Pathways for Water Conservation

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 5094

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2. Laboratório Associado para a Sustentabilidade e Tecnologia em Regiões de Montanha (SusTEC), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: limnology; reservoirs; lakes and rivers; ecology; conservation and biodiversity; monitoring and management; water quality and freshwater ecosystems ecological integrity; anthropogenic Impacts; bioremediation, water efficiency and conservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Novo Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2. Institute of Science and Environment, University of St. Joseph, Rua de Londres 106, Macao 999078, China
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; environmental biotechnology; environmental engineering; phytomanagement; bioremediation; phytoremediation; nature-based solutions; freshwater ecosystem conservation and restoration; education for sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water scarcity is one of the leading social and environmental problems faced by society. The leading causes of this phenomenon are: (1) freshwater ecosystems degradation; (2) increasing water pollution; and (3) the continuously rising of water demand due to population growth and growth and changing lifestyles, implying more intensive water use. In addition, climate changes will involve higher temperatures and changes in the intensity and patterns of precipitation, leading to more frequent droughts reducing water quantity and quality as well. Consequently, it is paramount to promote the restoration and rehabilitation of the freshwater and surrounding ecosystems and water use efficiency in urban, agricultural, and industrial areas, and prevent water pollution. Therefore, this Special Issue “Pathways for Water Conservation“ welcomes research in the format of original research papers, case studies, systematic reviews, and new insights addressing the following topics:

  • Nature-based and other technological solutions for water freshwater ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation;
  • Managing landscapes for water conservation;
  • Sowing water: soil and forest restoration and rehabilitation;
  • Nature-based and other technological solutions for remove water contaminants;
  • Alternative sources of water;
  • Urban water circularity;
  • Water sustainability in agriculture;
  • Water use efficiency in industry;
  • Sustainable water-energy buildings;
  • Green roofs and facades to promote water sustainability in urban areas;
  • Water reuse and harvesting technologies;
  • Water use efficiency;
  • Other relevant topics related to the scope covered by this Special Issue.

Dr. Ana Maria Antão Geraldes
Dr. Cristina Sousa Coutinho Calheiros
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • water conservation
  • water scarcity
  • nature-based solutions
  • water efficiency
  • water contaminants removal
  • urban water circularity
  • water sustainability

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
Development of a Fault Detection and Localization Model for a Water Distribution Network
by Christogonus U. Onukwube, Daniel O. Aikhuele and Shahryar Sorooshian
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041620 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Water distribution networks are complex systems that aid in the delivery of water to residential and non-residential areas. However, the networks can be affected by different types of faults, which could lead to the wastage of treated water. As such, there is a [...] Read more.
Water distribution networks are complex systems that aid in the delivery of water to residential and non-residential areas. However, the networks can be affected by different types of faults, which could lead to the wastage of treated water. As such, there is a need to develop a reliable leakage detection and localization system that can detect leak occurrences in the network. This study, using a simulated dataset from EPANET, presents the application of supervised machine learning classifiers for leak detection and localization in the water distribution network of the University of Port Harcourt Choba campus. The study compared three machine learning classification tools that are used in pattern recognition analysis: the support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor, and artificial neural network. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach are compared with those of the performance of the classifiers for leakage detection in the network of the case study. The results show that the support vector machine performs the best, with 79% accuracy, while the respective accuracies for the remaining classifiers are 70% for the k-nearest neighbor and 61% for the artificial neural networks. The high accuracy demonstrated by the models shows that they are able to detect and address issues relating to fault detection in a water distribution network. This model could provide a leakage detection system to be applied to buildings for the efficient management of water in their networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathways for Water Conservation)
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12 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Engineering Hydroponic Systems for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Plant Growth
by Dominic Clyde-Smith and Luiza C. Campos
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8032; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148032 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
This study aimed to optimize hydroponic systems for simultaneous wastewater treatment/nutrient recovery and plant growth. Various hydroponic systems (geyser pump, full flow, ebb and flow, nutrient film techniques, aeroponics, misting) were constructed using 160 mm PVC waste pipes supported on a 200 L [...] Read more.
This study aimed to optimize hydroponic systems for simultaneous wastewater treatment/nutrient recovery and plant growth. Various hydroponic systems (geyser pump, full flow, ebb and flow, nutrient film techniques, aeroponics, misting) were constructed using 160 mm PVC waste pipes supported on a 200 L reservoir. Secondary wastewater was used to cultivate rice (Oryza sativa), ivy (Hedera helix), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum). Parameters such as plant height, biomass, retention time, temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus, COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, and TS were monitored. Results indicated minor variations in pH, EC, and TDS over time in systems with and without plants, with no significant differences. Turbidity decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) in all systems, while TOC levels reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) only in the presence of plants. BOD and COD levels exhibited similar reductions with and without plants. Ammonium levels decreased in plant systems, while nitrite levels remained unchanged. Nitrate levels increased significantly in plant systems, and phosphate levels showed no significant difference. Additionally, significant (p ≤ 0.001) plant length (12.84–46.75%) and biomass (31.90–57.86%) increases were observed in all hydroponic systems, accompanied by higher levels of dissolved oxygen (36.26–53.65%), compared to the control (4.59%). The hydroponic system that created a moist atmosphere, either through misting or aeroponics, thus allowing maximum access to oxygen, showed the greatest growth. This study confirmed the importance of oxygen availability to the rhizosphere for plant growth and wastewater treatment. It also identified limitations and investigated the impact of dissolved oxygen concentration on plant–microorganism interactions. Optimal oxygen availability was achieved when plant roots were exposed to a moist atmosphere created by the hydroponic system through aeroponics or misting. The findings have practical implications for hydroponic system design in urban vertical farms, benefiting wastewater treatment, mitigating eutrophication, and reducing food miles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathways for Water Conservation)
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Review

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17 pages, 8909 KiB  
Review
Implementation of Soil and Water Conservation in Indonesia and Its Impacts on Biodiversity, Hydrology, Soil Erosion and Microclimate
by I Wayan Susi Dharmawan, Pratiwi, Chairil Anwar Siregar, Budi Hadi Narendra, Ni Kadek Erosi Undaharta, Bina Swasta Sitepu, Asep Sukmana, Michael Daru Enggar Wiratmoko, Ilham Kurnia Abywijaya and Nilam Sari
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7648; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137648 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Soil and water are natural resources that support the life of various creatures on Earth, including humans. The main problem, so far, is that both resources can be easily damaged or degraded by human-induced drivers. The threat of damage or degradation is increasing [...] Read more.
Soil and water are natural resources that support the life of various creatures on Earth, including humans. The main problem, so far, is that both resources can be easily damaged or degraded by human-induced drivers. The threat of damage or degradation is increasing due to rapid human population growth and humans’ insatiable daily necessities. Indonesia has had various experiences in soil and water conservation (SWC) programmes for a long time, which can be a good lesson learned for future strategy development. This article aims to provide an overview of the benefits of implementing SWC in Indonesia for biodiversity, hydrology, soil erosion, and microclimate to support sustainable ecological landscape management. Various vegetative and mechanical techniques that have been known and implemented can be utilized to improve future SWC strategies. It is expected that proper strategy development in the future for SWC in Indonesia will support the sustainability of ecological landscape management. Forthcoming SWC programmes are also expected to incorporate local knowledge into their implementation. The programmes also require coordination between stakeholders, i.e., local communities, management authorities, policymakers, and scientists, and seamless integration between varying fields and levels of governance. The main findings of this study are that SWC increased the adaptation of native plants to local rainfall and soil conditions; SWC increased infiltration and improved soil hydrological characteristics; and SWC, through vegetation techniques, played a role in lowering temperatures, increasing humidity, and reducing intensity levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathways for Water Conservation)
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