Oxidative Stress Markers and Endothelial Dysfunction in Pre- and Perinatal Period

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 12067

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National Laboratory for Human Reproduction, University of Pécs, 7624 Pecs, Hungary
Interests: perinatal adaptation; human reproduction; in vitro fertilization; reproductive endocrinology; reproductive aging; biomarkers; endothelial dysfunction

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Guest Editor
National Laboratory on Human Reproduction and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary
Interests: reproductive endocrinology; gynecology; human reproduction; maternal health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as normal products of cellular metabolism and they have a regulatory role in several basic processes. When their excessive generation exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense mechanisms, oxidative stress (OS) ensues and ROS react with essential cellular elements (lipids, proteins, and DNA) causing cellular dysfunction, damage, and apoptosis.

During the perinatal period, the antioxidant defense is markedly reduced and the fetus and neonates are at particular risk of adverse effects of ROS. In this Special Issue, comprehensive reviews present evidence for the association of compromised feto-placental circulation, OS, and adverse pregnancy outcomes and for that of the intrauterine growth restriction/prematurity and involvement of OS in prenatally programmed adult diseases. Data are given on the impact of OS on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern and on the microbiome profile in pregnant women. The OS-related neonatal pathologies and the redox status of human breast milk are also reviewed.

This Special Issue addresses only certain selected topics of perinatal importance of OS; therefore, research groups are invited to contribute by presenting other aspects of this Special Issue. Studies on the exposure to drug administration; the implementation of new, sensitive, early biomarkers of ROS-induced tissue injury; and organ-specific innovative preventive/therapeutic approaches may be of theoretical and clinical significance.

Prof. Dr. Endre Sulyok
Prof. Dr. József Bódis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oxidative stress
  • ROS
  • perinatal period
  • pregnant women
  • newborns
  • fetus
  • maternal and child health
  • pregnancy complications
  • human reproduction

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4002 KiB  
Article
Amphiregulin Exerts Proangiogenic Effects in Developing Murine Lungs
by Shyam Thapa, Nithyapriya Shankar, Amrit Kumar Shrestha, Monish Civunigunta, Amos S. Gaikwad and Binoy Shivanna
Antioxidants 2024, 13(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13010078 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Interrupted lung angiogenesis is a hallmark of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); however, druggable targets that can rescue this phenotype remain elusive. Thus, our investigation focused on amphiregulin (Areg), a growth factor that mediates cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and repair. While Areg promotes lung [...] Read more.
Interrupted lung angiogenesis is a hallmark of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); however, druggable targets that can rescue this phenotype remain elusive. Thus, our investigation focused on amphiregulin (Areg), a growth factor that mediates cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and repair. While Areg promotes lung branching morphogenesis, its effect on endothelial cell (EC) homeostasis in developing lungs is understudied. Therefore, we hypothesized that Areg promotes the proangiogenic ability of the ECs in developing murine lungs exposed to hyperoxia. Lung tissues were harvested from neonatal mice exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia to determine Areg expression. Next, we performed genetic loss-of-function and pharmacological gain-of-function studies in normoxia- and hyperoxia-exposed fetal murine lung ECs. Hyperoxia increased Areg mRNA levels and Areg+ cells in whole lungs. While Areg expression was increased in lung ECs exposed to hyperoxia, the expression of its signaling receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, was decreased, indicating that hyperoxia reduces Areg signaling in lung ECs. Areg deficiency potentiated hyperoxia-mediated anti-angiogenic effects. In contrast, Areg treatment increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and exerted proangiogenic effects. In conclusion, Areg promotes EC tubule formation in developing murine lungs exposed to hyperoxia. Full article
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13 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Holder Pasteurization and Different Variants on Breast Milk Antioxidants
by Réka Anna Vass, Éva Mikó, Csenge Gál, Tamás Kőszegi, Csaba I. Vass, Szilvia Bokor, Dénes Molnár, Simone Funke, Kálmán Kovács, József Bódis and Tibor Ertl
Antioxidants 2023, 12(10), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12101857 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Background: After birth, breast milk (BM) is a known essential source of antioxidants for infants. We analyzed the non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and glutathione, calcium, transferrin, and total protein levels of human breast milk before and after [...] Read more.
Background: After birth, breast milk (BM) is a known essential source of antioxidants for infants. We analyzed the non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and glutathione, calcium, transferrin, and total protein levels of human breast milk before and after Holder pasteurization (HoP). Methods: The collected donor BM samples were pasteurized with HoP. Results: HoP decreased TAC (−12.6%), ORAC (−12.1%), transferrin (−98.3%), and total protein (−21.4%) levels; HoP did not influence the glutathione concentration, and it increased the total calcium (+25.5%) concentration. Mothers who gave birth via Cesarean section had significantly lower TAC in their BM. TAC and glutathione levels were elevated in the BM of mothers over the age of 30. BM produced in the summer had higher glutathione and calcium levels compared to BM produced in the winter. The glutathione concentration in term milk samples was significantly higher in the first two months of lactation compared to the period between the third and sixth months. The transferrin level of BM for female infants was significantly higher than the BM for boys, and mothers with a BMI above 30 had increased transferrin in their samples. Conclusions: Antioxidant levels in human milk are influenced by numerous factors. Environmental and maternal factors, the postpartum age at breast milk collection, and Holder pasteurization of the milk influence the antioxidant intake of the infant. Full article
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20 pages, 2133 KiB  
Article
Blood Plasma Calorimetric Profiles of Women with Preeclampsia: Effect of Oxidative Stress
by Regina Komsa-Penkova, Sashka Krumova, Ariana Langari, Ina Giosheva, Lidia Gartcheva, Avgustina Danailova, Lora Topalova, Tanya Stoyanova, Velichka Strijkova, Alexey Savov and Svetla Todinova
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051032 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disease with poor placentation and presents itself through hypertension and proteinuria. The disease is also associated with the oxidative modification of proteins in maternal blood plasma. In this work, we combine differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), capillary electrophoresis, and atomic [...] Read more.
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disease with poor placentation and presents itself through hypertension and proteinuria. The disease is also associated with the oxidative modification of proteins in maternal blood plasma. In this work, we combine differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), capillary electrophoresis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to evaluate the changes in the plasma denaturation profiles of patients with preeclampsia (PE) as compared with those of pregnant controls. Our results demonstrate that the last trimester of pregnancy substantially affects the main calorimetric characteristics of blood plasma from pregnant controls relative to nonpregnant women. These variations correlate well with the changes in protein levels determined by electrophoresis. DSC analysis revealed significant deviations in the plasma heat capacity profiles of preeclamptic patients from those of pregnant controls. These alterations are expressed mainly in a substantial reduction in albumin-assigned transitions and an upward shift in its denaturation temperature, lower calorimetric enthalpy changes, and a reduced ratio of heat capacity in the albumin/globulin-assigned thermal transitions, which are more pronounced in severe PE cases. The in vitro oxidation model shows that the alteration of PE thermograms is partly related to protein oxidation. AFM data detected numerous aggregate formations in the plasma of PE samples and fewer small ones in the pregnant controls, which are not found in healthy nonpregnant samples. These findings could serve as a basis for further investigations to reveal the possible relationship between albumin thermal stabilization, the increased inflammatory state and oxidative stress, and protein misfolding in preeclampsia. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 1158 KiB  
Review
Pathomechanisms of Prenatally Programmed Adult Diseases
by Endre Sulyok, Balint Farkas and Jozsef Bodis
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071354 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Based on epidemiological observations Barker et al. put forward the hypothesis/concept that an adverse intrauterine environment (involving an insufficient nutrient supply, chronic hypoxia, stress, and toxic substances) is an important risk factor for the development of chronic diseases later in life. The fetus [...] Read more.
Based on epidemiological observations Barker et al. put forward the hypothesis/concept that an adverse intrauterine environment (involving an insufficient nutrient supply, chronic hypoxia, stress, and toxic substances) is an important risk factor for the development of chronic diseases later in life. The fetus responds to the unfavorable environment with adaptive reactions, which ensure survival in the short run, but at the expense of initiating pathological processes leading to adult diseases. In this review, the major mechanisms (including telomere dysfunction, epigenetic modifications, and cardiovascular–renal–endocrine–metabolic reactions) will be outlined, with a particular emphasis on the role of oxidative stress in the fetal origin of adult diseases. Full article
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36 pages, 775 KiB  
Review
Prevention of Chronic Morbidities in Extremely Premature Newborns with LISA-nCPAP Respiratory Therapy and Adjuvant Perinatal Strategies
by Gergely Balázs, András Balajthy, István Seri, Thomas Hegyi, Tibor Ertl, Tamás Szabó, Tamás Röszer, Ágnes Papp, József Balla, Tamás Gáll and György Balla
Antioxidants 2023, 12(6), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12061149 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Less invasive surfactant administration techniques, together with nasal continuous airway pressure (LISA-nCPAP) ventilation, an emerging noninvasive ventilation (NIV) technique in neonatology, are gaining more significance, even in extremely premature newborns (ELBW), under 27 weeks of gestational age. In this review, studies on LISA-nCPAP [...] Read more.
Less invasive surfactant administration techniques, together with nasal continuous airway pressure (LISA-nCPAP) ventilation, an emerging noninvasive ventilation (NIV) technique in neonatology, are gaining more significance, even in extremely premature newborns (ELBW), under 27 weeks of gestational age. In this review, studies on LISA-nCPAP are compiled with an emphasis on short- and long-term morbidities associated with prematurity. Several perinatal preventative and therapeutic investigations are also discussed in order to start integrated therapies as numerous organ-saving techniques in addition to lung-protective ventilations. Two thirds of immature newborns can start their lives on NIV, and one third of them never need mechanical ventilation. With adjuvant intervention, these ratios are expected to be increased, resulting in better outcomes. Optimized cardiopulmonary transition, especially physiologic cord clamping, could have an additively beneficial effect on patient outcomes gained from NIV. Organ development and angiogenesis are strictly linked not only in the immature lung and retina, but also possibly in the kidney, and optimized interventions using angiogenic growth factors could lead to better morbidity-free survival. Corticosteroids, caffeine, insulin, thyroid hormones, antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine, and, moreover, the immunomodulatory components of mother’s milk are also discussed as adjuvant treatments, since immature newborns deserve more complex neonatal interventions. Full article
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17 pages, 1123 KiB  
Review
The Role of Hydrogen-Peroxide (H2O2) Produced by Vaginal Microbiota in Female Reproductive Health
by Eva Miko and Aliz Barakonyi
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051055 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4559
Abstract
Female reproductive health is strongly associated with healthy vaginal microbiota, which is thought to be ensured by the dominance of certain Lactobacillus species. Lactobacilli control the vaginal microenvironment through several factors and mechanisms. One of them is their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide [...] Read more.
Female reproductive health is strongly associated with healthy vaginal microbiota, which is thought to be ensured by the dominance of certain Lactobacillus species. Lactobacilli control the vaginal microenvironment through several factors and mechanisms. One of them is their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The role of Lactobacillus-derived H2O2 in the vaginal microbial community has been intensively investigated in several studies with many designs. However, results and data are controversial and challenging to interpret in vivo. Defining the underlying mechanisms responsible for a physiological vaginal ecosystem is crucial since it could directly affect probiotic treatment attempts. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the topic, focusing on probiotic treatment possibilities. Full article
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