Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Organ Damage in Health and Disease--State of Art

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 25387

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Department and Clinic of Internal Medicine, Angiology, and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland
Interests: physical medicine; thermal imaging; cryotherapy; cryogenic temperatures; vascular medicine; oxidative stress; rehabilitation; internal medicine
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Guest Editor
Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran
Interests: Vascular endothelium; oxidative stress; vasculitis; Thromboangiitis obliterans

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants that adversely influences the organism in various mechanisms and on many levels. Oxidative stress plays a key role in various pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, steatosis hepatis, osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease, with high levels of oxidative stress in target organs such as the heart, pancreas, liver, kidneys, bones, and lungs. There is an intimate relationship between oxidative stress, inflammation, and functional impairment, resulting in various diseases affecting the entire human body. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play several beneficial roles in the organism when maintained at low or moderate levels, including the defense system against pathogens, intracellular signaling cascades, and the induction of a mitogenic response.

The “bench-to-bedside” process integrates knowledge from basic scientific research into clinical research to create novel treatments and medical procedures, preventions, and diagnostics, forming a bridge between basic and clinical research. This Special Issue will contribute to our understanding of physiological and pathophysiological processes, novel treatments, and preventions.

Manuscripts focused on oxidative stress and inflammation in physiological and pathohysiological proceseses are welcome. This includes original in vitro, animal, and human research, cohort studies, systematic literature reviews, and meta-analyses.

Prof. Dr. Agata Stanek
Dr. Bahare Fazeli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation
  • therapeutic interventions
  • biomarkers
  • signaling pathway

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
Blue Light Damage and p53: Unravelling the Role of p53 in Oxidative-Stress-Induced Retinal Apoptosis
by Agnes Fietz, Francesca Corsi, José Hurst and Sven Schnichels
Antioxidants 2023, 12(12), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12122072 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
In the digital age, the widespread presence of electronic devices has exposed humans to an exceptional amount of blue light (BL) emitted from screens, LEDs, and other sources. Studies have shown that prolonged exposure to BL could have harmful effects on the visual [...] Read more.
In the digital age, the widespread presence of electronic devices has exposed humans to an exceptional amount of blue light (BL) emitted from screens, LEDs, and other sources. Studies have shown that prolonged exposure to BL could have harmful effects on the visual system and circadian rhythm regulation. BL is known to induce oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage. Emerging research indicates that BL may also induce cell death pathways that involve the tumor-suppressor protein p53. Activated p53 acts as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This study aimed to explore the implication of p53 in BL-caused retinal damage, shedding light on the potential mechanisms of oxidative-stress-induced retinal diseases. BL-exposed porcine retinal cultures demonstrated increased p53- and caspase-mediated apoptosis, depending on exposure duration. Direct inhibition of p53 via pifithrin α resulted in the prevention of retinal cell death. These findings raise concerns about the long-term consequences of the current daily BL exposure and its potential involvement in various pathological conditions, including oxidative-stress-based retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration. In addition, this study paves the way for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for oxidative-stress-based retinal diseases. Full article
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25 pages, 5913 KiB  
Article
Fibrosis Development Linked to Alterations in Glucose and Energy Metabolism and Prooxidant–Antioxidant Balance in Experimental Models of Liver Injury
by Dmitry S. Semenovich, Nadezda V. Andrianova, Ljubava D. Zorova, Irina B. Pevzner, Polina A. Abramicheva, Andrey V. Elchaninov, Olga V. Markova, Aleksandra S. Petrukhina, Dmitry B. Zorov and Egor Y. Plotnikov
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081604 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The development of liver fibrosis is one of the most severe and life-threatening outcomes of chronic liver disease (CLD). For targeted therapy of CLD, it is highly needed to reveal molecular targets for normalizing metabolic processes impaired in damaged liver and associated with [...] Read more.
The development of liver fibrosis is one of the most severe and life-threatening outcomes of chronic liver disease (CLD). For targeted therapy of CLD, it is highly needed to reveal molecular targets for normalizing metabolic processes impaired in damaged liver and associated with fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the morphological and biochemical changes in rat liver models of fibrosis induced by chronic administration of thioacetamide, carbon tetrachloride, bile duct ligation (BDL), and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), with a specific focus on carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Changes in the levels of substrates and products, as well as enzyme activities of the major glucose metabolic pathways (glycolysis, glucuronidation, and pentose phosphate pathway) were examined in rat liver tissue after injury. We examined key markers of oxidative energy metabolism, such as the activity of the Krebs cycle enzymes, and assessed mitochondrial respiratory activity. In addition, pro- and anti-oxidative status was assessed in fibrotic liver tissue. We found that 6 weeks of exposure to thioacetamide, carbon tetrachloride, BDL or I/R resulted in a decrease in the activity of glycolytic enzymes, retardation of mitochondrial respiration, elevation of glucuronidation, and activation of pentose phosphate pathways, accompanied by a decrease in antioxidant activity and the onset of oxidative stress in rat liver. Resemblance and differences in the changes in the fibrosis models used are described, including energy metabolism alterations and antioxidant status in the used fibrosis models. The least pronounced changes in glucose metabolism and mitochondrial functions in the I/R and thioacetamide models were associated with the least advanced fibrosis. Ultimately, liver fibrosis significantly altered the metabolic profile in liver tissue and the flux of glucose metabolic pathways, which could be the basis for targeted therapy of liver fibrosis in CLD caused by toxic, cholestatic, or I/R liver injury. Full article
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17 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Oxidative Stress Marker Levels in Patients with Type II Intestinal Failure: A Randomized Double Blind Trial
by Adriana Flores-López, Martha Guevara-Cruz, Azalia Avila-Nava, Alejandro G. González-Garay, Luis E. González-Salazar, Ana L. Reyes-Ramírez, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Omar N. Medina-Campos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Juan G. Reyes-García, Armando R. Tovar and Aurora E. Serralde-Zúñiga
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081493 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Type II intestinal failure (IF-II) is a condition in which the gastrointestinal tract is compromised. Liver complications may occur because of the pathology and/or prolonged use of parenteral nutrition (PN); oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the causes. Lipid emulsions containing [...] Read more.
Type II intestinal failure (IF-II) is a condition in which the gastrointestinal tract is compromised. Liver complications may occur because of the pathology and/or prolonged use of parenteral nutrition (PN); oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the causes. Lipid emulsions containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proposed for the treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 7-day n-3 PUFA supplementation on oxidative stress in IF-II patients receiving PN. This was a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pilot trial of adult patients with IF-II, receiving either conventional PN (control) or PN enriched with n-3 PUFAs (intervention). Twenty patients were included (14 men, 49 ± 16.9 years), with the ANCOVA analysis the glucose (p = 0.003), and direct bilirubin (p = 0.001) levels reduced; whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased (p = 0.017). In the random-effect linear regression analysis, a reduction (p < 0.0001) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was found in the intervention group when the covariables age, HDL-C level, and alanine aminotransferase activity were considered. After 1 week of PN supplementation with n-3 PUFAs, the marker levels of some oxidative stress, blood lipids, and hepatic biomarkers improved in patients with IF-II. Full article
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13 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Serum HSP70 Concentrations in Relation to Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile in Lean and Overweight Young Men
by Anna Lubkowska, Wioleta Dudzińska and Waldemar Pluta
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030655 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Oxidants are generated by all cells during normal oxidative respiration, and as long as they are under the control of appropriate mechanisms, they act as intracellular signaling molecules participating in complex functions. Oxidative stress can also affect insulin levels in the body. The [...] Read more.
Oxidants are generated by all cells during normal oxidative respiration, and as long as they are under the control of appropriate mechanisms, they act as intracellular signaling molecules participating in complex functions. Oxidative stress can also affect insulin levels in the body. The production of reactive oxygen species by-products can lead to insulin resistance. Heat shock proteins (70 kDa) protect cells from the damaging effects of heat shock but also oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the serum concentration of HSP70 in young, non-obese but overweight men (BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2) and to assess its association with the insulin resistance, lipid profile and antioxidant system of red blood cells. Fifty-seven young men were examined and divided into two groups: lean men (n = 30) and men overweight (n = 27). A statistically significant difference was observed in the BMI (p < 0.007), HSP70 concentration (p < 0.000), serum insulin concentration (p < 0.000), HOMA-IR (p < 0.0001), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.02) and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) between the studied groups. There was a negative correlation between the concentration of HSP70 with the insulin level (r = −0.50; p < 0.0004) and with the HOMA-IR (r = −0.50; p < 0.0004). These changes were associated with an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that measuring the extracellular concentration of HSP70 can be an important indicator in disorders of glucose homeostasis. Full article
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26 pages, 6279 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Action of Natural Compounds in Peripheral Multiorgan Dysfunction and Hippocampal Neuroinflammation Induced by Sepsis
by Ramona D’Amico, Mario Tomasello, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Livia Interdonato, Ali Saber Abdelhameed, Roberta Fusco, Vittorio Calabrese, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Rosanna Di Paola
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030635 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Bacterial sepsis induces the production of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, resulting in tissue injury and hyperinflammation. Patients recovering from sepsis have increased rates of central nervous system (CNS) morbidities, which are linked to long-term cognitive impairment, such as neurodegenerative pathologies. This [...] Read more.
Bacterial sepsis induces the production of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, resulting in tissue injury and hyperinflammation. Patients recovering from sepsis have increased rates of central nervous system (CNS) morbidities, which are linked to long-term cognitive impairment, such as neurodegenerative pathologies. This paper focuses on the tissue injury and hyperinflammation observed in the acute phase of sepsis and on the development of long-term neuroinflammation associated with septicemia. Here we evaluate the effects of Coriolus versicolor administration as a novel approach to treat polymicrobial sepsis. Rats underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP), and Coriolus versicolor (200 mg/kg in saline) was administered daily by gavage. Survival was monitored, and tissues from vital organs that easily succumb to infection were harvested after 72 h to evaluate the histological changes. Twenty-eight days after CLP, behavioral analyses were performed, and serum and brain (hippocampus) samples were harvested at four weeks from surgery. Coriolus versicolor increased survival and reduced acute tissue injury. Indeed, it reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bloodstream, leading to a reduced chronic inflammation. In the hippocampus, Coriolus versicolor administration restored tight junction expressions, reduce cytokines accumulation and glia activation. It also reduced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components expression. Coriolus versicolor showed antioxidant activities, restoring glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reducing lipid peroxidation, nitrite and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, Coriolus versicolor reduced amyloid precursor protein (APP), phosphorylated-Tau (p-Tau), pathologically phosphorylated tau (PHF1), phosphorylated tau (Ser202 and Thr205) (AT8), interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) expression, and β-amyloid accumulation induced by CLP. Indeed, Coriolus versicolor restored synaptic dysfunction and behavioral alterations. This research shows the effects of Coriolus versicolor administration on the long-term development of neuroinflammation and brain dysfunction induced by sepsis. Overall, our results demonstrated that Coriolus versicolor administration was able to counteract the degenerative process triggered by sepsis. Full article
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13 pages, 900 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Endothelium Parameters in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis
by Agata Stanek, Ewa Romuk, Tomasz Wielkoszyński, Klaudia Brożyna-Tkaczyk, Daria Wziątek-Kuczmik and Armand Cholewka
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020521 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) with subsequent exercise training (WBC group) or exercise-only training (ET group) on endothelium inflammation parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: The WBC procedure lasted 3 min, [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) with subsequent exercise training (WBC group) or exercise-only training (ET group) on endothelium inflammation parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: The WBC procedure lasted 3 min, and exercise training consisted of one 60 min session a day, which was the same in each group. The ET group was compared to the WBC group. Endothelium (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble P-Selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), neopterin), and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), protein sulfhydryl (PSH), lipofuscin, paraoxonase-1(PON-1), and albumin) parameters were estimated 1 day before and 1 day after the completion of the study. Results: A significant decrease in hsCRP, sP-Selectin, sVCAM-1, and neopterin concentrations was observed in the WBC group after the treatment. After the treatment, in both groups, LHP and lipofuscin levels and PON-1 activity decreased significantly. The observed drop in these parameters was higher in the WBC group compared to the ET group. Albumin concentration increased in the WBC group after treatment. Conclusion: Procedures of WBC have a beneficial effect on endothelium parameters in AS patients; therefore, this method can be applied in the treatment of this group of patients. Full article
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26 pages, 4743 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Ambient Temperature Changes on the Indicators of Inflammation and Oxidative Damage in Blood after Submaximal Exercise
by Marta Pawłowska, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Tomasz Boraczyński, Michał Boraczyński, Karolina Szewczyk-Golec, Paweł Sutkowy, Roland Wesołowski, Marlena Budek and Alina Woźniak
Antioxidants 2022, 11(12), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122445 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Physical activity has a positive effect on human health and well-being, but intense exercise can cause adverse changes in the organism, leading to the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of short-term cold [...] Read more.
Physical activity has a positive effect on human health and well-being, but intense exercise can cause adverse changes in the organism, leading to the development of oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of short-term cold water immersion (CWI) and a sauna bath as methods of postexercise regeneration on the indicators of inflammation and oxidative damage in the blood of healthy recreational athletes. Forty-five male volunteers divided into two groups: ‘winter swimmers’ who regularly use winter baths (n = 22, average age 43.2 ± 5.9 years) and ‘novices’ who had not used winter baths regularly before (n = 23, mean age 25 ± 4.8 years) participated in the study. The research was divided into two experiments, differing in the method of postexercise regeneration used, CWI (Experiment I) and a sauna bath (Experiment II). During Experiment I, the volunteers were subjected to a 30-min aerobic exercise, combined with a 20-min rest at room temperature (RT-REST) or a 20-min rest at room temperature with an initial 3-min 8 °C water bath (CWI-REST). During the Experiment II, the volunteers were subjected to the same aerobic exercise, followed by a RT-REST or a sauna bath (SAUNA-REST). The blood samples were taken before physical exercise (control), immediately after exercise and 20 min after completion of regeneration. The concentrations of selected indicators of inflammation, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), as well as the activity of indicators of oxidative damage: α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and lysosomal enzymes, including arylsulfatase A (ASA), acid phosphatase (AcP) and cathepsin D (CTS D), were determined. CWI seems to be a more effective post-exercise regeneration method to reduce the inflammatory response compared to a sauna bath. A single sauna bath is associated with the risk of proteolytic tissue damage, but disturbances of cellular homeostasis are less pronounced in people who regularly use cold water baths than in those who are not adapted to thermal stress. Full article
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21 pages, 4501 KiB  
Article
Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sympathetic Activation and Sepsis via Suppressing Superoxide Signaling in Paraventricular Nucleus
by Jin-Hua Bo, Jing-Xiao Wang, Xiao-Li Wang, Yang Jiao, Ming Jiang, Jun-Liu Chen, Wen-Yuan Hao, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Zheng-Liang Ma and Guo-Qing Zhu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(12), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122395 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Sympathetic overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) is widely used for perioperative sedation and analgesia. We aimed to determine the central roles and mechanisms of DEX in attenuating sympathetic activity and inflammation in sepsis. Sepsis [...] Read more.
Sympathetic overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) is widely used for perioperative sedation and analgesia. We aimed to determine the central roles and mechanisms of DEX in attenuating sympathetic activity and inflammation in sepsis. Sepsis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Effects of DEX were investigated 24 h after injection of LPS. Bilateral microinjection of DEX in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuated LPS-induced sympathetic overactivity, which was attenuated by the superoxide dismutase inhibitor DETC, cAMP analog db-cAMP or GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine. Superoxide scavenger tempol, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 or PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP caused similar effects to DEX in attenuating LPS-induced sympathetic activation. DEX inhibited LPS-induced superoxide and cAMP production, as well as NADPH oxidase, adenylate cyclase and PKA activation. The roles of DEX in reducing superoxide production and NADPH oxidase activation were attenuated by db-cAMP or gabazine. Intravenous infusion of DEX inhibited LPS-induced sympathetic overactivity, NOX activation, superoxide production, TNF-α and IL-1β upregulation in the PVN and plasma, as well as lung and renal injury, which were attenuated by the PVN microinjection of yohimbine and DETC. We conclude that activation of α2-adrenergic receptors with DEX in the PVN attenuated LPS-induced sympathetic overactivity by reducing NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production via both inhibiting adenylate cyclase-cAMP-PKA signaling and activating GABAA receptors. The inhibition of NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the PVN partially contributes to the roles of intravenous infusion of DEX in attenuating LPS-induced sympathetic activation, oxidative stress and inflammation. Full article
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18 pages, 2904 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Plasma and Platelet Nitric Oxide Biotransformation Metabolites during Ischemic Stroke—A Dynamic Human LC/MS Metabolomic Study
by Maciej Bladowski, Ewa Szahidewicz-Krupska, Jerzy Wiśniewski, Paulina Fortuna, Justyna Chojdak-Łukasiewicz, Slawomir Budrewicz, Mariusz Fleszar and Adrian Doroszko
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050955 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 3324
Abstract
Despite improvement in the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, ischemic stroke remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult population. The aim of this study was to analyze the time-dependent dynamic differences in expression of the nitric oxide (NO) [...] Read more.
Despite improvement in the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, ischemic stroke remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult population. The aim of this study was to analyze the time-dependent dynamic differences in expression of the nitric oxide (NO) metabolic pathway in the platelet and plasma compartment between subjects with and without ischemic stroke. Additionally, the interplay between these parameters and platelet aggregation was investigated. A total of 418 patients in acute phase of non-cardioembolic stroke were investigated. Following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, finally 40 subjects with stroke and 39 demographically matched healthy participants were enrolled. Neurological physical examination, followed by assessment of the platelet and plasma levels of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), as well as NOS substrate-L-Arginine were performed dynamically three times within the first 24-h, then on the 3rd and 7th day after the stroke onset, which was compared with the healthy control. The platelet L-Arginine concentration was significantly higher on the 1st and 3rd day of stroke, while the plasma levels were significantly lower on exact days in comparison to the control. The competitive NOS-inhibitors in platelets were stably elevated in stroke subjects, whereas no significant differences in plasma compartment were noted. The arachidonic-acid-induced platelet aggregation was negatively associated with the platelet NOS substrate bioavailability, as assessed by the LArginine ADMA-ratio on the 3rd and 7th day. Subjects with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke are characterized by elevated platelet levels of NOS inhibitors. Management of stroke results in increasing the platelet L-Arginine concentration and subsequent NO bioavailability in the platelet compartment. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1245 KiB  
Review
The Influence of Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress-Induced Vascular Aging in Obesity
by Hiva Sharebiani, Shayan Keramat, Abdolali Chavoshan, Bahar Fazeli and Agata Stanek
Antioxidants 2023, 12(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12061295 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Obesity is a worldwide trend that is growing in incidence very fast. Adipose tissue dysfunction caused by obesity is associated with the generation of oxidative stress. Obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Vascular aging [...] Read more.
Obesity is a worldwide trend that is growing in incidence very fast. Adipose tissue dysfunction caused by obesity is associated with the generation of oxidative stress. Obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Vascular aging is one of the main pathogenesis mechanisms. The aim of this study is to review the effect of antioxidants on vascular aging caused by oxidative stress in obesity. In order to achieve this aim, this paper is designed to review obesity-caused adipose tissue remodeling, vascular aging generated by high levels of oxidative stress, and the effects of antioxidants on obesity, redox balance, and vascular aging. It seems that vascular diseases in obese individuals are complex networks of pathological mechanisms. In order to develop a proper therapeutic tool, first, there is a need for a better understanding of interactions between obesity, oxidative stress, and aging. Based on these interactions, this review suggests different lines of strategies that include change in lifestyle to prevent and control obesity, strategies for adipose tissue remodelling, oxidant–antioxidant balance, inflammation suppression, and strategies against vascular aging. Some antioxidants support different lines of these strategies, making them appropriate for complex conditions such as oxidative stress-induced vascular diseases in obese individuals. Full article
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14 pages, 586 KiB  
Review
Role of Erythrocytes in Nitric Oxide Metabolism and Paracrine Regulation of Endothelial Function
by Damian Gajecki, Jakub Gawryś, Ewa Szahidewicz-Krupska and Adrian Doroszko
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050943 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Emerging studies provide new data shedding some light on the complex and pivotal role of red blood cells (RBCs) in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and paracrine regulation of endothelial function. NO is involved in the regulation of vasodilatation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, hypoxic adaptation, [...] Read more.
Emerging studies provide new data shedding some light on the complex and pivotal role of red blood cells (RBCs) in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and paracrine regulation of endothelial function. NO is involved in the regulation of vasodilatation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, hypoxic adaptation, and oxidative stress. Even though tremendous knowledge about NO metabolism has been collected, the exact RBCs’ status still requires evaluation. This paper summarizes the actual knowledge regarding the role of erythrocytes as a mobile depot of amino acids necessary for NO biotransformation. Moreover, the complex regulation of RBCs’ translocases is presented with a particular focus on cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) responsible for the NO substrates and derivatives transport. The main part demonstrates the intraerythrocytic metabolism of L-arginine with its regulation by reactive oxygen species and arginase activity. Additionally, the process of nitrite and nitrate turnover was demonstrated to be another stable source of NO, with its reduction by xanthine oxidoreductase or hemoglobin. Additional function of hemoglobin in NO synthesis and its subsequent stabilization in steady intermediates is also discussed. Furthermore, RBCs regulate the vascular tone by releasing ATP, inducing smooth muscle cell relaxation, and decreasing platelet aggregation. Erythrocytes and intraerythrocytic NO metabolism are also responsible for the maintenance of normotension. Hence, RBCs became a promising new therapeutic target in restoring NO homeostasis in cardiovascular disorders. Full article
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Other

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16 pages, 2315 KiB  
Systematic Review
Oleocanthal, an Antioxidant Phenolic Compound in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO): A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Its Potential in Inflammation and Cancer
by María González-Rodríguez, Djedjiga Ait Edjoudi, Alfonso Cordero-Barreal, Mariam Farrag, María Varela-García, Carlos Torrijos-Pulpón, Clara Ruiz-Fernández, Maurizio Capuozzo, Alessandro Ottaiano, Francisca Lago, Jesús Pino, Yousof Farrag and Oreste Gualillo
Antioxidants 2023, 12(12), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12122112 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Background: The Mediterranean diet is linked to various health benefits, especially the consumption of olive oil as a key component. Multiple studies highlight its advantages, particularly due to its fatty acid composition and additional components like phenolic compounds. A significant antioxidant compound, oleocanthal, [...] Read more.
Background: The Mediterranean diet is linked to various health benefits, especially the consumption of olive oil as a key component. Multiple studies highlight its advantages, particularly due to its fatty acid composition and additional components like phenolic compounds. A significant antioxidant compound, oleocanthal, known for its antioxidant properties, has gained attention in the pharmaceutical industry for its anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. It shows promise in addressing cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and neuroprotection. This systematic review aims to evaluate the existing literature on oleocanthal, examining its role in biological processes and potential impact on conditions like inflammation and cancer. Methods: We performed several searches in PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane based on the terms “Oleocanthal”, “Cancer”, and “Inflammation”. The inclusion criteria were as follows: studies whose main topics were oleocanthal and cancer or inflammation. On the other hand, the exclusion criteria were studies that were not focused on oleocanthal, reviews, or editorial material. Given that these findings are explanatory rather than derived from clinical trials, we refrained from employing methods to assess potential bias. This systematic review did not receive any external funding. Results: We found 174 records from these searches, where we discarded reviews and editorial material, duplicated articles, and 1 retracted article. Finally, we had 53 reports assessed for eligibility that were included in this review. Discussion: OC exhibits promising therapeutic potential against both inflammation and cancer. We addressed its ability to target inflammatory genes and pathways, offering potential treatments for conditions like rheumatic diseases by regulating pathways such as NF-kB and MAPK. Additionally, OC’s anticancer properties, particularly its notable inhibition of c-Met signaling across various cancers, highlight its efficacy, showcasing promise as a potential treatment. Full article
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16 pages, 1879 KiB  
Systematic Review
Total Antioxidant Capacity in Obese and Non-Obese Subjects and Its Association with Anthropo-Metabolic Markers: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Wendoline Anaya-Morua, José Rafael Villafan-Bernal, Esther Ramírez-Moreno, Humberto García-Ortiz, Raigam Jafet Martínez-Portilla, Cecilia Contreras-Cubas, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Federico Centeno-Cruz, Florencia Estefana Pedroza-Montoya, Lorena Orozco and Francisco Barajas-Olmos
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081512 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been related to the development of and complications associated with chronic diseases, but its importance during obesity is not entirely clear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify whether there are differences or similarities in [...] Read more.
The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been related to the development of and complications associated with chronic diseases, but its importance during obesity is not entirely clear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify whether there are differences or similarities in the TAC between subjects with obesity (SO) and subjects with normal weight (NW). Following the recommendations of PRISMA and Cochrane, we performed a systematic search in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and PROSPERO databases, identifying 1607 studies. Among these, 22 studies were included in the final analysis, comprising 3937 subjects (1665 SO and 2272 NW) in whom serum TAC was measured, and from these 19,201 subjects, the correlation of serum TAC with anthropo-metabolic parameters was also estimated. The Newcastle–Ottawa method was used for the evaluation of the risk of bias. Using a random-effect model (REM), TAC was reduced in SO independently of age (SMD, −0.86; 95% CI −1.38 to −0.34; p = 0.0012), whereas malondialdehyde (SMD, 1.50; 95% CI 0.60 to 2.41), oxidative stress index (SMD, 1.0; 95% CI 0.16 to 1.84), and total oxidant status (SMD, 0.80; 0.22 to 1.37) were increased. There were seven significant pooled correlations of TAC with anthropometric and metabolic parameters: weight (r = −0.17), hip circumference (r= −0.11), visceral adipose index (r = 0.29), triglycerides (r = 0.25), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.41), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.38), and uric acid (r = 0.53). Our results confirm a decrease in TAC and an increase in markers of oxidative stress in SO and underpin the importance of these serum biomarkers in obesity. Full article
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Systematic Review
The Potential Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Systematic Review
by Shayan Keramat, Hiva Sharebiani, Malay Patel, Bahare Fazeli and Agata Stanek
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112126 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has a worldwide prevalence and is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to its high prevalence and higher rates of ischemic cardiovascular and lower-extremity events, its treatment is essential. Increased levels of oxidative stress cause disease. [...] Read more.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has a worldwide prevalence and is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to its high prevalence and higher rates of ischemic cardiovascular and lower-extremity events, its treatment is essential. Increased levels of oxidative stress cause disease. This review aimed to evaluate different studies of antioxidant treatments for PAD patients. A systematic search for relevant studies was performed on the PubMed, SCOPUS, and ScienceDirect databases, and 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In total, 16.6% of the studies used natural antioxidants, and 83.3% used synthetic antioxidants. The reviewed studies show that natural antioxidants were completely effective in treating PAD, and synthetic antioxidants showed effective results in only 53% of the studies. A less-than-optimal pro-oxidant–antioxidant balance does not improve the symptoms of PAD. In conclusion, antioxidants in their natural forms are more effective for PAD patients, and ensuring the optimal pro-oxidant–antioxidant balance is an effective method for managing treatment with antioxidants. Full article
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