Food Preservation and Analysis: Technologies and Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 3693

Special Issue Editors

Department of Food Technology and Assessment, Institute of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159 C, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: high pressure processing; innovative methods of food preservation; juices production; bioactive compounds; functional foods; HS-SPME GC-MS; HPLC analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
Interests: wine; food products; mass spectrometry; chromatographic analysis; chemometrics; sensory analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over recent years, consumer demand has increased for food that is easy to consume and that has a high nutritional and sensory quality therefore, they appreciate the similarity between minimally processed products and fresh ones. As a result, in recent years, the food industry as well as scientific community has shown increased interest in innovative approaches, which can provide food products with a high quality and with a reduced environmental impact, increasing the products’ added value.

Among all the innovative preservation technologies, the non-thermal ones have been extensively studied. These include methods based on high pressure such as high hydrostatic pressure, high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure carbon dioxide, but also other techniques such as pulsed electric field, ultrasound, pulsed light or cold plasma. Additionally, new thermal food preservation methods such as microwave flow heating, ohmic heating or UHT are gaining interest. The subject of scientific research and industrial application is the extent to which preservation technologies affect the content of bioactive compounds and their bioavailability in food. Of particular interest is the study of microbial reduction and the sensory characteristics of the product, including the aroma profile. An important aspect is also the inactivation of native enzymes in the context of storage studies of products processed using non-thermal methods.

Modern analytical methods, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography often coupled with mass spectrometry but also other detection techniques, are used to analyze product changes. The literature often reports data analysis using chemometric statistical methods that help to comprehensively describe overall changes. After the collection of a considerable amount of data due to the protocols used, the chemometrics approach was found to be essential to interpret the results and identify interactions between production processes and effects on final food quality.

This Special Issue, therefore, focuses on current research and future prospects of applications concerning novel preservation technologies in the food industry.

Dr. Bartosz Kruszewski
Prof. Dr. Emanuele Boselli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food processing
  • non-thermal
  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • high pressure homogenization
  • high-pressure carbon dioxide
  • pulsed electric field
  • ultrasound
  • pulsed light
  • cold plasma
  • microwave
  • ohmic heating
  • HTST/UHT
  • microorganisms reduction
  • bioavailability
  • gas chromatography
  • HPLC
  • chemometry
  • sensory profiles

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Convective Drying of Apple Enhanced with Microwaves and Ultrasound—Process Kinetics, Energy Consumption, and Product Quality Approach
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14030994 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 360
Abstract
This research explores the drying kinetics of apples, evaluating the impact of convective drying (CV), ultrasonically assisted convective drying (CVUS), and convective–microwave processes (CVMW1 and CVMW2) on energy consumption, drying time, temperature profiles, and product quality. Ultrasound-assisted convective drying (CVUS) exhibited a 10% [...] Read more.
This research explores the drying kinetics of apples, evaluating the impact of convective drying (CV), ultrasonically assisted convective drying (CVUS), and convective–microwave processes (CVMW1 and CVMW2) on energy consumption, drying time, temperature profiles, and product quality. Ultrasound-assisted convective drying (CVUS) exhibited a 10% reduction in drying time and a distinct “heating effect”. Convective–microwave processes (CVMW1 and CVMW2) significantly reduced drying times (47% and 66%, respectively, compared to CV), raising concerns about potential deteriorative processes due to elevated temperatures. Numerical analysis, using the Midilli–Kucuk model, highlighted its robust fit and emphasized the influence of microwave and ultrasound on the effective diffusion coefficient. Quality assessment indicated enhancements in polyphenolic compounds, particularly in convective–microwave processes. The convective–microwave process at higher power (CVMW2) emerged as a balanced option, displaying improved kinetics, energy efficiency, and product quality. The findings underscore the potential of judiciously applying microwave and ultrasound technologies for significant energy reduction and process enhancement, with a recommendation for further exploration of new parameters. This study emphasizes the importance of considering both drying kinetics and product quality in evaluating drying processes for fruits and vegetables, providing valuable insights for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation and Analysis: Technologies and Applications)
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15 pages, 2661 KiB  
Article
Blackcurrant Pomace as a Rich Source of Anthocyanins: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction under Different Parameters
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020821 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The industry is currently trying to manage the waste generated during juice pressing. Berry pomace is an especially rich source of many bioactive compounds. Blackcurrant pomace is particularly valuable because of the large amount of extractable anthocyanins remaining in the fruit skin. The [...] Read more.
The industry is currently trying to manage the waste generated during juice pressing. Berry pomace is an especially rich source of many bioactive compounds. Blackcurrant pomace is particularly valuable because of the large amount of extractable anthocyanins remaining in the fruit skin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters on the content of anthocyanins and color parameters of blackcurrant pomace extracts. The pomace used for the study was very rich in anthocyanins—an average content of 853.2 mg/100 g fresh weight. The effect of temperature (25, 35, 45 °C), time (15, 30, 60 min) and material/solvent ratio (1:20 or 1:7) on extraction yield was analyzed. The extracts were obtained using two solvents: water–ethanol acidified with HCl and water acidified with citric acid. Either solvent type, as well as the other parameters of the extraction process, have an impact on the level of anthocyanins in the extracts. The lowest range of extraction yield (63–68%) was obtained for a 1:7 ratio with water–citric acid solvent. The highest range of extraction yield (74–93%) was obtained for a 1:7 ratio with water–ethanol solvent. The most efficient method was extraction in a water–ethanol solvent (50/50 v/v) acidified with HCl, at a 1:7 material/solvent ratio, at 35 °C, for 15 min, providing 93% process efficiency. A strong relationship (r > 0.991) was also found between anthocyanin content and color saturation (C*) or hue (h°) in the obtained extracts. Based on the E1% coloring strength results, all the extracts obtained can be considered strong colorants, especially those obtained with the water–citric acid solvent. Ultrasonic extraction can be successfully applied to extract pigments from blackcurrant pomace and obtain, for example, food coloring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation and Analysis: Technologies and Applications)
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16 pages, 1268 KiB  
Article
Influence of Ozone Treatment during Storage on Odour-Active Compounds, Total Titratable Acidity, and Ascorbic Acid in Oranges and Bananas
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10885; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910885 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Ozone has the potential to improve the shelf life of fruits and vegetables by its antimicrobial properties, but the influence on the aroma properties has not been studied comprehensively at the molecular level. Therefore, the impact of ozone on odour-active compounds, total titratable [...] Read more.
Ozone has the potential to improve the shelf life of fruits and vegetables by its antimicrobial properties, but the influence on the aroma properties has not been studied comprehensively at the molecular level. Therefore, the impact of ozone on odour-active compounds, total titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, weight loss, and fungal growth during storage is investigated in oranges and bananas. The fruits were stored at room temperature for 11 days either with or without ozone treatment. Interestingly, no significant impact of the ozone treatment on the contents of the selected odour-active compounds in bananas and oranges was observable. Furthermore, no impact on titratable acidity, weight loss, and ascorbic acid content were observable as a consequence of the ozone treatment at the respective ozone concentrations. In addition, the inhibitive effects of the growth and sporulation of moulds were demonstrated in this study. Finally, the data from this research show that ozonation has the potential of improving the shelf life of fruits without compromising their quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation and Analysis: Technologies and Applications)
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23 pages, 4657 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Energy Efficiency and Retention of Bioactive Compounds in Apple Drying: Comparative Analysis of Combined Hot Air–Infrared Drying Strategies
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137612 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The drying process is one of the oldest methods used to obtain food products that could be stored for a long time. However, drying is an energy-intensive process. Additionally, convective drying, due to the high temperature used during the process, results in loss [...] Read more.
The drying process is one of the oldest methods used to obtain food products that could be stored for a long time. However, drying is an energy-intensive process. Additionally, convective drying, due to the high temperature used during the process, results in loss in bioactive substances as well as nutritional value. Thus, in this research, apple slices were dried in a combined hot air–infrared air dryer with four different drying strategies and drying kinetics, internal and external mass transfer (Crank and Dincer models), and then the energy parameters were investigated. The first, second, third, and fourth strategies, respectively, include one-stage drying with a hot air (HA) or infrared energy source (IR), one stage but with two sources of hot air and infrared (HA–IR), and then there are two stages of first hot air and then infrared drying (HA+IR) and vice versa (IR+HA). According to the results, the highest effective moisture diffusion coefficient of the two Crank and Dincer models was equal to 1.49 × 10−9 and 1.55 × 10−8 m2/s, obtained in the HA70–IR750, and the lowest effective moisture diffusion coefficient was equal to 1.8 × 10−10 and 2.54 × 10−9 m2/s, obtained in IR250+HA40. The maximum (10.25%) and minimum (3.61%) energy efficiency were in the IR750 and HA55–IR250 methods, respectively. Moreover, the highest drying efficiency (12.71%) and the lowest drying efficiency (4.19%) were obtained in HA70+IR500 and HA40–IR250, respectively. The value of specific energy consumption was 15.42–51.03 (kWh/kg), the diffusion activation energy was 18.43–35.43 (kJ/mol), and the value of the specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) was in the range of 0.019–0.054 (kWh/kg). Compared to the other strategies, the second strategy (HA–IR) was better in terms of drying time and mass transfer, and the third strategy (HA+IR) was more efficient in terms of energy efficiency and drying efficiency. The infrared drying in the first strategy was better than that in the other methods in the other strategies in terms of retention of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation and Analysis: Technologies and Applications)
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Review

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26 pages, 1112 KiB  
Review
Potentialities of the Extraction Technologies and Use of Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products: A Review from a Circular Bioeconomy Perspective
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7754; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137754 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Agro-industrial by-products and by-products from the wine industry (pomace, peels, leaves, stems, and seeds) represent a potential economic interest because they are usually relevant natural sources of bioactive compounds, which may present significant biological activities related to human health and well-being. This article [...] Read more.
Agro-industrial by-products and by-products from the wine industry (pomace, peels, leaves, stems, and seeds) represent a potential economic interest because they are usually relevant natural sources of bioactive compounds, which may present significant biological activities related to human health and well-being. This article aims to review wine and winery industry by-products as potential natural sources of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiaging, and anticancer compounds, as well as briefly highlighting the extraction methods used to obtain these bioactive compounds and explore their potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and packaging industries. Although there are some studies of wine industry by-products with different origins, this revision will be mainly focused on the Portuguese vineyard industry since it represents an import industrial sector as proof of the diversity of the bioactive compounds identified. Therefore, the recovery of these bioactive molecules that act as antioxidants and health-promoting agents may promote a variety of industries at the same time as the circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation and Analysis: Technologies and Applications)
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