietary patterns are associated with asthma. In general, this research demonstrated that fruits and vegetables, fiber, healthy fats, and dietary patterns considered of high quality appear to be beneficial to asthma disease. Nonetheless, additional research is needed to better understand the interrelation between diet and asthma, and to determine the most effective dietary interventions for asthma prevention and management. Currently, there is no established dietary pattern for asthma management and prevention, and the nuances of certain food groups in relation to this disease require further investigation. Full article
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Other

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8 pages, 227 KiB  
Case Report
Dupilumab in Children and Adolescents with Severe Atopic Dermatitis and Severe Asthma: A Case Series
by Daniele Russo, Giulia Michela Pellegrino, Paola Di Filippo, Teresa Ruggiero, Sabrina Di Pillo, Francesco Chiarelli, Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa and Marina Attanasi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10902; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910902 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
The increasing incidence and common specific inflammatory type 2 intracellular pathways have recently allowed for the rise of new biologic therapies in two inflammatory chronic diseases in children: atopic dermatitis (AD) and severe asthma. Such therapies aim at relieving symptoms and reducing inflammation [...] Read more.
The increasing incidence and common specific inflammatory type 2 intracellular pathways have recently allowed for the rise of new biologic therapies in two inflammatory chronic diseases in children: atopic dermatitis (AD) and severe asthma. Such therapies aim at relieving symptoms and reducing inflammation by treating the underlying molecular causes. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody indicated in children with moderate–severe AD and severe asthma ineffectively responsive to standard treatments. Here, we report a case series of seven consecutive children with moderate–severe AD, with three of them also affected by asthma and treated with dupilumab. The children experienced a reduction in the extent and severity of lesions and decreased intensity of symptoms, leading to better asthma control, a general improvement in sleep and quality of life (QoL), with a good safety profile. Notwithstanding the observed clinical improvement, further larger prospective studies are needed to better tailor the treatment duration and the potential preventive and long-lasting effects. Full article
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