Sustainable Production of Natural Antioxidants: Green Extraction, Encapsulation, and Stability in the Final Product

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 6972

Special Issue Editors


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Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: food chemistry; food technology; bioactive compounds; analytical techniques; natural food products; natural cosmetics; emergent technologies; green processes; sustainability; bioinformatics; chemical engineering; synergy; antagonism; natural and synthetic antioxidants; mathematical modeling; biological responses; toxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (INTEMA-CONICET), Colón 10850, Mar del Plata (7600), Argentina
Interests: microbiology; antimicrobials; food processing; food science and technology; food quality; food microbiology and safety; food preservation; sensory evaluation; storage; food chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing public interest in chemical-free compounds and environmental protection has encouraged the industry and academics to obtain natural-based ingredients through eco-friendly extraction procedures with the consequent incorporation into innovative and sustainable processes. In this scenario, antioxidant compounds have gained attention in high-value markets such as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics since they can provide beneficial effects on both product quality and human health. The presence of antioxidant compounds in the huge amount of fruit and vegetable waste results in an excellent opportunity for their eco-friendly production. In addition, several encapsulation approaches have been proposed to stabilize antioxidant compounds in the final product. However, there is still a need for fundamental and applied research in this field to support the development of sustainable processes to produce natural antioxidant additives suitable for their use in the food, nutraceutical, or cosmetic industries. Hence, there is still an ocean of opportunities for innovation in the design of stable, natural, and sustainable ingredients with antioxidant properties.

The present Special Issue aims to feature recent advances in the green extraction of antioxidant compounds from different natural sources and sustainable encapsulation technologies tending to stabilize these bioactive compounds during the incorporation into functional foods and cosmetic products.

We welcome researchers to submit an original research or review article to this Special Issue that considers one or more of the following topics: green and efficient extraction of antioxidant compounds from natural sources, chemical characterization, micro or nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds through sustainable techniques, physicochemical mechanisms explaining the behavior of encapsulates against different environmental conditions, incorporation into food or cosmetic products and evaluation of the efficient antioxidant activity through in vivo/vitro studies.

Dr. Miguel Ángel Prieto Lage
Dr. Lucía Cassani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant-derived compounds
  • valorizing by-products
  • eco-friendly processes
  • emerging technologies
  • protecting strategies
  • functional foods
  • cosmetics
  • nutraceuticals

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 6543 KiB  
Article
From Waste to Green: Water-Based Extraction of Polyphenols from Onion Peel and Their Adsorption on Biochar from Grapevine Pruning Residues
by Melissa Prelac, Igor Palčić, Danko Cvitan, Dominik Anđelini, Maja Repajić, Josip Ćurko, Tvrtko Karlo Kovačević, Smiljana Goreta Ban, Zoran Užila, Dean Ban and Nikola Major
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091697 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Onion peels (OP) are rich in bioactive compounds with a plethora of benefits for human health, but this valuable material is often wasted and underutilized due to its inedibility. Likewise, grapevine pruning residues are commonly treated as agricultural waste, but biochar (BC) obtained [...] Read more.
Onion peels (OP) are rich in bioactive compounds with a plethora of benefits for human health, but this valuable material is often wasted and underutilized due to its inedibility. Likewise, grapevine pruning residues are commonly treated as agricultural waste, but biochar (BC) obtained from this material has favorable characteristics as an adsorbent. This study investigated the potential of BC in removal of targeted polyphenolic compounds from OP extracts. The OP extracts were obtained adhering to green chemistry principles using deionized water amplified by three methods: maceration (MAC), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The extraction efficiency on the polyphenolic profile and antioxidant capacity was investigated with different extraction temperatures and solid-to-liquid (s/l) ratios. For further analysis, UAE at 90 °C with an s/l ratio of 1:100 was used due to higher polyphenolic compound yield. The BC adsorption capacity of individual polyphenols was fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside obtained the highest R2 coefficient in both models, and the highest qmax value. The optimum conditions in the dosage experiment suggested an amount of 0.5 g of BC using 3 g/L extracts. The studied BC showed a high affinity for targeted phytochemicals from OP extracts, indicating its potential to be applied for the green adsorption of valuable polyphenolic compounds. Full article
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12 pages, 1448 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Polyphenols Recovery from Grape Pomace: A Comparison of Pressurized and Atmospheric Extractions with Deep Eutectic Solvent Aqueous Mixtures
by Nils Leander Huamán-Castilla, Nicolás Gajardo-Parra, José R. Pérez-Correa, Roberto I. Canales, Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes, Gabriela Contreras-Contreras and María Salomé Mariotti-Celis
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071446 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are emerging as potent polyphenol extractors under normal atmospheric conditions. Yet, their effectiveness in hot pressurized liquid extraction (HPLE) must be studied more. We explored the ability of various water/DES and water/hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) mixtures in both atmospheric [...] Read more.
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are emerging as potent polyphenol extractors under normal atmospheric conditions. Yet, their effectiveness in hot pressurized liquid extraction (HPLE) must be studied more. We explored the ability of various water/DES and water/hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) mixtures in both atmospheric solid liquid extraction (ASLE) and HPLE (50%, 90 °C) for isolating specific polyphenol families from Carménère grape pomace. We assessed extraction yields based on total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and recovery of targeted polyphenols. The HBDs ethylene glycol and glycerol outperformed DES in atmospheric and pressurized extractions. Ethylene glycol exhibited a higher affinity for phenolic acids and flavonols, while flavanols preferred glycerol. Quantum chemical computations indicated that a high-water content in DES mixtures led to the formation of new hydrogen bonds, thereby reducing polyphenol-solvent interactions. HPLE was found to be superior to ASLE across all tested solvents. The elevated pressure in HPLE has caused significant improvement in the recovery of flavanols (17–89%), phenolic acids (17–1000%), and flavonols (81–258%). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of post-extraction residues suggested that high pressures collapse the plant matrix, thus easing polyphenol release. Full article
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13 pages, 2237 KiB  
Article
Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) and Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) for Valorization of Red (Aristeus antennatus) and Camarote (Melicertus kerathurus) Shrimp Side Streams: Antioxidant and HPLC Evaluation of the Carotenoid Astaxanthin Recovery
by Ana Cristina De Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, Francisco J. Martí-Quijal, Francisco J. Barba, Ana M. Benítez-González, Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez, Juan Manuel Castagnini, Silvia Tappi and Pietro Rocculi
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020406 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Shrimp side streams represent an important natural source of astaxanthin. Optimization of the astaxanthin extraction process from shrimp side streams is of great importance for the valorization of crustacean side streams and the development of astaxanthin-related products. The combined and independent effects of [...] Read more.
Shrimp side streams represent an important natural source of astaxanthin. Optimization of the astaxanthin extraction process from shrimp side streams is of great importance for the valorization of crustacean side streams and the development of astaxanthin-related products. The combined and independent effects of two innovative extraction technologies (pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)) alone and/or combined in a sequential step, using two different solvents on astaxanthin extraction from two shrimp species, were evaluated. Astaxanthin content in the extracts of shrimp side streams was determined by both spectrophotometric and HPLC assays, being the determination of the carotenoid profiles performed by HPLC analysis. Compared to a solvent extraction control procedure, the astaxanthin content was increased after ASE and PEF treatments, for both shrimp species, independently of the solvent used. The highest recovery (585.90 µg/g) was obtained for the species A. antennatus, with the solvent DMSO when PEF and ASE were combined, while the increase in antioxidant capacity varied depending on the solvent used. HPLC analysis of the samples revealed the presence of unesterified (all-E) astaxanthin, four unesterified Z isomers of astaxanthin and many unresolved astaxanthin esters. Both technologies are useful tools to recover antioxidant valuable carotenoids such as astaxanthin from shrimp side streams. Full article
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22 pages, 1002 KiB  
Article
Content and Stability of Hydroxycinnamic Acids during the Production of French Fries Obtained from Potatoes of Varieties with Light-Yellow, Red and Purple Flesh
by Agnieszka Tajner-Czopek, Elżbieta Rytel, Agnieszka Kita, Anna Sokół-Łętowska and Alicja Z. Kucharska
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020311 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Potatoes with different flesh colours contain health-promoting compounds, i.e., hydroxycinnamic acids, which vary in content and stability during thermal processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the technological stages of the production of French fries obtained from potatoes [...] Read more.
Potatoes with different flesh colours contain health-promoting compounds, i.e., hydroxycinnamic acids, which vary in content and stability during thermal processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the technological stages of the production of French fries obtained from potatoes with different flesh colours on the content of selected hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as the stability of these acids, their percentage in sum of acids, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) in semi-products and ready-to-eat products. During the production of French fries, samples of unpeeled, peeled, cut, blanched, pre-dried and fried potatoes were collected. After peeling, coloured potatoes, especially purple ones, had more hydroxycinnamic (5-CQA, 4-CQA, 3-CQA and CA) acids remaining in the flesh than in the flesh of the light-yellow variety. The greatest losses of the determined hydroxycinnamic acids, regardless of the given potato’s variety, were caused by the stage of pre-drying (about 91%) and frying (about 97%). The French fries obtained from the potatoes with coloured flesh, especially those with purple flesh, had the highest amount of stable 5-CQA and 4-CQA acids as well as 3-CQA acid, already absent in light-yellow French fries. The least stable acid was CA acid, which was not found in any of the ready snacks. Full article
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