Special Issue "Crosstalk between Cell Redox Homeostasis and Synaptic Functions in Physiological and Pathological Conditions"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 1454

Special Issue Editors

Department of Biochemical Sciences “A. Rossi-Fanelli”, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: insulin signaling; insulin resistance; aging; Alzheimer’s disease; Down syndrome; neurodegeneration; mitochondrial bioenergetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: brain; neuroscience; neurons; memory; neural plasticity; neurodegeneration; synaptic plasticity; synaptic transmission; synapses; Alzheimer's disease; neurobiology; neurodegenerative diseases; brain physiology; cellular neurophysiology; plasticity and metaplasticity; amyloid β-protein
Department of Biochemical Sciences “A. Rossi Fanelli”, Sapienza University of Rome; Rome, Italy
Interests: neurodegeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The brain is a metabolically active organ with a high oxygen consumption rate and a consistent production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Under physiological conditions, redox homeostasis is essential for the maintenance of key neuronal processes. The large amounts of ROS/RNS produced in the brain are lowered by an efficient network of antioxidants, but, sometimes, these protective systems fail, resulting in neuronal oxidative stress. Thus, redox imbalance plays a significant role in the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. Intriguingly, ROS/RNS at low intracellular concentrations are involved in functional and structural changes at the base of the synaptic plasticity mechanisms, thus contributing to memory and learning functions. ROS/RNS can modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), which are the cellular substrates for learning and memory. On the contrary, they can become detrimental to synaptic functions when they accumulate excessively in the brain. The thin line of role reversal from the positive to negative effects of these very highly reactive mediators is far from being fully understood.

In this Special Issue, we invite investigators to contribute original research, perspectives, or review articles that describe the relationship between cell redox homeostasis and synaptic functions in physiological and pathological conditions. We welcome submissions to further advance our understanding of the dual role of ROS/RNS in synaptic function and dysfunction, paving the way for development of new therapeutic approaches to neurological conditions associated with ROS/RNS.

Dr. Eugenio Barone
Dr. Cristian Ripoli
Dr. Antonella Tramutola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (1 paper)

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The Antioxidant Effect of Dietary Bioactives Arises from the Interplay between the Physiology of the Host and the Gut Microbiota: Involvement of Short-Chain Fatty Acids
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051073 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
The maintenance of redox homeostasis is associated with a healthy status while the disruption of this mechanism leads to the development of various pathological conditions. Bioactive molecules such as carbohydrates accessible to the microbiota (MACs), polyphenols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are food [...] Read more.
The maintenance of redox homeostasis is associated with a healthy status while the disruption of this mechanism leads to the development of various pathological conditions. Bioactive molecules such as carbohydrates accessible to the microbiota (MACs), polyphenols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are food components best characterized for their beneficial effect on human health. In particular, increasing evidence suggests that their antioxidant ability is involved in the prevention of several human diseases. Some experimental data indicate that the activation of the nuclear factor 2-related erythroid 2 (Nrf2) pathway—the key mechanism in the maintenance of redox homeostasis—is involved in the beneficial effects exerted by the intake of PUFAs and polyphenols. However, it is known that the latter must be metabolized before becoming active and that the intestinal microbiota play a key role in the biotransformation of some ingested food components. In addition, recent studies, indicating the efficacy of the MACs, polyphenols, and PUFAs in increasing the microbial population with the ability to yield biologically active metabolites (e.g., polyphenol metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)), support the hypothesis that these factors are responsible for the antioxidant action on the physiology of the host. The underlying mechanisms through which MACs, polyphenols, and PUFAs might influence the redox status have not been fully elucidated, but based on the efficacy of SCFAs as Nrf2 activators, their contribution to the antioxidant efficacy of dietary bioactives cannot be excluded. In this review, we aimed to summarize the main mechanisms through which MACs, polyphenols, and PUFAs can modulate the host’s redox homeostasis through their ability to directly or indirectly activate the Nrf2 pathway. We discuss their probiotic effects and the role played by the alteration of the metabolism/composition of the gut microbiota in the generation of potential Nrf2-ligands (e.g., SCFAs) in the host’s redox homeostasis. Full article
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