Advances in Antioxidant Ingredients from Natural Products

A topical collection in Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This collection belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: natural products; bioactive compounds; food chemistry; bio-based ingredients
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: natural bioactive compounds; medicinal chemistry; bioactivity and toxicology; functional applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the increased interest in natural matrices and, especially, in all their bioactive compounds, the focus of academia and industry has been directed at the discovery of novel antioxidant ingredients. The benefits that these compounds can exert in human health are countless, and several antioxidant mechanisms have been reported. With that in mind, and considering the growing consumers’ preference for natural products, the present Topical Collection aims to gather the most recent advances in antioxidant ingredients from natural sources. Therefore, we cordially invite authors to contribute with original research articles and reviews. These may cover all aspects of antioxidant mechanisms, reflecting the state of the art on natural extracts and/or isolated compounds applied to food for antioxidant purposes. This Collection will also welcome research focused on the development of biobased ingredients that, beyond conferring other suitable features to foodstuff, also bring relevant antioxidant properties. From this perspective, it will also consider similar applications in other areas such as cosmetic, cosmeceutical, pharmaceutical, or textile, among many others. Critical and objective perspectives of specific aspects related to the extraction, purification, isolation, stabilization, and/or application of natural antioxidants will perfectly fall within the scope of this Collection.

Dr. Carla Pereira
Dr. Lillian Barros
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (39 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

15 pages, 3553 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Phenolic Acid-Conjugated Glutamine–Histidine–Glycine–Valine (QHGV) Peptides Derived from Oysters (Crassostrea talienwhanensis)
by Soyun Choi, Sohee Han, Seungmi Lee, Jongmin Kim, Jinho Kim and Dong-Ku Kang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(4), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13040447 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The glutamine–histidine–glycine–valine (QHGV), a peptide derived from oysters, exhibits antioxidant activity and is being actively researched as a potential pharmaceutical and functional cosmetic ingredient. In this study, we synthesized the QHGV peptide and explored the hitherto unknown anti-inflammatory effects of QHGV. The antioxidant [...] Read more.
The glutamine–histidine–glycine–valine (QHGV), a peptide derived from oysters, exhibits antioxidant activity and is being actively researched as a potential pharmaceutical and functional cosmetic ingredient. In this study, we synthesized the QHGV peptide and explored the hitherto unknown anti-inflammatory effects of QHGV. The antioxidant property was also characterized by conjugating with various naturally derived phenolic acids, such as caffeic, gallic, ferulic, sinapinic, and vanillic acids. Conjugation with phenolic acids not only enhanced the antioxidant activity of QHGV but also diminished the lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. The reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species led to the reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, including extracellular signal-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38. Furthermore, the phenolic acid-conjugated peptides increased the mRNA and protein levels of collagen type I, indicative of a wrinkle-improvement effect. The phenolic acid conjugates of the peptide were not cytotoxic to human keratinocytes such as HaCaT cells. These results suggest that phenolic acid conjugation can enhance the potential of peptides as drug and cosmetic resources. Full article
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19 pages, 6442 KiB  
Article
A Mechanistic Study of the Osteogenic Effect of Arecoline in an Osteoporosis Model: Inhibition of Iron Overload-Induced Osteogenesis by Promoting Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression
by Zhongjing Jiang, Linhua Deng, Gang Xiang, Xia Xu and Yunjia Wang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13040430 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Iron overload-associated osteoporosis presents a significant challenge to bone health. This study examines the effects of arecoline (ACL), an alkaloid found in areca nut, on bone metabolism under iron overload conditions induced by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) treatment. The results indicate that ACL [...] Read more.
Iron overload-associated osteoporosis presents a significant challenge to bone health. This study examines the effects of arecoline (ACL), an alkaloid found in areca nut, on bone metabolism under iron overload conditions induced by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) treatment. The results indicate that ACL mitigates the FAC-induced inhibition of osteogenesis in zebrafish larvae, as demonstrated by increased skeletal mineralization and upregulation of osteogenic genes. ACL attenuates FAC-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells. RNA sequencing analysis suggests that the protective effects of ACL are related to the regulation of ferroptosis. We demonstrate that ACL inhibits ferroptosis, including oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage, and cell death under FAC exposure. In this study, we have identified heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a critical mediator of ACL inhibiting ferroptosis and promoting osteogenesis, which was validated by HO-1 knockdown and knockout experiments. The study links ACL to HO-1 activation and ferroptosis regulation in the context of bone metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the modulation of osteogenesis by ACL. Targeting the HO-1/ferroptosis axis is a promising therapeutic approach for treating iron overload-induced bone diseases. Full article
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26 pages, 10602 KiB  
Article
Curculigoside Attenuates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Epithelial Cell and Fibroblast Senescence by Regulating the SIRT1-P300 Signaling Pathway
by Weixi Xie, Lang Deng, Rui Qian, Xiaoting Huang, Wei Liu and Siyuan Tang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13040420 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The senescence of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and fibroblasts plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a condition lacking specific therapeutic interventions. Curculigoside (CCG), a prominent bioactive constituent of Curculigo, exhibits anti-osteoporotic and antioxidant activities. Our investigation [...] Read more.
The senescence of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and fibroblasts plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a condition lacking specific therapeutic interventions. Curculigoside (CCG), a prominent bioactive constituent of Curculigo, exhibits anti-osteoporotic and antioxidant activities. Our investigation aimed to elucidate the anti-senescence and anti-fibrotic effects of CCG in experimental pulmonary fibrosis and delineate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings demonstrate that CCG attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and lung senescence in murine models, concomitantly ameliorating lung function impairment. Immunofluorescence staining for senescence marker p21, alongside SPC or α-SMA, suggested that CCG’s mitigation of lung senescence correlates closely with the deceleration of senescence in AECs and fibroblasts. In vitro, CCG mitigated H2O2-induced senescence in AECs and the natural senescence of primary mouse fibroblasts. Mechanistically, CCG can upregulate SIRT1 expression, downregulating P300 expression, enhancing Trim72 expression to facilitate P300 ubiquitination and degradation, reducing the acetylation levels of antioxidant enzymes, and upregulating their expression levels. These actions collectively inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and alleviated senescence. Furthermore, the anti-senescence effects and mechanisms of CCG were validated in a D-galactose (D-gal)-induced progeroid model. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the action of CCG in cellular senescence and chronic diseases, offering potential avenues for the development of innovative drugs or therapeutic strategies. Full article
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13 pages, 3846 KiB  
Article
Chrysoeriol Improves the Early Development Potential of Porcine Oocytes by Maintaining Lipid Homeostasis and Improving Mitochondrial Function
by Chao-Rui Wang, Xiu-Wen Yuan, He-Wei Ji, Yong-Nan Xu, Ying-Hua Li and Nam-Hyung Kim
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010122 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Our previous study established that chrysoeriol (CHE) can reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, and autophagy in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine embryos. However, the role of CHE in oocyte maturation and lipid homeostasis is unclear. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the [...] Read more.
Our previous study established that chrysoeriol (CHE) can reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, and autophagy in vitro culture (IVC) of porcine embryos. However, the role of CHE in oocyte maturation and lipid homeostasis is unclear. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the effect of CHE on porcine oocyte competence in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development. The study chooses parthenogenetic activated porcine oocytes as the research model. The study revealed that the cumulus expansion index and related gene expressions are significantly elevated after supplementing 1 μM CHE. Although there were no significant differences in nuclear maturation and cleavage rates, the blastocyst formation rate and total cell numbers were significantly increased in the 1 μM CHE group. In addition, CHE improved the expression of genes related to oocyte and embryo development. ROS was significantly downregulated in all CHE treatment groups, and intracellular GSH (glutathione) was significantly upregulated in 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM CHE groups. The immunofluorescence results indicated that mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lipid droplet (LD), fatty acid (FA), ATP, and functional mitochondria contents significantly increased with 1 μM CHE compared to the control. Furthermore, CHE increased the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and β-oxidation. Full article
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21 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Ethosomes for Curcumin and Piperine Cutaneous Delivery to Prevent Environmental-Stressor-Induced Skin Damage
by Francesca Ferrara, Agnese Bondi, Walter Pula, Catia Contado, Anna Baldisserotto, Stefano Manfredini, Paola Boldrini, Maddalena Sguizzato, Leda Montesi, Mascia Benedusi, Giuseppe Valacchi and Elisabetta Esposito
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010091 - 11 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Diesel particulate matter is one of the most dangerous environmental stressors affecting human health. Many plant-derived compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been proposed to protect the skin from pollution damage. Curcumin (CUR) has a plethora of pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antimicrobial, [...] Read more.
Diesel particulate matter is one of the most dangerous environmental stressors affecting human health. Many plant-derived compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been proposed to protect the skin from pollution damage. Curcumin (CUR) has a plethora of pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. However, it has low bioavailability due to its difficult absorption and rapid metabolism and elimination. CUR encapsulation in nanotechnological systems and its combination with biopotentiators such as piperine (PIP) can improve its pharmacokinetics, stability and activity. In this study, ethosomes (ETs) were investigated for CUR and PIP delivery to protect the skin from damage induced by diesel particulate matter. ETs were produced by different strategies and characterized for their size distribution by photon correlation spectroscopy, for their morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and for their drug encapsulation efficiency by high-performance liquid chromatography. Franz cells enabled us to evaluate in vitro the drug diffusion from ETs. The results highlighted that ETs can promote the skin permeation of curcumin. The studies carried out on their antioxidant activity demonstrated an increase in the antioxidant power of CUR using a combination of CUR and PIP separately loaded in ETs, suggesting their possible application for the prevention of skin damage due to exogenous stressors. Ex vivo studies on human skin explants have shown the suitability of drug-loaded ETs to prevent the structural damage to the skin induced by diesel engine exhaust exposure. Full article
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21 pages, 3777 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Quail Yolk Oil via Upregulation of Superoxide Dismutase 1 and Catalase Genes and Downregulation of EIGER and Unpaired 2 Genes in a D. melanogaster Model
by Muhammad Sani Ismaila, Kamaldeen Olalekan Sanusi, Uwaisu Iliyasu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Karla Georges, Venkatesan Sundaram and Kegan Romelle Jones
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010075 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Quail egg yolk oil (QEYO) has a rich history of medicinal use, showcasing heightened antioxidant and bioactive properties in our prior studies. This positions QEYO as a promising candidate for therapeutic and cosmetic applications. In this investigation, QEYO was extracted using ethanol/chloroform and [...] Read more.
Quail egg yolk oil (QEYO) has a rich history of medicinal use, showcasing heightened antioxidant and bioactive properties in our prior studies. This positions QEYO as a promising candidate for therapeutic and cosmetic applications. In this investigation, QEYO was extracted using ethanol/chloroform and 2-propanol/hexane solvents. GC–MS and FTIR analyses quantified 14 major bioactive compounds in the ethanol/chloroform fraction and 12 in the 2-propanol/hexane fraction. Toxicity evaluations in fruit flies, spanning acute, sub chronic, and chronic exposures, revealed no adverse effects. Negative geotaxis assays assessed locomotor activity, while biochemical assays using fly hemolymph gauged antioxidant responses. Real-time PCR revealed the relative expression levels of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. FTIR spectra indicated diverse functional groups, and the GC–MS results associated bioactive compounds with the regulation of the anti-inflammatory genes EIGER and UPD2. While no significant change in SOD activities was noted, male flies treated with specific QEYO doses exhibited increased catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity, coupled with a significant decrease in their malondialdehyde levels. This study offers valuable insights into the bioactive compounds of QEYO and their potential regulatory roles in gene expression. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

19 pages, 3855 KiB  
Article
Targeted Metabolomics Study on the Effect of Vinegar Processing on the Chemical Changes and Antioxidant Activity of Angelica sinensis
by Linlin Chen, Long Li, Fengzhong Wang, Shenghai Hu, Tingting Ding, Yongru Wang, Yulong Huang, Bei Fan and Jing Sun
Antioxidants 2023, 12(12), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12122053 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (A. sinensis) has a long processing history. In order to obtain a more valuable composition and higher antioxidant behavior, it is often processed by stir-frying and vinegar treatment. However, the underlying mechanism of chemical changes remains ambiguous. [...] Read more.
Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (A. sinensis) has a long processing history. In order to obtain a more valuable composition and higher antioxidant behavior, it is often processed by stir-frying and vinegar treatment. However, the underlying mechanism of chemical changes remains ambiguous. Using UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS alongside targeted metabolomics techniques, this study probed the variances between crude and processed A. sinensis. We identified 1046 chemical components in total, 123 differential components in stir-fried A. sinensis, and 167 in vinegar-treated ones were screened through multivariate statistical analysis. Moreover, 83 significant compounds, encompassing amino acids, phenolic acids, etc., were identified across both processing methods. The in vitro antioxidant activities of these A. sinensis forms were assessed, revealing a positive correlation between most of the unique components emerging after processing and the antioxidant capabilities. Notably, post-processing, the chemical composition undergoes significant alterations, enhancing the antioxidant activity. Specific compounds, including 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringetin-3-O-glucoside, and salicylic acid, greatly influence antioxidant activity during processing. Full article
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19 pages, 3856 KiB  
Article
Isoquercitrin from Apocynum venetum L. Exerts Antiaging Effects on Yeasts via Stress Resistance Improvement and Mitophagy Induction through the Sch9/Rim15/Msn Signaling Pathway
by Yanan Liu, Le Shen, Akira Matsuura, Lan Xiang and Jianhua Qi
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111939 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Background: With the development of an aging sociality, aging-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, are dramatically increasing. To find small molecules from natural products that can prevent the aging of human beings and the occurrence of these diseases, we [...] Read more.
Background: With the development of an aging sociality, aging-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, are dramatically increasing. To find small molecules from natural products that can prevent the aging of human beings and the occurrence of these diseases, we used the lifespan assay of yeast as a bioassay system to screen an antiaging substance. Isoquercitrin (IQ), an antiaging substance, was isolated from Apocynum venetum L., an herbal tea commonly consumed in Xinjiang, China. Aim of the Study: In the present study, we utilized molecular-biology technology to clarify the mechanism of action of IQ. Methods: The replicative lifespans of K6001 yeasts and the chronological lifespans of YOM36 yeasts were used to screen and confirm the antiaging effect of IQ. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay, the survival assay of yeast under stresses, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses, the replicative-lifespan assay of mutants, such as Δsod1, Δsod2, Δgpx, Δcat, Δskn7, Δuth1, Δatg32, Δatg2, and Δrim15 of K6001, autophagy flux analysis, and a lifespan assay of K6001 yeast after giving a mitophagy inhibitor and activator were performed. Results: IQ extended the replicative lifespans of the K6001 yeasts and the chronological lifespans of the YOM36 yeasts. Furthermore, the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) showed no change during the growth phase but significantly decreased in the stationary phase after treatment with IQ. The survival rates of the yeasts under oxidative- and thermal-stress conditions improved upon IQ treatment, and thermal stress was alleviated by the increasing superoxide dismutase (Sod) activity. Additionally, IQ decreased the ROS and MDA of the yeast while increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, it could not prolong the replicative lifespans of Δsod1, Δsod2, Δgpx, Δcat, Δskn7, and Δuth1 of K6001. IQ significantly increased autophagy and mitophagy induction, the presence of free green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the cytoplasm, and ubiquitination in the mitochondria of the YOM38 yeasts at the protein level. IQ did not prolong the replicative lifespans of Δatg2 and Δatg32 of K6001. Moreover, IQ treatment led to a decrease in Sch9 at the protein level and an increase in the nuclear translocation of Rim15 and Msn2. Conclusions: These results indicated that the Sch9/Rim15/Msn signaling pathway, as well as antioxidative stress, anti-thermal stress, and autophagy, were involved in the antiaging effects of IQ in the yeasts. Full article
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21 pages, 8511 KiB  
Article
Sirtuin1 Mediates the Protective Effects of Echinacoside against Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Regulating the NOX4-Nrf2 Axis
by Weixi Xie, Lang Deng, Miao Lin, Xiaoting Huang, Rui Qian, Dayan Xiong, Wei Liu and Siyuan Tang
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111925 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Currently, the treatment for sepsis-induced acute lung injury mainly involves mechanical ventilation with limited use of drugs, highlighting the urgent need for new therapeutic options. As a pivotal aspect of acute lung injury, the pathologic activation and apoptosis of endothelial cells related to [...] Read more.
Currently, the treatment for sepsis-induced acute lung injury mainly involves mechanical ventilation with limited use of drugs, highlighting the urgent need for new therapeutic options. As a pivotal aspect of acute lung injury, the pathologic activation and apoptosis of endothelial cells related to oxidative stress play a crucial role in disease progression, with NOX4 and Nrf2 being important targets in regulating ROS production and clearance. Echinacoside, extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal plant Cistanche deserticola, possesses diverse biological activities. However, its role in sepsis-induced acute lung injury remains unexplored. Moreover, although some studies have demonstrated the regulation of NOX4 expression by SIRT1, the specific mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of echinacoside on sepsis-induced acute lung injury and oxidative stress in mice and to explore the intricate regulatory mechanism of SIRT1 on NOX4. We found that echinacoside inhibited sepsis-induced acute lung injury and oxidative stress while preserving endothelial function. In vitro experiments demonstrated that echinacoside activated SIRT1 and promoted its expression. The activated SIRT1 was competitively bound to p22 phox, inhibiting the activation of NOX4 and facilitating the ubiquitination and degradation of NOX4. Additionally, SIRT1 deacetylated Nrf2, promoting the downstream expression of antioxidant enzymes, thus enhancing the NOX4-Nrf2 axis and mitigating oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell pathologic activation and mitochondrial pathway apoptosis. The SIRT1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of echinacoside were validated in vivo. Consequently, the SIRT1-regulated NOX4-Nrf2 axis may represent a crucial target for echinacoside in the treatment of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Full article
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20 pages, 2190 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Bio-Compounds Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Neuroprotective Effect of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata rubra) Processed by Convective Drying at Different Temperatures
by Antonio Vega-Galvez, Luis S. Gomez-Perez, Francisca Zepeda, René L. Vidal, Felipe Grunenwald, Nicol Mejías, Alexis Pasten, Michael Araya and Kong Shun Ah-Hen
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091789 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and no efficient therapy able to cure or slow down PD is available. In this study, dehydrated red cabbage was evaluated as a novel source of bio-compounds with neuroprotective capacity. Convective drying was [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and no efficient therapy able to cure or slow down PD is available. In this study, dehydrated red cabbage was evaluated as a novel source of bio-compounds with neuroprotective capacity. Convective drying was carried out at different temperatures. Total phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), anthocyanins (TAC), and glucosinolates (TGC) were determined using spectrophotometry, amino acid profile by LC-DAD and fatty acid profile by GC-FID. Phenolic characterization was determined by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and neuroprotection assays were evaluated in SH-SY5Y human cells, observing the effect on preformed fibrils of α-synuclein. Drying kinetic confirmed a shorter processing time with temperature increase. A high concentration of bio-compounds was observed, especially at 90 °C, with TPC = 1544.04 ± 11.4 mg GAE/100 g, TFC = 690.87 ± 4.0 mg QE/100 g and TGC = 5244.9 ± 260.2 µmol SngE/100 g. TAC degraded with temperature. Glutamic acid and arginine were predominant. Fatty acid profiles were relatively stable and were found to be mostly C18:3n3. The neochlorogenic acid was predominant. The extracts had no cytotoxicity and showed a neuroprotective effect at 24 h testing, which can extend in some cases to 48 h. The present findings underpin the use of red cabbage as a functional food ingredient. Full article
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19 pages, 5049 KiB  
Article
A Pectic Polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Alleviates Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress of Aging Mice via Modulating Intestinal Microbiota-Related Gut–Liver Axis
by Yuanfeng Zou, Hong Yan, Cenyu Li, Fang Wen, Xiaoping Jize, Chaowen Zhang, Siqi Liu, Yuzhe Zhao, Yuping Fu, Lixia Li, Fan Liu, Ji Chen, Rui Li, Xingfu Chen and Mengliang Tian
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091781 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Aging is a biological process that leads to the progressive deterioration and loss of physiological functions in the human body and results in an increase in morbidity and mortality, and aging-related disease is a major global problem that poses a serious threat to [...] Read more.
Aging is a biological process that leads to the progressive deterioration and loss of physiological functions in the human body and results in an increase in morbidity and mortality, and aging-related disease is a major global problem that poses a serious threat to public health. Polysaccharides have been shown to delay aging by reducing oxidative damage, suppressing inflammatory responses, and modulating intestinal microbiota. Our previous studies have shown that polysaccharide CPP-1 extracted from the root of Codonopsis pilosula possesses noticeable anti-oxidant activity in vitro. Thus, in our study, we tested the anti-aging effect of CPP-1 in naturally aging mice (in vivo). Eighteen C57/BL mice (48-week-old, male) were divided into a control group, high-dose CPP-1 group (20 mg/mL), and low-dose CPP-1 group (10 mg/mL). We discovered that CPP-1 can exert a reparative effect on aging stress in the intestine and liver, including alleviating inflammation and oxidative damage. We revealed that CPP-1 supplementation improved the intestinal microbiota composition and repaired the intestinal barrier in the gut. Furthermore, CPP-1 was proved to modulate lipid metabolism and repair hepatocyte injury in the liver by influencing the enterohepatic axis associated with the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, we concluded that CPP-1 prevents and alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the intestine and liver of aging mice by modulating the intestinal microbiota-related gut–liver axis to delay aging. Full article
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24 pages, 5251 KiB  
Article
Natural Acetogenins, Chatenaytrienins-1, -2, -3 and -4, Mitochondrial Potential Uncouplers and Autophagy Inducers—Promising Anticancer Agents
by Lilya U. Dzhemileva, Regina A. Tuktarova, Usein M. Dzhemilev and Vladimir A. D’yakonov
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081528 - 30 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The present paper details the complete stereoselective synthesis of four natural acetogenins, chatenaytrienins-1, -2, -3 and -4, previously isolated from the roots of fruit trees of the family Annonaceae (A. nutans and A. muricata), as an inseparable mixture. The novel organometallic [...] Read more.
The present paper details the complete stereoselective synthesis of four natural acetogenins, chatenaytrienins-1, -2, -3 and -4, previously isolated from the roots of fruit trees of the family Annonaceae (A. nutans and A. muricata), as an inseparable mixture. The novel organometallic reactions, developed by the authors, of Ti-catalyzed cross-cyclomagnesiation of O-containing and aliphatic allenes using available Grignard reagents were applied at the key stage of synthesis. We have studied the biological activity of the synthesized individual chatenaytrienins-1, -2, -3 and -4 in vitro, including their cytotoxicity in a panel of tumor lines and their ability to induce apoptosis, affect the cell cycle and mitochondria, and activate the main apoptotic signaling pathways in the cell, applying modern approaches of flow cytometry and multiplex analysis with Luminex xMAP technology. It has been shown that chatenaytrienins affect mitochondria by uncoupling the processes of mitochondrial respiration, causing the accumulation of ROS ions, followed by the initiation of apoptosis. The most likely mechanism for the death of cortical neurons from the consumption of tea from the seeds of Annona fruit is long-term chronic hypoxia, which leads to the development of an atypical form of Parkinson’s disease that is characteristic of the indigenous inhabitants of Guam and New Caledonia. Full article
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18 pages, 1348 KiB  
Review
Exploitation of Quercetin’s Antioxidative Properties in Potential Alternative Therapeutic Options for Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Viorica Rarinca, Mircea Nicusor Nicoara, Dorel Ureche and Alin Ciobica
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071418 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) is a condition in which there is an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body, which can lead to cell and tissue damage. This occurs when there is an overproduction of ROS or when the body’s antioxidant defense [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) is a condition in which there is an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body, which can lead to cell and tissue damage. This occurs when there is an overproduction of ROS or when the body’s antioxidant defense systems are overwhelmed. Quercetin (Que) is part of a group of compounds called flavonoids. It is found in high concentrations in vegetables, fruits, and other foods. Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of flavonoids to modulate neuronal function and prevent age-related neurodegeneration. Therefore, Que has been shown to have antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, both in vitro and in vivo. Due to its antioxidant character, Que alleviates oxidative stress, thus improving cognitive function, reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, Que can also help support the body’s natural antioxidant defense systems, thus being a potentially practical supplement for managing OS. This review focuses on experimental studies supporting the neuroprotective effects of Que in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and epilepsy. Full article
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18 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Characterization of 20 Oenological Tannins from Different Botanical Origins for Formulation of Blends with Redox Potential Tuning Ability in Model Wine Solution
by Francesco Maioli, Luigi Sanarica, Lorenzo Cecchi, Bruno Zanoni, Nadia Mulinacci and Valentina Canuti
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071399 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Twenty oenotannins from different botanical origins were studied in model wine solution (1 g/L, 12% ethanol, pH 3.5). An original device was created for measuring Oxidation–Reduction potential (ORp) of the solutions at 20 °C in strict anoxic condition by the electrochemical [...] Read more.
Twenty oenotannins from different botanical origins were studied in model wine solution (1 g/L, 12% ethanol, pH 3.5). An original device was created for measuring Oxidation–Reduction potential (ORp) of the solutions at 20 °C in strict anoxic condition by the electrochemical method of the platinum electrode zero-current potential. Reactivity against proteins and antioxidant properties were related to the chemical structure and, consequently, to the botanical origin of the oenotannins. The highest turbidity after BSA addition (ΔNTU > 1000) values were measured for the gallic hydrolysable tannins. The ORp versus standard hydrogen electrode ranged from 420 to 260 mV. The ellagitannins had the highest antioxidant power (AP%), followed by condensed tannins and gallotannins, highlighting a correlation with the phenolic profile. Based on these findings, two formulations were prepared as a blend of some of the tested oenotannins, with the ability to increase (MIX1) and decrease (MIX2) the ORp of the model wine. Full article
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22 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
Fruit–Carrot-Based Smoothies as Innovative Products with a Complex Matrix of Bioactive Compounds Effected on Activities of Selected Digestive Enzymes and Cholinesterases In Vitro
by Emel Hasan Yusuf, Aneta Wojdyło, Ana Isabel Bourbon and Paulina Nowicka
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040917 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1642
Abstract
In this study, four different carrot varieties (purple, yellow, white, and orange) were used in the production of smoothies with raspberry, apple, pear, strawberry, and sour cherry juices. The in vitro inhibition effects against α- amylase, α- glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase [...] Read more.
In this study, four different carrot varieties (purple, yellow, white, and orange) were used in the production of smoothies with raspberry, apple, pear, strawberry, and sour cherry juices. The in vitro inhibition effects against α- amylase, α- glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase were measured, bioactive compounds, physicochemical characteristics, including sensorial features were described. The antioxidant activities of the studied samples were analyzed using the ORAC, ABTS, and FRAP methods. The raspberry–purple carrot smoothie showed the highest antioxidant activity against lipase and butyrylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The sour cherry–purple carrot smoothie showed the highest total soluble solids, total phenolic acid, total anthocyanins, and procyanidin contents; dry mass; and osmolality. Although the apple–white carrot smoothie achieved the highest acceptance after sensorial evaluation, it did not exhibit any potent biological activities. Thus, food products with purple carrot, raspberry, and sour cherry ingredients are suggested as functional and/or novel matrix compositions with high antioxidant potential. Full article
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18 pages, 2965 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on the Oxidative Stability of Encapsulated Fish Oil by Monoaxial or Coaxial Electrospraying and Spray-Drying
by Nor E. Rahmani-Manglano, Emilia M. Guadix, Charlotte Jacobsen and Pedro J. García-Moreno
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020266 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
The impact of the encapsulation technology on the oxidative stability of fish-oil-loaded capsules was investigated. The capsules (ca. 13 wt% oil load) were produced via monoaxial or coaxial electrospraying and spray-drying using low molecular weight carbohydrates as encapsulating agents (e.g., glucose syrup or [...] Read more.
The impact of the encapsulation technology on the oxidative stability of fish-oil-loaded capsules was investigated. The capsules (ca. 13 wt% oil load) were produced via monoaxial or coaxial electrospraying and spray-drying using low molecular weight carbohydrates as encapsulating agents (e.g., glucose syrup or maltodextrin). The use of spray-drying technology resulted in larger capsules with higher encapsulation efficiency (EE > 84%), whilst the use of electrospraying produced encapsulates in the sub-micron scale with poorer retention properties (EE < 72%). The coaxially electrosprayed capsules had the lowest EE values (EE = 53–59%), resulting in the lowest oxidative stability, although the lipid oxidation was significantly reduced by increasing the content of pullulan in the shell solution. The emulsion-based encapsulates (spray-dried and monoaxially electrosprayed capsules) presented high oxidative stability during storage, as confirmed by the low concentration of selected volatiles (e.g., (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal). Nonetheless, the monoaxially electrosprayed capsules were the most oxidized after production due to the emulsification process and the longer processing time. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

18 pages, 1695 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Anticancer Properties, and Antioxidant Potential of Green Husk from Several Walnut Varieties (Juglans regia L.)
by Sorour Barekat, Ali Nasirpour, Javad Keramat, Mohammad Dinari, Messaouda Meziane-Kaci, Cedric Paris and Stephane Desobry
Antioxidants 2023, 12(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12010052 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2814
Abstract
Husk powder was prepared from seven varieties of walnut fruit and their hulling rate, chemical compounds, and total phenolic contents were evaluated. The apolar and polar extracts were prepared, respectively, from hexane and a hydroethanolic solvent, while qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses were performed [...] Read more.
Husk powder was prepared from seven varieties of walnut fruit and their hulling rate, chemical compounds, and total phenolic contents were evaluated. The apolar and polar extracts were prepared, respectively, from hexane and a hydroethanolic solvent, while qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses were performed by GC/MS and UHPLC-PDA-HRMS/MS. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor properties of green walnut husk were also evaluated. The total content of phenolic compounds varied between the varieties, ranging from 35.2 ± 0.9 to 58.0 ± 0.0 mg/g gallic acid equivalent of dry husk weight (dw). The apolar extract was found to contain alkanes, tocopherols, sterols, and fatty acids, including oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, while the polar extract showed the presence of phenolics including salicylate glucuronide, taxifolin, catechin, and quercetin isomers. The antioxidant power obtained by the PAOT (total antioxidant power) method for the husk powders ranged from 256.5 ± 5.9 to 746.8 ± 6.9 score/g dw, and seemed consistent with the total phenolic content and the results obtained by the classic antioxidant test with DPPH. The walnut husk also showed an antibacterial effect against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and cytotoxic potential against HepG2. Among the selected varieties, the green Saman had the highest antioxidant properties, while the Saman with a brown color had the lowest. Full article
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31 pages, 3281 KiB  
Review
Antioxidant Activities of Natural Polysaccharides and Their Derivatives for Biomedical and Medicinal Applications
by Lu Bai, Dong Xu, Yan-Ming Zhou, Yong-Bo Zhang, Han Zhang, Yi-Bing Chen and Yuan-Lu Cui
Antioxidants 2022, 11(12), 2491; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122491 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3844
Abstract
Many chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are closely related to in vivo oxidative stress caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Natural polysaccharides, as a kind of biomacromolecule with good biocompatibility, have been widely used in biomedical and [...] Read more.
Many chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are closely related to in vivo oxidative stress caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Natural polysaccharides, as a kind of biomacromolecule with good biocompatibility, have been widely used in biomedical and medicinal applications due to their superior antioxidant properties. In this review, scientometric analysis of the highly cited papers in the Web of Science (WOS) database finds that antioxidant activity is the most widely studied and popular among pharmacological effects of natural polysaccharides. The antioxidant mechanisms of natural polysaccharides mainly contain the regulation of signal transduction pathways, the activation of enzymes, and the scavenging of free radicals. We continuously discuss the antioxidant activities of natural polysaccharides and their derivatives. At the same time, we summarize their applications in the field of pharmaceutics/drug delivery, tissue engineering, and antimicrobial food additives/packaging materials. Overall, this review provides up-to-date information for the further development and application of natural polysaccharides with antioxidant activities. Full article
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13 pages, 2061 KiB  
Article
Improved Extraction Efficiency and Antioxidant Activity of Defatted Canola Meal Extract Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Air-Fried Seeds
by Olamide S. Fadairo, Ruchira Nandasiri, Thu Nguyen, N. A Michael Eskin, Rotimi E. Aluko and Martin G. Scanlon
Antioxidants 2022, 11(12), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122411 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
This study investigated the efficacy of roasting pre-treatment by air frying to enhance the extraction and recovery of the predominant sinapic acid derivatives (SADs) from roasted canola meal and the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts. Canola meal was obtained by air frying [...] Read more.
This study investigated the efficacy of roasting pre-treatment by air frying to enhance the extraction and recovery of the predominant sinapic acid derivatives (SADs) from roasted canola meal and the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts. Canola meal was obtained by air frying canola seed at 160, 170, 180 or 190 °C for 5, 10, 15 or 20 min. Oil was extracted using the Soxhlet method, and the de-oiled meal fraction was air-dried. Phenolic compounds were isolated using ultrasound-assisted extraction with 70% (v/v) methanol and then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The antioxidant potential of the defatted meal methanolic extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal ion-chelating activity (MIC) assays. The highest total phenolic content of 3.15 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight was recorded in the defatted meal extract from seeds pre-treated with air frying at 190 °C for 15 min. Sinapine, sinapic acid and an unknown compound at a retention time (RT) of 26.6 min were the major sinapates identified in the defatted meal with the highest concentrations of 7572 ± 479.2 µg/g DW, 727 ± 43.45 µg/g DW and 1763 ± 73.5 µg/g DW, respectively, obtained at 160 °C for 5 min. Canolol (151.35 ± 7.65 µg/g DW) was detected after air frying at a temperature of 170 °C for 20 min. The FRAP and MIC correlated positively (r = 0.85) and generally decreased with increased air frying temperature-time conditions. The highest FRAP and MIC values of 0.53 mM and 80% were obtained at 160 °C for 5 and 20 min, respectively. The outcome of this study will contribute new knowledge that could improve the value addition and by-product utilization of canola seeds. Full article
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17 pages, 2478 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Rhaponticoides iconiensis Flowers: Effects on Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes In Vitro, In Silico and on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats In Vivo
by Leyla Paşayeva, Hanifa Fatullayev, Ismail Celik, Gokhan Unal, Nuh Mehmet Bozkurt, Osman Tugay and Magda H. Abdellattif
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112284 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the globally worst killer diseases. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity and antioxidant capacity were determined and the phytochemical analyses were carried out on flower extract and sub-extracts of Rhaponticoides iconiensis. [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the globally worst killer diseases. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity and antioxidant capacity were determined and the phytochemical analyses were carried out on flower extract and sub-extracts of Rhaponticoides iconiensis. The in vitro antidiabetic activity was tested with α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition methods and an in vivo OGTT test in healthy and alloxan-induced rats. Although, the antioxidant activity was investigated with DPPH, ABTS●+ and FRAP tests, the phytochemical composition analysis was carried out by LC-MS/MS. The highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity even from positive control acarbose were found in the ethyl acetate sub-extract of R. iconiensis (IC50 = 11.737 ± 0.823 µg/mL and 84.247 ± 0.721 µg/mL, respectively). This sub-extract also was active according to the results of in vivo tests. Moreover, the highest antioxidant activity on DPPH (IC50 = 0.126 ± 0.002 mg/mL), FRAP (at a concentration of 1 mg/mL equivalent to 3112.052 ± 2.023 mmol Fe2+) and ABTS+● (at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL equivalent to 0.608 ± 0.005 µM Trolox) tests. In addition, LC-MS/MS analyses of the active sub-extract revealed mainly the presence of patuletin, patuletin 3,7-diglucoside, naringin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid detected in the active sub-extract. In silico molecular docking and dynamics simulations studies were performed on these compounds with α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes for protein–ligand interactions and stability. Full article
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13 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Identification and Quantification of Key Phytochemicals, Phytohormones, and Antioxidant Properties in Coccinia grandis during Fruit Ripening
by In Young Lee and Nami Joo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112218 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Coccinia grandis contains secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, and glycosides, which are known to have in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antidyslipidemic activities. C. grandis fruits change dramatically during ripening, and the differences in the phytochemicals contribute to [...] Read more.
Coccinia grandis contains secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, and glycosides, which are known to have in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antidyslipidemic activities. C. grandis fruits change dramatically during ripening, and the differences in the phytochemicals contribute to various uses. This study reports the phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activities during ripening of C. grandis for the first time. Characterizations were conducted on the physiologically active substances in C. grandis fruits at three ripening stages, and a total of 25 peaks were identified. Key phytochemicals in the ripening stages of C. grandis were identified, and the major substances that contributed to antioxidant properties were selected and quantitatively analyzed. Although the concentration of tiliroside increased during aging, hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids), flavonols (rutin), and triterpenes (cucurbitacins B and D) with antioxidant effects decreased. Therefore, phenolic compounds and cucurbitacins dominate immature C. grandis quantitatively. Regarding phytohormones, the gibberellin A4 content decreased as the fruits matured, but indoleacetic acid and salicylic acid increased with fruit maturity. The antioxidant capacities determined by DPPH and ABTS consistently decreased with increasing maturity. Accordingly, the extracts of immature C. grandis fruits have high levels of bioactive compounds and can be used to develop food additives and health supplements. Full article
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17 pages, 1455 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Properties and Beneficial Cardiovascular Effects of a Natural Extract of Pomegranate in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Preliminary Single-Blind Controlled Study
by Emad A. S. Al-Dujaili, Ciara Casey and Angela Stockton
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112124 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Pomegranates are known to possess anti-hypertensive, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective effects mainly due to their pleiotropic effects on various cellular pathways, especially those triggered by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural standardized pomegranate (PE) extract on [...] Read more.
Pomegranates are known to possess anti-hypertensive, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective effects mainly due to their pleiotropic effects on various cellular pathways, especially those triggered by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural standardized pomegranate (PE) extract on cardiovascular risk factors in 24 healthy volunteers who participated in a randomized, single-blind placebo-controlled study. There were 12 subjects in the PE group and 12 in the placebo group. Variables were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 days of supplementation are anthropometry, BP, pulse wave velocity, fat and lean body mass, salivary and urinary cortisol, and cortisone, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation. Urinary total phenolics excretion and antioxidant capacity were significantly increased after 14 and 28 days of PE intake. At day 28, there were also statistically significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity, body fat and fat mass, as well as an increase in lean body mass. Significant changes in the placebo group were not found. Glucocorticoid levels showed a significant decrease in saliva cortisol at day 28 (morning) in the PE group, and cortisol/cortisone ratio was significantly decreased following 28 days of PE intake at morning, noon, and evening. Urine free cortisol was significantly reduced at day 14. These findings suggest that pomegranate extract intake may improve antioxidant and oxidative stress status and play a beneficial role in the attenuation of some cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies should concentrate on overweight and older people. Full article
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15 pages, 5220 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Assessment of the Effects of Mono-Carrier Encapsulated Fucoxanthin Nanoparticles on Type 2 Diabetic C57 Mice and Their Oxidative Stress
by Xin Zhang, Minghao Fan, Ke Luo, Wanying Xu, Jianjun Dong, Dongfeng Wang, Lu Chen and Junhong Yu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101976 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Fucoxanthin (FX) is a carotenoid from a marine origin that has an important role in our health, especially in the regulation and alleviation of type 2 diabetes. Its specific molecular structure makes it very unstable, which greatly affects its delivery in the body. [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin (FX) is a carotenoid from a marine origin that has an important role in our health, especially in the regulation and alleviation of type 2 diabetes. Its specific molecular structure makes it very unstable, which greatly affects its delivery in the body. In this study, FX was encapsulated in a mono-carrier using a hydrolyzed zein to form a nanocomplex with a stable structure and chemical properties (FZNP). Its stability was demonstrated by characterization and the efficacy of FX before and after encapsulation in alleviating diabetes in mice, which was evaluated by in vivo experiments. FZNP reduced the level of fasting blood glucose and restored it to normal levels in T2DM mice, which was not caused by a decrease in food intake, and effectively reduced oxidative stress in the organism. Both FX and FZNP repaired the hepatocyte and pancreatic β-cell damage, increased serum SOD and reduced INS values significantly, upregulated PI3K-AKT genes as well as CaMK and GNAs expression in the pancreas. FZNP increased ADPN and GSH-PX values more significantly and it decreased serum HOMA-IR and MDA values, upregulated GLUT2 expression, promoted glucose transport in pancreatic and hepatocytes, regulated glucose metabolism and glycogen synthesis with much superior effects than FX. Full article
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18 pages, 1228 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.: A Potential Candidate as Antioxidant, Enzyme Inhibitor, and Cytotoxic Agent
by Selen İlgün, Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Derya Çiçek Polat, Esra Köngül Şafak, Gülsüm Yıldız, Esra Küpeli Akkol and Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101852 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae), which has a wide distribution area in Turkey, is a medicinally important plant. Eighty percent methanol extracts of the leaf, flower head, and root parts of A. minus were prepared and their sub-fractions were obtained. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic [...] Read more.
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae), which has a wide distribution area in Turkey, is a medicinally important plant. Eighty percent methanol extracts of the leaf, flower head, and root parts of A. minus were prepared and their sub-fractions were obtained. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography) techniques were used to assess the phytochemical composition. The extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activity by diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical (DPPH), 2,2′-Azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS●+) radical scavenging, and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching assays. Furthermore, the extracts were subjected to α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipoxygenase, and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition tests. The cytotoxic effects of extracts were investigated on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. The richest extract in terms of phenolic compounds was identified as the ethyl acetate sub-fraction of the root extract (364.37 ± 7.18 mgGAE/gextact). Furthermore, chlorogenic acid (8.855 ± 0.175%) and rutin (8.359 ± 0.125%) were identified as the primary components in the leaves’ ethyl acetate sub-fraction. According to all methods, it was observed that the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity were the flower and leaf ethyl acetate fractions. Additionally, ABTS radical scavenging activity of roots’ ethyl acetate sub-fraction (2.51 ± 0.09 mmol/L Trolox) was observed to be as effective as that of flower and leaf ethyl acetate fractions at 0.5 mg/mL. In the β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching assay, leaves’ methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant capacity (1422.47 ± 76.85) at 30 min. The enzyme activity data showed that α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition of leaf dichloromethane extract was moderately high, with an 87.12 ± 8.06% inhibition value. Lipoxygenase enzyme inhibition was weakly detected in all sub-fractions. Leaf methanol extract, leaf butanol, and root ethyl acetate sub-fractions showed 99% tyrosinase enzyme inhibition. Finally, it was discovered that dichloromethane extracts of leaves, roots, and flowers had high cytotoxic effects on the MDA-MB-231 cell line, with IC50 values of 21.39 ± 2.43, 13.41 ± 2.37, and 10.80 ± 1.26 µg/mL, respectively. The evaluation of the plant extracts in terms of several bioactivity tests revealed extremely positive outcomes. The data of this study, in which all parts of the plant were investigated in detail for the first time, offer promising results for future research. Full article
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22 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Potential of the Sweet Whey-Based Beverage Colada after the Digestive Process and Relationships with the Lipid and Protein Fractions
by Victoria E. García-Casas, Isabel Seiquer, Zaira Pardo, Ana Haro, Isidra Recio and Raquel Olías
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091827 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Whey-based beverages could be an effective way of reusing a by-product of th cheese industry, mitigating environmental hazards and, at the same time, profiting a useful food with high nutritional and antioxidant properties. In this study, a traditional Ecuadorian beverage (Colada) [...] Read more.
Whey-based beverages could be an effective way of reusing a by-product of th cheese industry, mitigating environmental hazards and, at the same time, profiting a useful food with high nutritional and antioxidant properties. In this study, a traditional Ecuadorian beverage (Colada) was prepared combining sweet whey, Maracuyá and barley. Antioxidant properties before and after an in vitro digestion using the INFOGEST method were determined, and relationships with intestinal transformations of the lipid and protein fractions were analyzed. The digestive process had a positive effect on antioxidant properties based on increased values of ABTS and FRAP located in the bioaccessible fraction (BF), together with strong increments of total polyphenols. Moreover, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the BF of Colada significantly reduced ROS generation (p < 0.001) measured by the dichlorofluorescein assay. Substantial changes of the fatty acid profile occurred during digestion, such as a fall of saturated fatty acids and a rise of polyunsaturated. The protein profile, examined by SDS-PAGE and exclusion molecular chromatography in the BF, showed that the major part of the proteins were digested in the intestinal phase. Analysis of NanoLC-MS/MS revealed 18 antioxidant peptides originated from whey proteins, but also 16 peptides from barley with potential antioxidant properties. In conclusion, combining sweet whey with Maracuyá and barley constitutes an excellent nutritional beverage with a strong antioxidant potential. Full article
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22 pages, 2472 KiB  
Article
Basic Cognition of Melatonin Regulation of Plant Growth under Salt Stress: A Meta-Analysis
by Feiyu Yan, Hongliang Zhao, Longmei Wu, Zhiwei Huang, Yuan Niu, Bo Qi, Linqing Zhang, Song Fan, Yanfeng Ding, Ganghua Li and Guoliang Zhang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081610 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
Salt stress severely restricts the growth of plants and threatens the development of agriculture throughout the world. Worldwide studies have shown that exogenous melatonin (MT) can effectively improve the growth of plants under salt stress. Through a meta-analysis of 549 observations, this study [...] Read more.
Salt stress severely restricts the growth of plants and threatens the development of agriculture throughout the world. Worldwide studies have shown that exogenous melatonin (MT) can effectively improve the growth of plants under salt stress. Through a meta-analysis of 549 observations, this study first explored the effects of salt stress characteristics and MT application characteristics on MT regulated plant growth under salt stress. The results show that MT has a wide range of regulatory effects on plant growth indicators under salt stress, of which the regulatory effect on root indexes is the strongest, and this regulatory effect is not species-specific. The intensity of salt stress did not affect the positive effect of MT on plant growth, but the application effect of MT in soil was stronger than that in rooting medium. This meta-analysis also revealed that the foliar application of a concentration between 100–200 μM is the best condition for MT to enhance plant growth under salt stress. The results can inspire scientific research and practical production, while seeking the maximum improvement in plant salt tolerance under salt stress. Full article
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10 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Purification, Identification, and Properties of a Novel Carotenoid Produced by Arthrobacter sp. QL17 Isolated from Mount Qomolangma
by Xue Yu, Kan Jiang, Wei Zhang, Shuqing Dong, Yujie Wu, Gaosen Zhang, Shiyu Wu, Tuo Chen and Guangxiu Liu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081493 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
The genus Arthrobacter is a source of many natural products that are critical in the development of new medicines. Here, we isolated a novel carotenoid from Arthrobacter sp. QL17 and characterized its properties. The carotenoid was extracted with methanol, and purified by column [...] Read more.
The genus Arthrobacter is a source of many natural products that are critical in the development of new medicines. Here, we isolated a novel carotenoid from Arthrobacter sp. QL17 and characterized its properties. The carotenoid was extracted with methanol, and purified by column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Based on micrOTOF-Q and NMR analyses, the pigment was chemically characterized as 2,2′-((((1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E,19E)-3,7,14,18-tetramethylicosa-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19-decaene-1,20-diyl)bis(2,2,4-trimethylcyclohex-3-ene-3,1-diyl)) bis(ethan-2-yl-1-ylidene))bi(propane-1,3-diol), and named arthroxanthin. The biological activities of arthroxanthin were evaluated with DPPH, ABTS and MTT assays. Arthroxanthin exhibited excellent radical scavenging properties, as shown for 2, 20-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-n-(3,2-ethyl-benzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) ammonium salt (ABTS), respectively, with IC50s of 69.8 and 21.5 µg/mL. It also showed moderate anticancer activities against HepG2, Hela, MDAB-231, SW480, and MKN-45 with IC50 values of 107.6, 150.4, 143.4, 195.9, and 145.5 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, arthroxanthin derived from Arthrobacter sp. QL17 may be a potent antioxidant and anticancer agent for food and pharmaceutical use. Full article
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28 pages, 3759 KiB  
Article
Polyphenolic HRMS Characterization, Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Curcuma longa Rhizomes from Costa Rica
by María Isabel Quirós-Fallas, Felipe Vargas-Huertas, Silvia Quesada-Mora, Gabriela Azofeifa-Cordero, Krissia Wilhelm-Romero, Felipe Vásquez-Castro, Diego Alvarado-Corella, Andrés Sánchez-Kopper and Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040620 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Curcuma longa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites that have been associated with multiple health benefits. For instance, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, have been found to perform important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and anticoagulant. These promising results [...] Read more.
Curcuma longa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites that have been associated with multiple health benefits. For instance, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, have been found to perform important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and anticoagulant. These promising results prompted this research to evaluate the polyphenols of C. longa rhizomes in Costa Rica. The present work reports a comprehensive study on the polyphenolic profile and the contents of the three main curcuminoids as well as the antioxidant activity of extracts from C. longa rhizomes (n = 12) produced in Costa Rica. Through UPLC-QTOF-ESI MS, a total of 33 polyphenols were identified, grouped in eight types of structures. In addition, our findings on the main curcuminoids using UPLC-DAD show all rhizomes complying with total curcuminoids (TC) content established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). At an individual level, samples NW-3 and NE-1 show the higher contents (118.7 and 125.0 mg/g dry material), representing more than twice the average values of the lowest samples. These samples also exhibit the highest Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) reducing capacity results as well as the best DPPH (IC50 15.21 and 16.07 µg extract/mL) and NO (IC50 between 52.5 and 54.3 µg extract/mL) antioxidant values. Further, Pearson correlation analysis findings indicated positive correlation (p < 0.05) between TC, CUR with FC results (r = 0.833 and r = 0.867 respectively) and negative correlation (p < 0.05) between CUR, TC and FC with DPPH results (r = −0.898, r = −0.911, and r = −0.890, respectively) and between NO results and DPPH (r = −0.805, p < 0.05). Finally, results for Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed composition variability associated with their region of origin with products from the Northeastern (NE) region exhibiting higher average values for FC, TC and antioxidant activities. Further, PCA confirmed that two samples, namely NE-1 and NW-3, stand out by presenting the highest PC1 due to their particularly high TC, CUR and antioxidant activities. Consequently, our findings agree with previous results indicating the importance of C. longa extracts to elaborate products with potential benefits for health, while delivering extracts with higher levels of curcuminoids than previous reports and exhibiting high antioxidant activity. Full article
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19 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Disclosing the Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Activity of an Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Using In Vitro and In Vivo Models
by Monica Filaferro, Alessandro Codeluppi, Virginia Brighenti, Francesca Cimurri, Ana María González-Paramás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Davide Bertelli, Federica Pellati and Giovanni Vitale
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020211 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3230
Abstract
In this study, an autochthonous variety of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), namely “Moretta di Vignola”, was processed to prepare extracts rich in polyphenols, which were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to UV/DAD and ESI-MSn analysis. Then, a [...] Read more.
In this study, an autochthonous variety of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), namely “Moretta di Vignola”, was processed to prepare extracts rich in polyphenols, which were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to UV/DAD and ESI-MSn analysis. Then, a sweet cherry anthocyanin-rich extract (ACE) was prepared, fully characterized and tested for its activity against Parkinson’s disease (PD) in cellular (BV2 microglia and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma) and in Drosophila melanogaster rotenone (ROT)-induced model. The extract was also evaluated for its antioxidant activity on Caenorhabditis elegans by assessing nematode resistance to thermal stress. In both cell lines, ACE reduced ROT-induced cell death and it decreased, alone, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content while reinstating control-like ROS values after ROT-induced ROS rise, albeit at different concentrations of both compounds. Moreover, ACE mitigated SH-SY5Y cell cytotoxicity in a non-contact co-culture assay with cell-free supernatants from ROT-treated BV-2 cells. ACE, at 50 µg/mL, ameliorated ROT (250 μM)-provoked spontaneous (24 h duration) and induced (after 3 and 7 days) locomotor activity impairment in D. melanogaster and it also increased survival and counteracted the decrease in fly lifespan registered after exposure to the ROT. Moreover, heads from flies treated with ACE showed a non-significant decrease in ROS levels, while those exposed to ROT markedly increased ROS levels if compared to controls. ACE + ROT significantly placed the ROS content to intermediate values between those of controls and ROT alone. Finally, ACE at 25 µg/mL produced a significant increase in the survival rate of nematodes submitted to thermal stress (35 °C, 6–8 h), at the 2nd and 9th day of adulthood. All in all, ACE from Moretta cherries can be an attractive candidate to formulate a nutraceutical product to be used for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced disorders and related neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

15 pages, 3687 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical and Mechanistic Study of Reactivities of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Tocopherol toward Electrogenerated Superoxide in N,N-Dimethylformamide through Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer
by Tatsushi Nakayama, Ryo Honda, Kazuo Kuwata, Shigeyuki Usui and Bunji Uno
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010009 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Scavenging of superoxide radical anion (O2•−) by tocopherols (TOH) and related compounds was investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolytic electron spin resonance spectrum in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with the aid of density functional [...] Read more.
Scavenging of superoxide radical anion (O2•−) by tocopherols (TOH) and related compounds was investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolytic electron spin resonance spectrum in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible dioxygen/O2•− redox was modified by the presence of TOH, suggesting that the electrogenerated O2•− was scavenged by α-, β-, γ-TOH through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), but not by δ-TOH. The reactivities of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-TOH toward O2•− characterized by the methyl group on the 6-chromanol ring was experimentally confirmed, where the methyl group promotes the PCET mechanism. Furthermore, comparative analyses using some related compounds suggested that the para-oxygen-atom in the 6-chromanol ring is required for a successful electron transfer (ET) to O2•− through the PCET. The electrochemical and DFT results in dehydrated DMF suggested that the PCET mechanism involves the preceding proton transfer (PT) forming a hydroperoxyl radical, followed by a PCET (intermolecular ET–PT). The O2•− scavenging by TOH proceeds efficiently along the PCET mechanism involving one ET and two PTs. Full article
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19 pages, 1805 KiB  
Article
Untargeted Metabolomics and Antioxidant Capacities of Muscadine Grape Genotypes during Berry Development
by Ahmed G. Darwish, Protiva Rani Das, Ahmed Ismail, Pranavkumar Gajjar, Subramani Paranthaman Balasubramani, Mehboob B. Sheikh, Violeta Tsolova, Sherif M. Sherif and Islam El-Sharkawy
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060914 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5231
Abstract
Three muscadine grape genotypes (Muscadinia rotundifolia (Michx.) Small) were evaluated for their metabolite profiling and antioxidant activities at different berry developmental stages. A total of 329 metabolites were identified using UPLC-TOF-MS analysis (Ultimate 3000LC combined with Q Exactive MS and screened with [...] Read more.
Three muscadine grape genotypes (Muscadinia rotundifolia (Michx.) Small) were evaluated for their metabolite profiling and antioxidant activities at different berry developmental stages. A total of 329 metabolites were identified using UPLC-TOF-MS analysis (Ultimate 3000LC combined with Q Exactive MS and screened with ESI-MS) in muscadine genotypes throughout different developmental stages. Untargeted metabolomics study revealed the dominant chemical groups as amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and phenolics. Principal component analysis indicated that developmental stages rather than genotypes could explain the variations among the metabolic profiles of muscadine berries. For instance, catechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and gallic acid were more accumulated in ripening seeds (RIP-S). However, tartaric acid and malonic acid were more abundant during the fruit-set (FS) stage, and malic acid was more abundant in the veraison (V) stage. The variable importance in the projection (VIP > 0.5) in partial least-squares–discriminant analysis described 27 biomarker compounds, representing the muscadine berry metabolome profiles. A heatmap of Pearson’s correlation analysis between the 27 biomarker compounds and antioxidant activities was able to identify nine antioxidant determinants; among them, gallic acid, 4-acetamidobutanoic acid, trehalose, catechine, and epicatechin-3-gallate displayed the highest correlations with different types of antioxidant activities. For instance, DPPH and FRAP conferred a similar antioxidant activity pattern and were highly correlated with gallic acid and 4-acetamidobutanoic acid. This comprehensive study of the metabolomics and antioxidant activities of muscadine berries at different developmental stages is of great reference value for the plant, food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical sectors. Full article
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10 pages, 4205 KiB  
Article
Development of Water-Insoluble Vehicle Comprising Natural Cyclodextrin—Vitamin E Complex
by Shigesaburo Ogawa, Mai Shinkawa, Ryuji Hirase, Taro Tsubomura, Katsuya Iuchi and Setsuko Hara
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030490 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Development of a novel antioxidant-delivery vehicle exerting biosafety has been attracting a great deal of interest. In this study, a vehicle comprising a natural composite consisting of vitamin E (α-tocopherol; Toc) and cyclodextrin (CD) additives was developed, directed toward aqua-related biological applications. Not [...] Read more.
Development of a novel antioxidant-delivery vehicle exerting biosafety has been attracting a great deal of interest. In this study, a vehicle comprising a natural composite consisting of vitamin E (α-tocopherol; Toc) and cyclodextrin (CD) additives was developed, directed toward aqua-related biological applications. Not only β-CD, but also γ-CD, tended to form a water-insoluble aggregate with Toc in aqueous media. The aggregated vehicle, in particular the γ-CD-added system, showed a remarkable sustained effect because of slow dynamics. Furthermore, a prominent cytoprotective effect by the γ-CD–Toc vehicle under the oxidative stress condition was confirmed. Thus, the novel vitamin E vehicle motif using γ-CD as a stabilizer was proposed, widening the usability of Toc for biological applications. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021

24 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nanoconfinement of Polyphenolic Extract from Grape Pomace into Functionalized Mesoporous Silica on Its Biocompatibility and Radical Scavenging Activity
by Ana-Maria Brezoiu, Laura Bajenaru, Daniela Berger, Raul-Augustin Mitran, Mihaela Deaconu, Daniel Lincu, Anicuta Stoica Guzun, Cristian Matei, Mihaela Georgeta Moisescu and Ticuta Negreanu-Pirjol
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080696 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4070
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to assess the properties of Mamaia (MM) grape pomace polyphenolic extract loaded onto pristine and functionalized MCM-41 mesoporous silica as potential ingredients for nutraceuticals or cosmetics. The chemical profile of hydroalcoholic polyphenolic extracts, prepared either by conventional [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to assess the properties of Mamaia (MM) grape pomace polyphenolic extract loaded onto pristine and functionalized MCM-41 mesoporous silica as potential ingredients for nutraceuticals or cosmetics. The chemical profile of hydroalcoholic polyphenolic extracts, prepared either by conventional extraction or microwave-assisted method, was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) analysis, while their radical scavenger activity (RSA) was evaluated using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays. The extract-loaded materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis, as well as RSA (DPPH and ABTS assays). The polyphenols release profiles from pristine and functionalized (with mercaptopropyl, propyl sulfonic acid, cyanoethyl and propionic acid moieties) MCM-41-type supports were determined in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) pH 5.7. For selected materials containing embedded phytochemicals, cellular viability, and oxidative stress level on immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3) were evaluated. A more acidic functional groups linked on silica pore walls determined a higher amount of phytochemicals released in PBS. The extract-loaded materials showed a good cytocompatibility on tested concentrations. The embedded extract preserved better the RSA over time than the free extract. The polyphenols-loaded MCM-41-type silica materials, especially MM@MCM-COOH material, demonstrated a good in vitro antioxidant effect on NIH3T3 cells, being potential candidates for nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. Full article
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19 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Chemical Constituents and Biologic Activities of Sage Species: A Comparison between Salvia officinalis L., S. glutinosa L. and S. transsylvanica (Schur ex Griseb. & Schenk) Schur
by Andrei Mocan, Mihai Babotă, Anca Pop, Ionel Fizeșan, Alina Diuzheva, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Cristina Campestre, Luigi Menghini, Cristian R. Sisea, Marina Sokovic, Gokhan Zengin, Ramona Păltinean, Sabin Bădărău, Dan C. Vodnar and Gianina Crișan
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060480 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5295
Abstract
Even though Salvia genus is one of the most known and studied taxa of Lamiaceae family, the knowledge regarding the chemical composition and health-related benefits of some locally used Salvia species (mostly endemic) is still scarce. In this regard, the present work aims [...] Read more.
Even though Salvia genus is one of the most known and studied taxa of Lamiaceae family, the knowledge regarding the chemical composition and health-related benefits of some locally used Salvia species (mostly endemic) is still scarce. In this regard, the present work aims to evaluate the chemical profile and potential bioactivities of 70% (v/v) ethanolic extracts obtained from the less-studied S. transsylvanica and S. glutinosa in comparison with S. officinalis. HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the presence of rutin and catechin as the main compounds in the extracts of the three studied species (using the employed HPLC method), whereas the presence of naringenin was highlighted only in S. glutinosa extract. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and quercetin were identified and quantified for the first time in S. transsylvanica extracts. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of each extract was tested through complementary methods (phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC and FRAP assays), and correlated with the presence of phenolics (especially flavonoids) in high amounts. The neuroprotective and antidiabetic abilities of S. officinalis (the most active as AChE, BChE and α-glucosidase inhibitor), S. glutinosa (the most active as α-amylase inhibitor) and S. transsylvanica were also studied. For each extract it was determined the antimicrobial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects using in vitro assays. The obtained results confirm the potential of S. transsylvanica and S. glutinosa as promising sources of bioactive compounds and as a starting point for further analyses. Full article
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20 pages, 2221 KiB  
Article
Bioavailability of Epigallocatechin Gallate Administered with Different Nutritional Strategies in Healthy Volunteers
by Vicente Andreu Fernández, Laura Almeida Toledano, Nieves Pizarro Lozano, Elisabet Navarro Tapia, María Dolores Gómez Roig, Rafael De la Torre Fornell and Óscar García Algar
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050440 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 5710
Abstract
The flavanol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is being tested for the treatment of several diseases in humans. However, its bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile needs a better understanding to enable its use in clinical trials. There is no consensus on the most appropriate concentration of [...] Read more.
The flavanol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is being tested for the treatment of several diseases in humans. However, its bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile needs a better understanding to enable its use in clinical trials. There is no consensus on the most appropriate concentration of EGCG in the body to obtain the maximum therapeutic effects. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the bioavailability of EGCG orally administered alone or with different food supplements after overnight fasting in order to determine its optimal conditions (high concentrations in blood and the lowest interindividual variations) to be used as a pharmacological tool in human trials. Ten healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) aged 25 to 35 years were recruited prospectively. Three series of clinical experiments with a washout period of seven days among each were performed: (1) Teavigo® (EGCG extract) alone, (2) Teavigo® with a standard breakfast, and (3) FontUp® (Teavigo® commercially prepared with fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 360 min after EGCG intake. Free EGCG in plasma was measured using a liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical method. The pharmacokinetic variables analyzed statistically were area under the curve (AUC0–360), Cmax, Cav, Cmin, T1/2, and Tmax. EGCG (Teavigo®) alone was the group with higher AUC0–360, Cmax, and Cav both in men (3.86 ± 4.11 µg/mL/kg/6 h; 5.95 ng/mL/kg; 2.96 ng/mL/kg) and women (3.33 ± 1.08 µg/mL/kg/6 h; 6.66 ng/mL/kg; 3.66 ng/mL). Moreover, FontUp® was the group with the highest value of T1/2 both in men (192 ± 66 min) and women (133 ± 28 min). Teavigo® intake after fasting overnight revealed the highest concentration of EGCG in plasma according to its pharmacokinetic profile, indicating that this is an excellent alternative of administration if the experimental design requires good absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, EGCG taken along with food supplements (FontUp®) improved the stability of the molecule in the body, being the best choice if the experimental design wants to reduce interindividual variation. Full article
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20 pages, 997 KiB  
Article
Effect of Natural Preservatives on the Nutritional Profile, Chemical Composition, Bioactivity and Stability of a Nutraceutical Preparation of Aloe arborescens
by Filipa A. Fernandes, Márcio Carocho, Sandrina A. Heleno, Paula Rodrigues, Maria Inês Dias, José Pinela, Miguel A. Prieto, Jesus Simal-Gandara, Lillian Barros and Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040281 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4236
Abstract
Citric acid, quercetin, dried chestnut flowers and an aqueous extract of chestnut flowers were screened as candidates for preserving a drinkable nutraceutical preparation for 45 days. The assays encompassed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, nutritional and chemical profiles, and individual profiles of fatty acids [...] Read more.
Citric acid, quercetin, dried chestnut flowers and an aqueous extract of chestnut flowers were screened as candidates for preserving a drinkable nutraceutical preparation for 45 days. The assays encompassed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, nutritional and chemical profiles, and individual profiles of fatty acids and mineral composition, all of which in comparison with a sodium benzoate, a synthetic preservative. The centesimal composition of the nutraceutical formulation was mainly composed of carbohydrates, followed by proteins and fat, with moisture levels between 66% and 71%. Palmitic and stearic acid were the most abundant fatty acids, while calcium and magnesium where the minerals in higher amount. Anthroquinones, followed by flavonoids where the most abundant groups of phenolic compounds. In terms of the preserving effects of the extracts, the chestnut flowers and the citric acid were the most effective natural preservatives, which better preserved phenolic compounds. Furthermore, these two ingredients also revealed the strongest capacity to control the microbial growth in the formulation by inhibiting the growth of food contaminants. In general, these ingredients revealed higher preservation capacity than sodium benzoate, while not altering the nutritional and fatty acid profile. The chestnut flowers and citric acid could be used to preserve foods, food supplements, and nutraceutical formulations after passing the required regulatory procedures for food additives. Full article
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17 pages, 4173 KiB  
Article
Post-Treatment with Erinacine A, a Derived Diterpenoid of H. erinaceus, Attenuates Neurotoxicity in MPTP Model of Parkinson’s Disease
by Kam-Fai Lee, Shui-Yi Tung, Chih-Chuan Teng, Chien-Heng Shen, Meng Chiao Hsieh, Cheng-Yi Huang, Ko-Chao Lee, Li-Ya Lee, Wan-Ping Chen, Chin-Chu Chen, Wen-Shih Huang and Hsing-Chun Kuo
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020137 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5111
Abstract
Hericium erinaceus, a valuable pharmaceutical and edible mushroom, contains potent bioactive compounds such as H. erinaceus mycelium (HEM) and its derived ethanol extraction of erinacine A, which have been found to regulate physiological functions in our previous study. However, HEM or erinacine [...] Read more.
Hericium erinaceus, a valuable pharmaceutical and edible mushroom, contains potent bioactive compounds such as H. erinaceus mycelium (HEM) and its derived ethanol extraction of erinacine A, which have been found to regulate physiological functions in our previous study. However, HEM or erinacine A with post-treatment regimens also shows effects on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity, but its mechanisms remain unknown. By using annexin-V–fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide staining and a 2’,7’ –dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) staining assay, the cell death, cell viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MMP+)-treated Neuro-2a (N2a) cells with or without erinacine A addition were measured, respectively. Furthermore, signaling molecules for regulating the p21/GADD45 cell death pathways and PAKalpha, p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1 (PAK1) survival pathways were also detected in the cells treated with MPP+ and erinacine A by Western blots. In neurotoxic animal models of MPTP induction, the effects of HEM or erinacine A and its mechanism in vivo were determined by measuring the TH-positive cell numbers and the protein level of the substantia nigra through a brain histological examination. Our results demonstrated that post-treatment with erinacine A was capable of preventing the cytotoxicity of neuronal cells and the production of ROS in vitro and in vivo through the neuroprotective mechanism for erinacine A to rescue the neurotoxicity through the disruption of the IRE1α/TRAF2 interaction and the reduction of p21 and GADD45 expression. In addition, erinacine A treatment activated the conserved signaling pathways for neuronal survival via the phosphorylation of PAK1, AKT, LIM domain kinase 2 (LIMK2), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and Cofilin. Similar changes in the signal molecules also were found in the substantia nigra of the MPTP, which caused TH+ neuron damage after being treated with erinacine A in the post-treatment regimens in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicated a novel mechanism for post-treatment with erinacine A to protect from neurotoxicity through regulating neuronal survival and cell death pathways. Full article
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16 pages, 2998 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of White Wines Antioxidant Metabolome by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
by Remy Romanet, Florian Bahut, Maria Nikolantonaki and Régis D. Gougeon
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020115 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3220
Abstract
The knowledge about the molecular fraction contributing to white wines oxidative stability is still poorly understood. However, the role of S- and N-containing compounds, like glutathione and other peptides, as a source of reductant in many oxidation reactions, and acting against heavy metals [...] Read more.
The knowledge about the molecular fraction contributing to white wines oxidative stability is still poorly understood. However, the role of S- and N-containing compounds, like glutathione and other peptides, as a source of reductant in many oxidation reactions, and acting against heavy metals toxicity, or lipid and polyphenol oxidation as ROS-scavenger is today very well established. In that respect, the aim of the present study is to introduce an original analytical tool for the direct determination of the available nucleophilic compounds in white wine under acidic pH conditions. One step derivatization of nucleophiles has been realized directly in wines using 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone (4MeQ) as an electrophilic probe. Derivatization conditions considering probe concentration, pH, reaction time, MS ionisation conditions and adducts stability, were optimized using model solutions containing standard sulfur and amino compounds (GSH, Cys, HCys and Ser-Aps-Cys-Asp-Ser, Asp-Met, Met and Glu). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) analysis of up to 92 white wines from different cultivars (Chardonnay, Sauvignon and Semillon) followed by Multivariate analysis (PLS DA) and Wilcoxon test allowed to isolate up to 141 putative wine relevant nucleophiles. Only 20 of these compounds, essentially thiols, were detectable in samples before derivatization, indicating the importance of the quinone trapping on the revelation of wine unknown nucleophiles. Moreover, annotation using online database (Oligonet, Metlin and KEGG) as well as elementary formula determined by isotopic profile, provided evidence of the presence of amino acids (Val, Leu, Ile, Pro, Trp, Cys and Met) and peptides with important antioxidant properties. The complimentary set of MS/MS spectral data greatly accelerated identification of nucleophiles and enabled peptides sequencing. These results show that probing wines with 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone enhances thiols ionisation capacity and gives a better screening of specific S- N- containing functional compounds as part of the white wines antioxidant metabolome. Full article
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8 pages, 1131 KiB  
Article
Maslinic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation via the Downregulation of NF-κB and STAT-1
by Wonhwa Lee, Jaehong Kim, Eui Kyun Park and Jong-Sup Bae
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020106 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3429
Abstract
Maslinic acid (MA), a natural compound of the triterpenoid group derived from olive, prevents the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we characterized the effects of MA on the regulation of [...] Read more.
Maslinic acid (MA), a natural compound of the triterpenoid group derived from olive, prevents the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we characterized the effects of MA on the regulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, cyclooxygenase (COX-)2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). MA was tested in the lung tissues of LPS-treated mice, to determine its effect on levels of iNOS expression and representative inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We show that MA induced the expression of HO-1, reduced LPS-induced NF-κB-luciferase activity, and inhibited iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2, resulting in the downregulation of STAT-1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, our data show that MA induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, increased the binding of Nrf2 to ARE, and decreased IL-1α production in LPS-treated HUVECs. The MA-induced reduction in iNOS/NO expression was reversed by RNAi suppression of HO-1. In mice treated with LPS, MA significantly downregulated levels of iNOS in lung tissue and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Taken together, our findings indicate that MA exerts a critical anti-inflammatory effect by modulating iNOS via the downregulation of NF-κB and p-STAT-1. Thus, we propose that MA may be an ideal substance to treat inflammatory diseases. Full article
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