Application of Antioxidants and Bioactive Compounds in Food from Agriculture to Health Benefits

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2022) | Viewed by 41235

Special Issue Editors

International Joint Research Laboratory “Tropical Bioresources & Biotechnology” UMR PAM, Institut Agro Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, 1 Esplanade Erasme, 21078 Dijon, France
Interests: bioactive compounds from microorganisms; food; fermentation; metabolism; biodiversity; functionality of microorganisms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
International Joint Research Laboratory “Tropical Bioresources & Biotechnology” UMR PAM, Institut Agro Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, 1 Esplanade Erasme, 21078 Dijon, France
Interests: small molecules; mass transfer; interface; thermodynamics; process
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: active food packaging; intelligent sensors; antioxidant; smart packaging; barrier properties; shelf-life; food–packaging interaction; waste reduction; biopolymers; recyclability; eco-impact; bioactive compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of antioxidants and bioactive compounds in food is a challenge at many levels. Harvesting of plants in primary forests can lead to species and traditional human community extinction, while culture of these plants in intensive agriculture can result in a drop in the presence of actives. The preparation and delivery of food supplements rich in these compounds is a challenge as maintaining the bioactivity through the extraction, formulation and encapsulation process. Then, the nutritional and health efficacy of supplements can be questioned. Do they really improve health or, on the contrary, can they bring negative effects? Can a diet very rich in antioxidants result in pro-oxidant effects? Is there interest in re-using substances for improving their end-life scenario or by implementing them to bio-based packaging solutions?  Finally, how is this sector regulated in various regions of the world? Is the balance between protection of consumers, health benefits and economic advantages always similar?

This Special Issue welcomes papers dealing with all the aspects of production, formulation/encapsulation, health and social benefits. Featuring globally important issue about waste reduction, this Special Issue will cover various aspects in improving product quality through its complete shelf-life period.

Prof. Dr. Yves Waché
Prof. Dr. Andrée Voilley
Prof. Dr. Mia Kurek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds and agriculture
  • health benefits of complements
  • health benefit evaluation
  • active packaging
  • waste reduction
  • circulability
  • antioxidant capacity
  • food–packaging–compounds interaction.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 4798 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Withagenin A Diglucoside from Indian Ginseng (Withania somnifera) against Human Dermal Fibroblast Damaged by TNF-α Stimulation
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112248 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Human skin is constructed with many proteins such as collagen and elastin. Collagen and elastin play a key role in providing strength and elasticity to the human skin and body. However, damage to collagen causes various symptoms such as wrinkles and freckles, which [...] Read more.
Human skin is constructed with many proteins such as collagen and elastin. Collagen and elastin play a key role in providing strength and elasticity to the human skin and body. However, damage to collagen causes various symptoms such as wrinkles and freckles, which suggests that they are important to maintain skin condition. Extrinsic or intrinsic skin aging produces an excess of skin destructive factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which is a major mediator of the aging process. In aged skin, TNF-α provokes the generation of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species). It triggers the excessive secretion of MMP-1, which is a collagen-degrading enzyme that causes the collapse of skin collagen. Therefore, we aimed to search for a natural-product-derived candidate that inhibits the skin damage caused by TNF-α in human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, the protective effect of withagenin A diglucoside (WAD) identified from Withania somnifera against TNF-α-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts is investigated. W. somnifera (Solanaceae), well-known as ‘ashwagandha’, is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant useful for promoting health and longevity. Our experimental results reveal that WAD from W. somnifera suppresses the generation of intercellular ROS. Suppressing intracellular ROS generation inhibits MMP-1 secretion and the collapse of type 1 collagen. The effect of WAD is shown to depend on the inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation, Akt phosphorylation, c-Jun phosphorylation, COX-2 expression, and NF-κB phosphorylation. Further, WAD-depressed expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 triggers various inflammatory reactions in human skin. These findings suggest that WAD has protective effects against skin damage. Accordingly, our study provides experimental evidence that WAD can be a potential agent that can be applied in various industrial fields, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals related to skin aging. Full article
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19 pages, 3015 KiB  
Article
Ginsenoside CK Inhibits the Early Stage of Adipogenesis via the AMPK, MAPK, and AKT Signaling Pathways
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101890 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Obesity is considered a health hazard in part due to the associated multiple diseases. As rates of obesity continue to increase, a new strategy for its prevention and treatment is required. Compound-K, an active ingredient in ginseng, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. [...] Read more.
Obesity is considered a health hazard in part due to the associated multiple diseases. As rates of obesity continue to increase, a new strategy for its prevention and treatment is required. Compound-K, an active ingredient in ginseng, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Although ginseng has used as various therapeutics, its potential ability to alleviate metabolic diseases by regulating adipocyte differentiation is still unknown. In this study, we found that CK treatment significantly inhibited lipid droplet and adipogenesis by downregulating the mRNA expression of C/ebpα, Ppar-γ, Fabp4, Srebp1, and adiponectin as well as protein levels of C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, and FABP4. CK also decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while it increased endogeneous antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3 and SOD2. We observed that CK treatment suppressed the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B1 during the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of adipocyte differentiation, and it arrested adipocytes at the G2/M stage due to the increased expression of p21 and p27. CK decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 and protein kinase B (AKT) in early-stage adipogenesis. In addition, the inhibition of adipogenesis by CK significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Interestingly, AMPK pharmacological inhibition with Dorsomorphin limited the effect of CK on suppressing PPAR-γ expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that CK exerts anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells through the activation of AMPK and inhibition of ERK/p38 and AKT signaling pathways. Full article
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14 pages, 2687 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Potential of Non-Extractable Fractions of Dried Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081555 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Oxidative stress causes the progression of diabetes and its complications; thus, maintaining the balance between reactive oxygen species produced by hyperglycemia and the antioxidant defense system is important. We herein examined the antioxidant potential of non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (NEP) against oxidative [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress causes the progression of diabetes and its complications; thus, maintaining the balance between reactive oxygen species produced by hyperglycemia and the antioxidant defense system is important. We herein examined the antioxidant potential of non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (NEP) against oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes (50 mg/kg body weight) were administered NEP for 9 weeks. Antioxidant enzyme activities and concentration of antioxidants in liver tissues were analyzed with a microplate reader. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle fibers were stained with succinate dehydrogenase and muscle fiber sizes were measured. The administration of NEP increased the body weight of diabetes rats. Regarding antioxidant activities, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues significantly increased. In addition, increases in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver tissues and reductions in the cross-sectional area of EDL muscle fibers were significantly suppressed. In these results, NEP improved the antioxidant defense system in the liver tissues of diabetic rats, in addition to attenuating of muscle fibers atrophy against oxidative damage induced by hyperglycemia. Full article
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14 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Fortification of Pectin/Blackberry Hydrogels with Apple Fibers: Effect on Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of α-Glucosidase
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081459 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
The objective of this study was to prepare hydrogels based on pectin and blackberry juice and additionally to fortify those hydrogels with apple fiber. For that purpose, two types of pectin (low methoxylated and high methoxylated) were used, and fortification was conducted with [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to prepare hydrogels based on pectin and blackberry juice and additionally to fortify those hydrogels with apple fiber. For that purpose, two types of pectin (low methoxylated and high methoxylated) were used, and fortification was conducted with the addition of 10% of apple fiber. The hydrogels were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and inhibition of α-glucosidase. In addition, the stability of these parameters after 8 months of storage was evaluated. Pectin type and addition of apple fiber had an impact on investigated parameters. Low methoxylated pectin hydrogels had a higher concentration of anthocyanins than high methoxylated pectin hydrogels, while the addition of apple fibers caused a decrease in anthocyanin content. However, fortified hydrogels had higher antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolics from apple fibers. The results showed that anthocyanins were more favorable in inhibiting α-glucosidase because samples with higher anthocyanins concentration had lower IC50 values. Obtained hydrogels can be used as intermediate products or ingredients (like fruit fillings or spreads) for the improvement or development of novel food products to increase their fiber content and antioxidant potential. Full article
17 pages, 5015 KiB  
Article
White Wine—Induced Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxation in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050944 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3806
Abstract
The vasodilatory activity and polyphenolic content of commercially available white wine is low compared to red wines. This study assessed the vasodilator potential of white wines produced by four different fermentation processes: (1) white wine produced by the standard procedure; (2) grapes left [...] Read more.
The vasodilatory activity and polyphenolic content of commercially available white wine is low compared to red wines. This study assessed the vasodilator potential of white wines produced by four different fermentation processes: (1) white wine produced by the standard procedure; (2) grapes left to macerate completely for 30 days; (3) grapes left to macerate up to half of unfermented sugar; and (4) wine produced by cooling the must. All tested wine samples were analyzed for their phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and ethanol content. Vasodilation was examined in the norepinephrine pre-contracted isolated rat aortas of male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly exposed to cumulative concentrations (0.1‰ to 8‰ final dilutions in organ baths) of each of the tested wine samples with or without quercetin and/or gallic acid supplementation, in the absence/presence of NOS inhibitor L-NAME. Standard procedure and the procedure involving must cooling gives wine with lower phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and lower vasodilator potential, respectively. L-NAME inhibited vasodilation to all wine samples. Quercetin with or without gallic acid supplementation restored vasodilation. Results show that vasodilation to white wine is NO-dependent and suggest the possibility of increasing the antioxidant capacity and vasodilatory potential of white wine using different production procedures, depending on quercetin content. Full article
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15 pages, 3188 KiB  
Article
Enrichment of Refined Olive Oils with Phenolic Extracts of Olive Leaf and Exhausted Olive Pomace
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020204 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
Refined olive oils (ROOs) are commonly enriched with synthetic antioxidants. Antioxidant extracts obtained from natural products can be used to improve the stability of these oils. In this study, ROOs were enriched through the addition of phenolic extracts from olive leaves (OLs) and [...] Read more.
Refined olive oils (ROOs) are commonly enriched with synthetic antioxidants. Antioxidant extracts obtained from natural products can be used to improve the stability of these oils. In this study, ROOs were enriched through the addition of phenolic extracts from olive leaves (OLs) and exhausted olive pomace (EOP). In addition to replacing synthetic antioxidants with natural ones, this results in the valorization of these olive-derived biomasses. The most suitable method for mixing and enriching refined oils was probe-type ultrasonication using lecithin as the emulsifier. Thereafter, the change in the content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the oils at 25, 35, and 45 °C were studied over 28 and 50 days of storage. The experimental results were fitted using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The oxidative stability index of the ROO enriched with a 2 g/L OL extract (70 h) was higher than that of a commercial ROO (46.8 h). Moreover, the oxidative stability index of the refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) enriched with a 2 g/L EOP extract (44.1 h) was higher than that of a commercial ROPO (38.9 h). In addition, the oxidative stabilities and antioxidant capacities of the oils were significantly correlated. Full article
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23 pages, 1794 KiB  
Article
Towards Functional Insect Feeds: Agri-Food By-Products Enriched with Post-Distillation Residues of Medicinal Aromatic Plants in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Breeding
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010068 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3226
Abstract
Sustainability, circular economy and alternative production systems are urgent imperatives for humanity and animal husbandry. Unless wasted, agri-food by-products can offer a promising source of high value. We evaluated the effect of rice bran (RB), corncob (CC), potato peels (PP), solid biogas residues [...] Read more.
Sustainability, circular economy and alternative production systems are urgent imperatives for humanity and animal husbandry. Unless wasted, agri-food by-products can offer a promising source of high value. We evaluated the effect of rice bran (RB), corncob (CC), potato peels (PP), solid biogas residues (BR), and olive-oil processing residuals (OR), as alternative substrates to wheat bran (WB as control), on the growth and nutritional value of Tenebrio molitor during its breeding for animal feeds and/or human consumption. Innovation-wise, we further investigated the substrate supplementation (0, 10, 20%) with post-distillation residues of Mediterranean aromatic-medicinal plants (MAPs: lavender, Greek oregano, rosemary, olive; 1:1:1:1 ratio). Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) were reared in all the studied substrates, and TML and diets’ proximate and fatty acid compositions as well as total phenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant potential were assessed using standard procedures. After statistical analysis of correlations, we observed that CC promoted oviposition and progeny survival; larval weight and dry matter were positively affected mainly by dietary energy and fat content; number of TML and/or larval weight increased using 10% MAPs inclusion in WB, RB and OR or RB, OR, BR and PP, respectively, which did not affect protein content; TML fatty acid composition decreased the content of saturated ones and increased that of mono-unsaturated ones; MAPs residues had an apparent favorable impact on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of each substrate, with RB displaying the highest capacity and content. These findings indicate that alternative substrates can be exploited and their enrichment with natural phenolics is able to influence T. molitor growth, offering highly beneficial and nutritional value. Full article
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22 pages, 4796 KiB  
Article
Djulis Hull Improves Insulin Resistance and Modulates the Gut Microbiota in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Induced Hyperglycaemia
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010045 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3974
Abstract
In this study, we annotated the major flavonoid glycoside, rutin, of djulis hull crude extract using a Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) library and its MS/MS spectra. To evaluate the protective effect of djulis hull crude extract and rutin on glucose [...] Read more.
In this study, we annotated the major flavonoid glycoside, rutin, of djulis hull crude extract using a Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) library and its MS/MS spectra. To evaluate the protective effect of djulis hull crude extract and rutin on glucose tolerance, we fed mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce hyperglycaemia. These results showed that crude extract significantly decreased HFD-induced elevation in the area under the curve (AUC) of weekly random blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and advanced glycation end product (AGE) levels, and significantly increased pIRS1 and Glut4 protein expression in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and liver. Furthermore, the HFD-induced reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) was reversed by crude extract. In addition, ZO-1 and occludin protein expression in the colon was markedly downregulated in HFD-fed mice, resulting in decreased intestinal permeability and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation, but were restored following crude extract. Moreover, the crude extract intervention had a profound effect on the alpha diversity and microbial community in the gut microbiota. Therefore, djulis hull crude extract could improve blood glucose and increase insulin receptor sensitivity in HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, which is likely due to its modulation of the gut microbiota, preservation of the integrity of the intestinal barrier to reduce body inflammation, increased antioxidant activity, and modulation of insulin signalling. Full article
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15 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Compounds in Calafate Berries Encapsulated by Spray Drying: Neuroprotection Potential into the Ingredient
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111830 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Calafate is a berry rich in anthocyanins that presents higher content of polyphenols than other fruits. Its compounds have been described previously, however, the potential thereof in preventing and treating degenerative disorders has not yet been studied. Due to its astringency, the consumption [...] Read more.
Calafate is a berry rich in anthocyanins that presents higher content of polyphenols than other fruits. Its compounds have been described previously, however, the potential thereof in preventing and treating degenerative disorders has not yet been studied. Due to its astringency, the consumption of this berry in its natural state is limited. To profit from the aforementioned properties and reduce palatability issues, calafate berry extracts were microencapsulated by spray drying, a rapid, cost-effective and scalable process, and were then compared with freeze drying as a control. The stability of its contents and its in-vitro potential, with respect to AChE activity and neuroprotection, were measured from the obtained microcapsules, resulting from temperature treatments and different encapsulant contents. The results indicated that the spray-dried powders were stable, despite high temperatures, and their encapsulation exhibited nearly 50% efficiency. The highest quantity of polyphenols and 3-O-glycosylated anthocyanins was obtained from encapsulation with 20% maltodextrin, at 120 °C. Temperature did not affect the microcapsules’ biological action, as demonstrated by their antioxidant activities. The prevention of Aβ peptide cytotoxicity in PC12 cells (20%) revealed that encapsulated calafate can confer neuroprotection. We conclude that spray-drying is an appropriate technique for scaling-up and producing new value-added calafate formulations with anti-neurodegenerative effects and vivid colors. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 3795 KiB  
Review
Antioxidants and Bioactive Compounds in Food: Critical Review of Issues and Prospects
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040742 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4318
Abstract
This review paper gives an insight into the effective delivery mechanisms for health-promoting substances and highlights the challenges of using antioxidants and bioactives in foods. The selection criteria for choosing bioactives and their extraction in bioavailable form with their adequate incorporation techniques and [...] Read more.
This review paper gives an insight into the effective delivery mechanisms for health-promoting substances and highlights the challenges of using antioxidants and bioactives in foods. The selection criteria for choosing bioactives and their extraction in bioavailable form with their adequate incorporation techniques and delivery mechanisms are covered. Moreover, an overview of existing methods for determination of bioactivity is given. The importance of scientifically evaluating the effects of foods or food components on consumer health before making claims about the healthiness is aligned. Finally, a scientific perspective on how to respond to the booming demand for health-promoting products is given, and we acknowledge that despite the work done, there are still many challenges that need to be overcome. Full article
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14 pages, 814 KiB  
Review
Plant-Based Polyphenols: Anti-Helicobacter pylori Effect and Improvement of Gut Microbiota
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010109 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5470
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects more than half of the world’s population, and thus, about 10 to 20% of people with H. pylori suffer from peptic ulcers, which may ultimately lead to gastric cancer. The increase in antibiotic resistance and [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects more than half of the world’s population, and thus, about 10 to 20% of people with H. pylori suffer from peptic ulcers, which may ultimately lead to gastric cancer. The increase in antibiotic resistance and susceptibility has encouraged the search for new alternative therapies to eradicate this pathogen. Several plant species are essential sources of polyphenols, and these bioactive compounds have demonstrated health-promoting properties, such as the gut microbiota stimulation, inflammation reduction, and bactericidal effect. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the potential effect of plant-based polyphenols against H. pylori and their role in the gut microbiota improvement. Full article
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16 pages, 397 KiB  
Review
Aronia melanocarpa Products and By-Products for Health and Nutrition: A Review
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071052 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 7109
Abstract
Due to factors such as cultivar, fertilization, maturation or climate conditions, as well as the date of their harvest, chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) differ in their content of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, fats, aroma compounds and especially polyphenols, substances [...] Read more.
Due to factors such as cultivar, fertilization, maturation or climate conditions, as well as the date of their harvest, chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) differ in their content of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, fats, aroma compounds and especially polyphenols, substances exerting a beneficial impact on health. The total content of the most important ingredients, polyphenolic compounds, influence many proven chokeberry activities like antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, antiviral, anticancer, antiplatelet, antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, procyanidins and phenolic acids in different rates and amounts are responsible for all mentioned activities. In the human body, they undergo different biotransformative processes strengthening their bioactivity inside and outside cells. The popularity of chokeberry has been significant lately because of its effects on human health and not just because of its nutritional value. The main interest in this review has been refocused on the chokeberry benefits to human health, nutritional contribution of its components, particularly polyphenolic compounds, and its physiological effects. Full article
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