10th Anniversary of Applied Sciences: Invited Papers in Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering Section

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 54014

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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Interests: laser-based fabrication of medical devices; nanostructured biomaterials; drug delivery; laser processing of nanostructured and microstructured biomaterials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Applied Sciences is going to reach a remarkable milestone by publishing its 10th volume, and in celebration of this special occasion, we have taken the initiative to launch a Special Issue called “10th Anniversary of Applied Sciences: Invited Papers in Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering Section”.

In 2014, when we received our first impact factor for Applied Sciences, we published 35 manuscripts from 53 submissions, i.e., the acceptance rate was roughly 66%. However, we have now significantly improved the review quality; hence, in 2018, we published 2703 manuscripts from 9757 submissions, keeping the acceptance rate below 28%. This reasonably gave us an impact factor jump from 1.484 in 2014 to 2.217 in 2018. We have also reduced the manuscript turnaround time; presently, the median publication time is only 37 days, which will be further reduced in the coming months if not weeks, and we hope to increase the impact factor to above 3.0 by 2019.

This Special Issue intends to gather moderate-sized review papers featuring important and recent developments or achievements of novel biosciences and biological engineering with a special emphasis on recently discovered techniques or applications. The authors are well-known experts in their domain who are invited to submit their contribution at any moment from now to the end of October 2020. The papers can cover either experimental or theoretical aspects or both. Bioengineering types, clinical engineering, rehabilitation engineering, cardiac bioengineering, neural engineering, tissue engineering, system modeling, biosignal processing, health informatics, bioinformatics, bioprocess engineering, biotechnology, biosensors, biomechanics, biorobotics, cardiopulmonary systems engineering, fermentation technology, food technology, microbiology, etc. are among the main topics.

Prof. Dr. Roger Narayan
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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20 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
Drug Release Kinetics of DOX-Loaded Graphene-Based Nanocarriers for Ovarian and Breast Cancer Therapeutics
by Katherine Taylor, Tanveer A. Tabish and Roger J. Narayan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11151; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311151 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite extensive efforts at developing curative treatments. Chemotherapy, one of the most common forms of treatment, lacks specificity and can induce collateral damages to healthy surrounding tissues/cells and elicit off-target toxic side effects. [...] Read more.
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite extensive efforts at developing curative treatments. Chemotherapy, one of the most common forms of treatment, lacks specificity and can induce collateral damages to healthy surrounding tissues/cells and elicit off-target toxic side effects. The carbon-based nanomaterial graphene, can load aromatic drugs with high efficiency, has good biocompatibility, and can be easily functionalised with targeting ligands, antibodies, and biomolecules to increase the accuracy of targeting specific areas; graphene has therefore been explored as a nanocarrier for classical chemotherapy drugs. In this work, seventeen publications that report the release of doxorubicin (DOX) from 2D graphene-based nanohybrids (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers have been identified based on a range of inclusion and exclusion criteria. To aid in the clinical translation of proof-of-concept studies, this work identifies the pre-clinical experimental protocols and analyses the release kinetics of these publications. Fifteen of the papers utilised a change in pH as the stimulus for drug release, and two utilised either near infrared (NIR) or ultrasound as the stimulus. The extracted drug release data from these publications were fit to four known kinetic models. It was found that the majority of these data best fit the Weibull kinetic model. The agreement between the kinetic data in previously published literature provides a predictable estimation of DOX release from graphene-based nanocarriers. This study demonstrates the potential conjugation of graphene and DOX in drug delivery applications, and this knowledge can help improve to the design and formulation of future graphene-based nanocarriers. In addition, the use of further experimental testing and the standardisation of experimental protocols will be beneficial for future work. The incorporation of computational modelling prior to pre-clinical testing will also aid in the development of controlled and sustained DOX release systems that offer efficient and efficacious results. Full article
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16 pages, 569 KiB  
Article
Multiple Genetic Rare Variants in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Single-Center Targeted NGS Study
by Chiara Reale, Valeria Tessarollo, Sara Bulgheroni, Silvia Annunziata, Andrea Legati, Daria Riva, Chiara Pantaleoni, Barbara Garavaglia and Stefano D’Arrigo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8096; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178096 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Many studies based on chromosomal microarray and next-generation sequencing (NGS) have identified hundreds of genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk, demonstrating that there are several complex genetic factors that contribute to ASD risk. We performed targeted NGS gene panels for 120 [...] Read more.
Many studies based on chromosomal microarray and next-generation sequencing (NGS) have identified hundreds of genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk, demonstrating that there are several complex genetic factors that contribute to ASD risk. We performed targeted NGS gene panels for 120 selected genes, in a clinical population of 40 children with well-characterized ASD. The variants identified were annotated and filtered, focusing on rare variants with a minimum allele frequency <1% in GnomAD. We found 147 variants in 39 of the 40 patients. It was possible to perform family segregation analysis in 28 of the 40 patients. We found 4 de novo and 101 inherited variants. For the inherited variants, we observed that all the variants identified in the patients came equally from the paternal and maternal genetic makeup. We identified 9 genes that are more frequently mutated than the others, and upon comparing the mutational frequency of these 9 genes in our cohort and the mutational frequency in the GnomAD population, we found significantly increased frequencies of rare variants in our study population. This study supports the hypothesis that ASD is the result of a combination of rare deleterious variants (low contribution) and many low-risk alleles (genetic background), highlighting the importance of MET and SLIT3 and the potentially stronger involvement of FAT1 and VPS13B in ASD. Taken together, our findings reinforce the importance of using gene panels to understand the contribution of the different genes already associated with ASD in the pathogenesis of the disease. Full article
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8 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Reference Mapping Considering Swaps of Adjacent Bases
by Youngho Kim, Munseong Kang, Ju-Hui Jeong, Dae Woong Kang, Soo Jun Park and Jeong Seop Sim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5038; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115038 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Since the time of the HGP, research into next-generation sequencing, which can reduce the cost and time of sequence analysis using computer algorithms, has been actively conducted. Mapping is a next-generation sequencing method that identifies sequences by aligning short reads with a reference [...] Read more.
Since the time of the HGP, research into next-generation sequencing, which can reduce the cost and time of sequence analysis using computer algorithms, has been actively conducted. Mapping is a next-generation sequencing method that identifies sequences by aligning short reads with a reference genome for which sequence information is known. Mapping can be applied to tasks such as SNP calling, motif searches, and gene identification. Research on mapping that utilizes BWT and GPU has been undertaken in order to obtain faster mapping. In this paper, we propose a new mapping algorithm with additional consideration for base swaps. The experimental results demonstrate that when the penalty score for swaps was 1, 2, and 3 in paired-end alignment, for the human whole genome, SOAP3-swap aligned 4667, 2318, and 972 more read pairs, respectively, than SOAP3-dp, and for the drosophila genome, SOAP3-swap aligned 1253, 454, and 129 more read pairs, respectively, than SOAP3-dp. SOAP3-swap has the same functionality as that of SOAP3-dp and also improves the alignment ratio by taking biologically significant swaps into account for the first time. Full article
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12 pages, 5908 KiB  
Article
A Vital Sign Analysis System Based on Algorithm Block Broker for Interoperability between Algorithm Development Tools
by Moon-Il Joo and Hee-Cheol Kim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041913 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1762
Abstract
With the recent development of artificial intelligence and data mining technology, various and intelligent vital sign analysis technologies have been developed. Vital sign analysis algorithms and technologies are primarily developed using MATLAB and open source technologies, such as Python and R. The analysis [...] Read more.
With the recent development of artificial intelligence and data mining technology, various and intelligent vital sign analysis technologies have been developed. Vital sign analysis algorithms and technologies are primarily developed using MATLAB and open source technologies, such as Python and R. The analysis algorithms developed with such programming languages can only be employed and run in their own respective development environments and, hence, are unfortunately not considered as platform independent. In that respect, the interoperability between development tools is needed to ensure efficiency in terms of development time and efforts and reusability between analysis technologies and algorithms developed in different languages. This paper presents the development of a vital sign analysis system that ensures interoperability, which leads to one common environment connecting different development platforms. To maintain the interoperability between MATLAB and R programming, we designed and implemented the Algorithm Block Broker (AB Broker). AB Broker is composed of AB Adapter and AB Broker. Here, the AB Broker uses AB Adapter to request execution of analysis algorithms developed in different languages, such as MATLAB, R, and Python. It also searches and runs the algorithm, helping implement the requested analysis technique. The AB Broker-based vital sign analysis system enables the integrated management of analysis and data mining technologies developed in different languages. From a developer’s point of view, therefore, it is convenient and efficient to develop techniques using existing different programming technologies. Full article
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13 pages, 2824 KiB  
Article
Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Subcellular Organelles Using a 3D Finite Element Model of the Tensegrity Structure
by Gholamreza Mohammadi Khunsaraki, Hanieh Niroomand Oscuii and Arkady Voloshin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010249 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
A tensegrity model can be used to describe the mechanical behavior of living cells. A finite element model (FEM) was used to assess the mechanical contribution of subcellular organelles. Continuum parts like the cytoplasm and membrane were modeled as continuous elements, while the [...] Read more.
A tensegrity model can be used to describe the mechanical behavior of living cells. A finite element model (FEM) was used to assess the mechanical contribution of subcellular organelles. Continuum parts like the cytoplasm and membrane were modeled as continuous elements, while the tensegrity was chosen to model the cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton. An atomic force microscope load was implemented to simulate the external load. The cell components were loaded separately to evaluate their mechanical contributions. The analysis started with a single cytoplasm and each of the cell components was added in consecutive steps. The results showed that the cytoskeleton carried the largest part of the reaction force. The cytoplasm was the second important component of the cell’s mechanical response. It was shown that the nucleoskeleton has a stiffer structure than the membrane and cytoplasm. The cytoskeleton supported approximately 90% of the reaction force, while the cytoplasm carried 9% and the shell parts and nucleoskeleton were responsible for about 1%. Full article
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18 pages, 8324 KiB  
Article
Liquid–Solid Core-Shell Microcapsules of Calcium Carbonate Coated Emulsions and Liposomes
by Mark A. Bewernitz, Archana C. Lovett and Laurie B. Gower
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8551; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238551 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3082
Abstract
Micron-sized core-shell particles consisting of a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mineral shell and a fluidic core were generated using a biomimetic approach, for the purpose of use as biodegradable microcapsules for release of active agents. Dinoflagellate cysts, unicellular organisms which deposit a [...] Read more.
Micron-sized core-shell particles consisting of a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mineral shell and a fluidic core were generated using a biomimetic approach, for the purpose of use as biodegradable microcapsules for release of active agents. Dinoflagellate cysts, unicellular organisms which deposit a protective hard mineral shell around their soft and fluidic cellular interior, served as our inspiration. Using the biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process, calcium carbonate coatings were deposited on charged emulsion droplets and liposomes. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate that smooth CaCO3 mineral coatings can be deposited onto the high curvature surfaces of emulsions and liposomes to yield micron-sized microcapsules for the effective entrapment of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic active agents. These biodegradable and biocompatible CaCO3 microcapsules are novel systems for producing a powdered form of fluid-containing capsules for storage and transport of pharma/chemical agents. They may be used in lieu of, or in conjunction with, existing microcapsule delivery approaches, as well as providing a convenient foundation for which polymeric coatings could be further applied, allowing for more complex targeting and/or chemical-release control. Full article
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10 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
Insulin Secretion by β-Cell-Like Cells Derived from Pulp Stem Cells Depends on Augmented Cytosolic Zinc Levels than GABA Levels
by Gyuyoup Kim, Man-Kyo Chung and Eung-Kwon Pae
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7476; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217476 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Background: Stem cells harvested from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are pluripotent and can be differentiated into insulin-secreting β-cells, i.e., SHED β-cells. Previously, we showed that zinc upregulates insulin secretion from SHED β-cells, potentially providing an extra source for insulin. Rationale: In this [...] Read more.
Background: Stem cells harvested from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are pluripotent and can be differentiated into insulin-secreting β-cells, i.e., SHED β-cells. Previously, we showed that zinc upregulates insulin secretion from SHED β-cells, potentially providing an extra source for insulin. Rationale: In this study, we determined the role of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor in zinc-enhanced insulin secretion from SHED β-cells. Autocrine/paracrine activation of GABAA receptors by GABA elevates calcium influx in pancreatic β-cells, in which intracellular chloride is maintained at high levels. Method and Findings: Differentiating SHED into SHED β-cells resulted in an increase in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits and Zrt-/irt-like protein3 (ZIP3), a zinc uptake transporter. Zinc pretreatment elevated the insulin gene transcription, whereas knockdown of ZIP3 reduced levels of intracellular zinc, and concomitantly reduced insulin secretion by SHED β-cells. Zinc-pretreated SHED β-cells exhibited a GABA-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, detected with a ratiometric calcium-sensitive dye, suggesting zinc-mediated regulation of GABAA receptors. Conclusion: Our results indicate that elevated levels of zinc and GABAA receptors are indispensable for efficient insulin secretion by SHED β-cells. These findings suggest an opportunity for using SHED β-cells for treating diabetes. Full article
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14 pages, 1815 KiB  
Article
(+)-(E)-Chrysanthenyl Acetate: A Molecule with Interesting Biological Properties Contained in the Anthemis secundiramea (Asteraceae) Flowers
by Michela Di Napoli, Viviana Maresca, Mario Varcamonti, Maurizio Bruno, Natale Badalamenti, Adriana Basile and Anna Zanfardino
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6808; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196808 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2969
Abstract
Anthemis secundiramea is a perennial herb native widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin. The oil obtained from the flowers of this plant has antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and inhibits the biofilm formation. The extract of A. secundiramea also has antioxidant activity—increasing [...] Read more.
Anthemis secundiramea is a perennial herb native widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin. The oil obtained from the flowers of this plant has antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and inhibits the biofilm formation. The extract of A. secundiramea also has antioxidant activity—increasing the activity of different enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx). Surprisingly, in the oil extracted from the flowers, there is a single molecule, called (+)-(E)-chrysanthenyl acetate: This makes the A. secundiramea flowers extract extremely interesting for future topical, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications. Full article
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14 pages, 4295 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Effect of Various Tibial Bearing Materials in Uni-Compartmental Knee Arthroplasty Using Finite Element Analysis
by Yoon Hae Kwak, Hyoung-Taek Hong, Yong-Gon Koh and Kyoung-Tak Kang
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6487; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186487 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3306
Abstract
This paper aimed to evaluate the biomechanical effects of tibial bearing materials, from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK). The studies were conducted based on a validated finite element model. The geometry of the intact knee model was developed [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to evaluate the biomechanical effects of tibial bearing materials, from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK). The studies were conducted based on a validated finite element model. The geometry of the intact knee model was developed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the left knee joint of a 37-year-old healthy male volunteer. Three different loading conditions, related to the loads applied in the experimental research, were applied to this study for model predictions and validation. The contact stress in the other compartments was under normal walking conditions. Also, stresses on five regions of the tibia bone were analyzed under normal walking conditions. The lowest contact stress between the lateral meniscus and tibial cartilage was achieved in the order of the use of CFR-PEEK, PEEK, and UHMWPE tibial bearings. Moreover, CFR-PEEK and PEEK tibial bearings indicated lower and greater stresses on cortical and trabecular bones, respectively, compared to the UHMWPE tibial bearing. These results show that CFR-PEEK can be used as a tibial bearing material as an alternative to UHMWPE, and such a change in the material may be a good method for reducing potential anteromedial pain. Full article
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14 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
Deterministic and Explicit: A Quantitative Characterization of the Matrix and Collagen Influence on the Stiffening of Peripheral Nerves Under Stretch
by Pier Nicola Sergi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6372; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186372 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
The structural organization of peripheral nerves enables them to adapt to different body postures and movements by varying their stiffness. Indeed, they could become either compliant or stiff in response to the amount of external solicitation. In this work, the global response of [...] Read more.
The structural organization of peripheral nerves enables them to adapt to different body postures and movements by varying their stiffness. Indeed, they could become either compliant or stiff in response to the amount of external solicitation. In this work, the global response of nerves to axial stretch was deterministically derived from the interplay between the main structural constituents of the nerve connective tissue. In particular, a theoretical framework was provided to explicitly decouple the action of the ground matrix and the contribution of the collagen fibrils on the macroscopic stiffening of stretched nerves. To test the overall suitability of this approach, as a matter of principle, the change of the shape of relevant curves was investigated for changes of numerical parameters, while a further sensitivity study was performed to better understand the dependence on them. In addition, dimensionless stress and curvature were used to quantitatively account for both the matrix and the fibril actions. Finally, the proposed framework was used to investigate the stiffening phenomenon in different nerve specimens. More specifically, the proposed approach was able to explicitly and deterministically model the nerve stiffening of porcine peroneal and canine vagus nerves, closely reproducing (R2>0.997) the experimental data. Full article
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17 pages, 4767 KiB  
Article
Rapid Screening of Retrieved Knee Prosthesis Components by Confocal Raman Micro-Spectroscopy
by Calin Tudor Hozan, Simona Cavalu, Simona Cinta Pinzaru, Aurel George Mohan, Florin Beteg and Gelu Murvai
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5343; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155343 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3270
Abstract
(1) Aim: To evaluate the failure reason and surface modifications of a retrieved knee prosthesis; (2) Methods: Rapid confocal Raman spectroscopy screening was applied on the surface of a retrieved knee prosthesis (both titanium and UHMWPE (Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene) component) in order to determine [...] Read more.
(1) Aim: To evaluate the failure reason and surface modifications of a retrieved knee prosthesis; (2) Methods: Rapid confocal Raman spectroscopy screening was applied on the surface of a retrieved knee prosthesis (both titanium and UHMWPE (Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene) component) in order to determine predominate implant damage, along with the chemical composition of synovial fluid accumulated in the stem of the tibial component during the implantation period. Correlations between the medical records of the patient (clinical and radiographic information) and spectroscopic results are pointed out, the parameters being interpreted in the context of proper functioning and life span of knee prosthesis; (3) Results: The metallic tibial component does not show any modification during the implantation period, as demonstrated by the well preserved titanium component with signature of anatase phase detected in retrieved component, compared to unused piece. The spectral features of polymeric component (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, UHMWPE) revealed structural modification in crystallinity and amorphous phase accompanied by insignificant level of oxidation (OI < 1). Scratching, pitting and persistent organic spots as a result of mechanical and chemical deterioration were noticed on the surface of retrieved insert. Acrylic cement deterioration was also noticed. Synovial fluid collected from the stem of the tibial component demonstrated a lipidomic profile; (4) Conclusions: Combining the clinical evidences with confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a rapid screening with high sensitivity and nondestructive measurements in the case of failure in TKA (total knee arthroplasty). The third body wear and lipidomic profile of synovial fluid are cumulative factors of failure in this case, resulting in an osteolysis that finally leads to an aseptic loosening. Full article
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12 pages, 1449 KiB  
Article
Platelet Rich STROMA, the Combination of PRP and tSVF and Its Potential Effect on Osteoarthritis of the Knee
by Hieronymus P. Stevens, Joeri van Boxtel, Robbert van Dijck and Joris A. van Dongen
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4691; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144691 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3097
Abstract
(1) Background: osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative disease accompanied by pain, reduced mobility and subsequent decrease in quality of life. Many studies on OA of the knee have reported that using an intercellular acting-derivate like platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative disease accompanied by pain, reduced mobility and subsequent decrease in quality of life. Many studies on OA of the knee have reported that using an intercellular acting-derivate like platelet-rich plasma (PRP) results in a limited effect or none at all. Authors hypothesized that adding tissue-Stromal Vascular Fraction (tSVF) to PRP (Platelet Rich Stroma (PRS)) would reduce pain and improve functionality in osteoarthritis of the knee. (2) Methods: a consecutive case series of fifteen patients (aged 43–75 years) suffering from OA of the knee (Kellgren–Lawrence stage two to three) were treated with a single injection of autologous PRS. tSVF was mechanically isolated by means of the fractionation of adipose tissue (FAT) procedure. Clinical evaluation was done using a visual analogue score (VAS) score, an adapted Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) and Lysholm score at fixed time points: pre-injection as well as three, six and twelve months post injection. (3) Results: VAS and WOMAC scores improved significantly after twelve months (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Lysholm instability scores were also improved at twelve months (p > 0.05) in comparison to pre-injection measurements. No complications were seen in any of the patients. One patient was excluded due to a total knee arthroplasty. (4) Conclusions: a single injection with PRS for OA of the knee seems to lead to an improvement of function and simultaneous reduction of pain and joint stiffness for a period of twelve months. Further controlled trials are required to determine the optimal treatment regimen and evaluate long-term results. Full article
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10 pages, 2324 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Movements in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Smart Watch at School
by Lung-Chang Lin, Chen-Sen Ouyang, Ching-Tai Chiang, Rong-Ching Wu and Rei-Cheng Yang
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4116; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124116 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is primarily diagnosed using set criteria and checklists. However, authors have indicated that such criteria and checklists are subjective. In this study, data from the gyroscope and accelerometer in a smart watch were used to analyze the movements of [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is primarily diagnosed using set criteria and checklists. However, authors have indicated that such criteria and checklists are subjective. In this study, data from the gyroscope and accelerometer in a smart watch were used to analyze the movements of children with ADHD. This study cohort comprised 15 children with ADHD and 15 age- and sex-matched control participants. The children with ADHD and controls wore the watches on their non-writing hands simultaneously in class. The recordings of one patient and one control were tracked for 2 h daily for three consecutive days with desk and seated class activities. We compared the measurements of variance and the zero-crossing rate (ZCR) of the gyroscope and accelerometer between the children with ADHD and controls. All average variance and ZCR values of the three axes (x, y, and z) in the gyroscope and accelerometer were higher in children with ADHD than in the controls. Significant differences in average variance values on the y-axis (p < 0.001) and ZCR values on all three axes (x, p = 0.005; y, p = 0.003; and z, p = 0.004) of the gyroscope were observed. Similarly, significant differences in the average variance values on the three axes (x, p = 0.001; y, p < 0.001; and z, p < 0.001) and ZCR values on the z-axis (p = 0.006) of the accelerometer were observed. The proposed method is a promising tool to objectively analyze the movements of children with ADHD at school. Full article
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14 pages, 2146 KiB  
Article
A Practical Guide to Class IIa Medical Device Development
by Adél Hinsenkamp, Dorottya Kardos, Zsombor Lacza and István Hornyák
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3638; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103638 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4217
Abstract
There are many beneficial medical device ideas based on clinical needs and laboratory research, but medical device development is an expensive, time-consuming and complex challenge. Research and quality management, which are both needed to develop a medical device, are two distinct fields, initiated [...] Read more.
There are many beneficial medical device ideas based on clinical needs and laboratory research, but medical device development is an expensive, time-consuming and complex challenge. Research and quality management, which are both needed to develop a medical device, are two distinct fields, initiated by a researcher or a clinician having a concept for a medical device, and it is often challenging to find and achieve the proper steps to create a licensed product. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the required mindset and main steps of the medical device development procedure through an existing example, a Class IIa medical device, called hypACT Inject Auto. HypACT is a specific syringe, which is capable of blood drawing and serum from platelet-rich fibrin (SPRF) isolation in one step in a closed system. SPRF is intended to be used to improve joint functions in the case of musculoskeletal diseases, specifically osteoarthritis. Full article
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14 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
Photoplethysmographic Prediction of the Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index through a Machine Learning Approach
by David Perpetuini, Antonio Maria Chiarelli, Daniela Cardone, Sergio Rinella, Simona Massimino, Francesco Bianco, Valentina Bucciarelli, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Giorgio Fallica, Vincenzo Perciavalle, Sabina Gallina and Arcangelo Merla
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062137 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3069
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death. Several markers have been proposed to predict cardiovascular morbidity. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) marker is defined as the ratio between the ankle and the arm systolic blood pressures, and it is generally assessed through sphygmomanometers. [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death. Several markers have been proposed to predict cardiovascular morbidity. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) marker is defined as the ratio between the ankle and the arm systolic blood pressures, and it is generally assessed through sphygmomanometers. An alternative tool for cardiovascular status assessment is Photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is a non-invasive optical technique that measures volumetric blood changes induced by pulse pressure propagation within arteries. However, PPG does not provide absolute pressure estimation, making assessment of cardiovascular status less direct. The capability of a multivariate data-driven approach to predict ABI from peculiar PPG features was investigated here. ABI was measured using a commercial instrument (Enverdis Vascular Explorer, VE-ABI), and it was then used for a General Linear Model estimation of ABI from multi-site PPG in a supervised learning framework (PPG-ABI). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis allowed to investigate the capability of PPG-ABI to discriminate cardiovascular impairment as defined by VE-ABI. Findings suggested that ABI can be estimated form PPG (r = 0.79) and can identify pathological cardiovascular status (AUC = 0.85). The advantages of PPG are simplicity, speed and operator-independency, allowing extensive screening of cardiovascular status and associated cardiovascular risks. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 523 KiB  
Review
Healthcare Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Analytics: A Review and Proposed Framework
by Sabrina Azzi, Stéphane Gagnon, Alex Ramirez and Gregory Richards
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6553; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186553 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7933
Abstract
Healthcare is considered as one of the most promising application areas for artificial intelligence and analytics (AIA) just after the emergence of the latter. AI combined to analytics technologies is increasingly changing medical practice and healthcare in an impressive way using efficient algorithms [...] Read more.
Healthcare is considered as one of the most promising application areas for artificial intelligence and analytics (AIA) just after the emergence of the latter. AI combined to analytics technologies is increasingly changing medical practice and healthcare in an impressive way using efficient algorithms from various branches of information technology (IT). Indeed, numerous works are published every year in several universities and innovation centers worldwide, but there are concerns about progress in their effective success. There are growing examples of AIA being implemented in healthcare with promising results. This review paper summarizes the past 5 years of healthcare applications of AIA, across different techniques and medical specialties, and discusses the current issues and challenges, related to this revolutionary technology. A total of 24,782 articles were identified. The aim of this paper is to provide the research community with the necessary background to push this field even further and propose a framework that will help integrate diverse AIA technologies around patient needs in various healthcare contexts, especially for chronic care patients, who present the most complex comorbidities and care needs. Full article
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9 pages, 12381 KiB  
Case Report
Custom-Made Horizontal and Vertical Maxillary Augmentation with Smartbone® On Demand: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Case
by Elias Messo, Carlo F. Grottoli, Giuseppe Perale and Jan-Michaél Hirsch
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8039; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228039 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2894
Abstract
The presence of non-sufficient bone height and width requires an increase in the amount of bone available to insert an implant. Different materials are described in the literature, and the “custom-made bone graft approach” is a modern option which currently requires a preoperative [...] Read more.
The presence of non-sufficient bone height and width requires an increase in the amount of bone available to insert an implant. Different materials are described in the literature, and the “custom-made bone graft approach” is a modern option which currently requires a preoperative stage of studying the bone defect and designing the implant. SmartBone® (SB®) mimics the characteristics of healthy human bone. Thanks to the strong performance, high workability, resistance and shape retention of SB®, it is possible to obtain SmartBone® on DemandTM, a bone graft uniquely shaped exactly to patient specifications, produced by following the data precisely and contoured to the bone defect site. The aim of this study was to determine the success over 7 years following a customized SmartBone® on DemandTM, a xeno-hybrid bone graft and installation of implants in a maxillary horizontal and vertical atrophy. This case study presents the diagnosis for a 60-year-old male patient requesting the rehabilitation of his edentulous maxilla with dental implants. Preoperative evaluation included the study of photographs, a radiological examination and 3D reconstruction to assess the missing bone, implant size, positioning of implants and anatomical landmarks. Rehabilitation included the insertion of a custom-made xeno-hybrid bone block into the maxilla in order to restore the anatomy prior to the implants’ placement. The newly developed bone substitute SB® is a safe and effective material, and its custom-made variant SmartBone® on DemandTM has been shown to be a valid alternative to traditional autologous bone grafting techniques in terms of accuracy, absence of infection/rejection and overall clinical outcome. Full article
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9 pages, 3131 KiB  
Case Report
Clinical Case Employing Two Different Biomaterials in Bone Regeneration
by Roberto Ghiretti, Carlo F. Grottoli, Alberto Cingolani and Giuseppe Perale
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4516; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134516 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
The case of a 59-year-old woman lacking bone in the lower left side of her mandible, and treated with two different biomaterials for bone regeneration, is reported here. Specifically, two different anatomical sites damaged by two different pathologies were studied: a radicular fracture [...] Read more.
The case of a 59-year-old woman lacking bone in the lower left side of her mandible, and treated with two different biomaterials for bone regeneration, is reported here. Specifically, two different anatomical sites damaged by two different pathologies were studied: a radicular fracture and peri-implantitis. The sites were treated via xenograft bone substitute and calcium phosphosilicate, respectively. Follow-up evaluations showed that the two different methodologies employing different materials in the same organism undergoing the same metabolic processes achieved the same good results. This represents a significant change in current surgical strategies for the dental region: instead of focusing on a single gold-standard technique, it is possible to follow a hybrid approach by adapting the biomaterial and the protocol used to the specificities of the defect. Full article
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