Cellular and DNA Damage in Oxidative Stress Conditions: Cytoprotective and Genoprotective Potential of Antioxidant Molecules

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 11487

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Interests: environmental pollutants; nanomaterials; genetic ecotoxicology; sperm DNA damage; anti-genotoxicity; cell death (apoptosis)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Interests: reproductive toxicology; genotoxicity; antigenotoxicity; cytogenetics; cellular and molecular biology; male and female infertility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxidative stress (OS) is a condition that occurs following a redox imbalance in favor of oxidizing molecules. The reasons for the increased production of free radicals in the body are linked to exogenous and/or endogenous factors, such as exposure to toxic substances, incorrect diet, metabolic pathologies, and genetics. In recent years, the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of several human diseases has received growing attention. The phenomena of membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis can arise in cells following exposure to genotoxic substances, exerting detrimental influences on organisms such as early cell aging; atherosclerosis; obesity; diabetes; reproductive disorders, sometimes with transgenerational effects; and even cancer. In this context, antioxidants, by hindering and preventing oxidative damage, given their ability to interrupt radical chain reactions, are considered antigenotoxic agents, as they intervene in cellular protection mechanisms, ultimately preventing the oxidative deterioration of genetic material. This Special Issue focuses on the cytoprotective and genoprotective roles of different antioxidant molecules in preventing disorders related to OS. Researchers are invited to contribute with original manuscripts, reviews and case reports on humans and animals, aiming to elucidate the mechanisms through which OS contribute to the development of several diseases and clarify the role of supplementation with antioxidant substances as a treatment. The topics of particular interest include the in vivo and in vitro effects of antioxidant exposure, the protective activity of different antioxidants in counteracting cell damage related to oxidative stress, antigenotoxic molecules for preventing DNA damage, the DNA-damage response following antioxidant treatment, and the development of new therapies for the treatment of disorders related to oxidative stress.

Topics of particular interest include:

  • in vivo and in vitro effect of antioxidant exposure;
  • protective activity of different antioxidants in counteract oxidative stress cell damage;
  • antigenotoxic molecules for DNA damage prevention;
  • DNA-damage response following antioxidant treatment;
  • development of new therapies in the treatment of oxidative stress related disorders.

Prof. Dr. Lucia Rocco
Dr. Filomena Mottola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  •  oxidative stress
  •  genotoxicity
  •  cytotoxicity
  •  antigenotoxicity
  •  antioxidant molecules
  •  genetics
  •  epigenetics
  •  cancer cell aging
  •  reproductive diseases
  •  oxidative damage
  •  human diseases
  •  DNA-damage
  •  antioxidant therapies

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

21 pages, 2925 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity, Metal Chelating Ability and DNA Protective Effect of the Hydroethanolic Extracts of Crocus sativus Stigmas, Tepals and Leaves
by Sabir Ouahhoud, Amine Khoulati, Salma Kadda, Noureddine Bencheikh, Samira Mamri, Anas Ziani, Sanae Baddaoui, Fatima-Ezzahra Eddabbeh, Iliass Lahmass, Redouane Benabbes, Mohamed Addi, Christophe Hano, Abdeslam Asehraou and Ennouamane Saalaoui
Antioxidants 2022, 11(5), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050932 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
The present study investigated the antioxidant activity, metal chelating ability and genoprotective effect of the hydroethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus stigmas (STG), tepals (TPL) and leaves (LV). We evaluated the antioxidant and metal (Fe2+ and Cu2+) chelating activities of the [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the antioxidant activity, metal chelating ability and genoprotective effect of the hydroethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus stigmas (STG), tepals (TPL) and leaves (LV). We evaluated the antioxidant and metal (Fe2+ and Cu2+) chelating activities of the stigmas, tepals and leaves of C. sativus. Similarly, we examined the genotoxic and DNA protective effect of these parts on rat leukocytes by comet assay. The results showed that TPL contains the best polyphenol content (64.66 µg GA eq/mg extract). The highest radical scavenging activity is shown by the TPL (DPPH radical scavenging activity: IC50 = 80.73 µg/mL). The same extracts gave a better ferric reducing power at a dose of 50 µg/mL, and better protective activity against β-carotene degradation (39.31% of oxidized β-carotene at a 100 µg/mL dose). In addition, they showed a good chelating ability of Fe2+ (48.7% at a 500 µg/mL dose) and Cu2+ (85.02% at a dose of 500 µg/mL). Thus, the antioxidant activity and metal chelating ability in the C. sativus plant is important, and it varies according to the part and dose used. In addition, pretreatment with STG, TPL and LV significantly (p < 0.001) protected rat leukocytes against the elevation of percent DNA in the tail, tail length and tail moment in streptozotocin- and alloxan-induced DNA damage. These results suggest that C. sativus by-products contain natural antioxidant, metal chelating and DNA protective compounds, which are capable of reducing the risk of cancer and other diseases associated with daily exposure to genotoxic xenobiotics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 2100 KiB  
Review
Neuro-Nutraceutical Polyphenols: How Far Are We?
by Maria Teresa Gentile, Iolanda Camerino, Loredana Ciarmiello, Pasqualina Woodrow, Lidia Muscariello, Ida De Chiara and Severina Pacifico
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030539 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
The brain, composed of billions of neurons, is a complex network of interacting dynamical systems controlling all body functions. Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system and their impairment of their functions could result in neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence shows an [...] Read more.
The brain, composed of billions of neurons, is a complex network of interacting dynamical systems controlling all body functions. Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system and their impairment of their functions could result in neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence shows an increase of brain-affecting disorders, still today characterized by poor therapeutic options. There is a strong urgency to find new alternative strategies to prevent progressive neuronal loss. Polyphenols, a wide family of plant compounds with an equally wide range of biological activities, are suitable candidates to counteract chronic degenerative disease in the central nervous system. Herein, we will review their role in human healthcare and highlight their: antioxidant activities in reactive oxygen species-producing neurodegenerative pathologies; putative role as anti-acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; and protective activity in Alzheimer’s disease by preventing Aβ aggregation and tau hyperphosphorylation. Moreover, the pathology of these multifactorial diseases is also characterized by metal dyshomeostasis, specifically copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), most important for cellular function. In this scenario, polyphenols’ action as natural chelators is also discussed. Furthermore, the critical importance of the role exerted by polyphenols on microbiota is assumed, since there is a growing body of evidence for the role of the intestinal microbiota in the gut–brain axis, giving new opportunities to study molecular mechanisms and to find novel strategies in neurological diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1099 KiB  
Review
Addressing the Neuroprotective Actions of Coffee in Parkinson’s Disease: An Emerging Nutrigenomic Analysis
by Lai Kuan Lee and Nur Anis Raihana Mhd Rodzi
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081587 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
Caffeine is one of the predominant dietary components and psychostimulants present in coffee, a widely appreciated beverage. Corroborating epidemiological and laboratory evidence have suggested an inverse association between the dietary intakes of coffee and the risk of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Growing attention has [...] Read more.
Caffeine is one of the predominant dietary components and psychostimulants present in coffee, a widely appreciated beverage. Corroborating epidemiological and laboratory evidence have suggested an inverse association between the dietary intakes of coffee and the risk of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Growing attention has been paid to the impact of coffee consumption and genetic susceptibility to PD pathogenesis. Coffee is believed to play prominent roles in mediating the gene makeup and influencing the onset and progression of PD. The current review documents a current discovery of the coffee × gene interaction for the protective management of PD. The evidence underlying its potent impacts on the adenosine receptors (A2AR), estrogen receptors (ESR), heme oxygenase (HO), toxicant responsive genes, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cytochrome oxidase (Cox), familial parkinsonism genetic susceptibility loci, bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST1), glutamate receptor gene and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype expressions is outlined. Furthermore, the neuroprotective mechanisms of coffee for the amelioration of PD are elucidated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
COVID-19, Oxidative Stress and Male Reproduction: Possible Role of Antioxidants
by Pallav Sengupta, Sulagna Dutta, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Urban John Arnold D’Souza, Kadirvel Govindasamy and Adriana Kolesarova
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030548 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves a complex pathogenesis and with the evolving novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the long-term impacts of the unceasing COVID-19 pandemic are mostly uncertain. Evidence indicates deleterious impact of this disease upon male [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves a complex pathogenesis and with the evolving novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the long-term impacts of the unceasing COVID-19 pandemic are mostly uncertain. Evidence indicates deleterious impact of this disease upon male reproductive health. It is concerning that COVID-19 may contribute to the already global declining trend of male fertility. The adverse impacts of COVID-19 on male reproduction may primarily be attributed to the induction of systemic inflammatory responses and oxidative stress (OS), which operate as a vicious loop. Bringing the systemic inflammation to a halt is critical for ‘putting out’ the ‘cytokine storm’ induced by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The possibility of OS playing a prime role in COVID-19-mediated male reproductive dysfunctions has led to the advocacy of antioxidant therapy. An array of antioxidant defense medications has shown to be effective in experimental and clinical studies of COVID-19. The present review thus discusses the possibilities as to whether antioxidant drugs would contribute to combating the SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced male reproductive disruptions, thereby aiming at kindling research ideas that are needed for identification and treatment of COVID-19-mediated male reproductive impairments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop