Antibiotic Residues, Antimicrobial Resistance and Intervention Strategies of Foodborne Pathogens

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 31073

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit (2019RU014), Beijing 100022, China
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics resistance gene; one health; drug residues; food safety; risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: veterinary pharmacokinetics; veterinary drug residues; animal pathogens; antimicrobial resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food products are increasingly recognized as important for usage of antibiotics, resulting in the residues of veterinary drugs, the transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its genes (ARGs) through unexplained mechanisms which represent a public health threat to the general population. It is essential to include the information collected from animal and food chain pathogens into AMR surveillance programs as a part of the One Health framework, since human and animal health are interconnected. Specific attention will also paid to human, animal, plant, food, and environment interfaces, and will try to explore the intervention strategies of foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, it will characterize the composition variation of healthy human gut microbiome in correlation with antibiotic usage and yoghurt consumption. The Special Issue will focus on intervention strategies of food safety by antibiotics used in animal and plants, and will identify ARB and ARG.

Prof. Dr. Yongning Wu
Prof. Dr. Zhenling Zeng
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • antibiotic
  • residues
  • antibiotic resistance genes
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • food safety
  • foodborne pathogen
  • intervention strategies
  • one health

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Antibiotic Residues, Antimicrobial Resistance and Intervention Strategies of Foodborne Pathogens
by Yongning Wu and Zhenling Zeng
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040321 - 02 Apr 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
The primary determinant of human health is undoubtedly safe food [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

10 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
Co-Existence of Oxazolidinone Resistance Genes cfr(D) and optrA on Two Streptococcus parasuis Isolates from Swine
by Ning Han, Jie Li, Peng Wan, Yu Pan, Tiantian Xu, Wenguang Xiong and Zhenling Zeng
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050825 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
This study was performed to investigate the presence and characteristics of the oxazolidinone resistance genes optrA and cfr(D) in Streptococcus parasuis. In total, 36 Streptococcus isolates (30 Streptococcus suis isolates, 6 Streptococcus parasuis isolates) were collected from pig farms in China [...] Read more.
This study was performed to investigate the presence and characteristics of the oxazolidinone resistance genes optrA and cfr(D) in Streptococcus parasuis. In total, 36 Streptococcus isolates (30 Streptococcus suis isolates, 6 Streptococcus parasuis isolates) were collected from pig farms in China in 2020–2021, using PCR to determine the presence of optrA and cfr. Then, 2 of the 36 Streptococcus isolates were further processed as follows. Whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly were employed to analyze the genetic environment of the optrA and cfr(D) genes. Conjugation and inverse PCR were employed to verify the transferability of optrA and cfr(D). The optrA and cfr(D) genes were identified in two S. parasuis strains named SS17 and SS20, respectively. The optrA of the two isolates was located on chromosomes invariably associated with the araC gene and Tn554, which carry the resistance genes erm(A) and ant(9). The two plasmids that carry cfr(D), pSS17 (7550 bp) and pSS20-1 (7550 bp) have 100% nucleotide sequence identity. The cfr(D) was flanked by GMP synthase and IS1202. The findings of this study extend the current knowledge of the genetic background of optrA and cfr(D) and indicate that Tn554 and IS1202 may play an important role in the transmission of optrA and cfr(D), respectively. Full article
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11 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistant Pathogens Detected in Raw Pork and Poultry Meat in Retailing Outlets in Kenya
by Patrick Muinde, John Maina, Kelvin Momanyi, Victor Yamo, John Mwaniki and John Kiiru
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030613 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
There is increasing proof of bacterial resistance to antibiotics all over the world, and this puts the effectiveness of antimicrobials that have been essential in decreasing disease mortality and morbidity at stake. The WHO has labeled some classes of antimicrobials as vitally important [...] Read more.
There is increasing proof of bacterial resistance to antibiotics all over the world, and this puts the effectiveness of antimicrobials that have been essential in decreasing disease mortality and morbidity at stake. The WHO has labeled some classes of antimicrobials as vitally important to human health. Bacteria from animals are thought to be reservoirs of resistance genes that can be transferred to humans through the food chain. This study aimed to identify the resistance patterns of bacteria from pork and poultry meat samples purchased from leading retail outlets in Kenya. Of the 393 samples collected, 98.4% of pork and 96.6% of poultry were contaminated with high levels of bacteria. Among the 611 bacterial isolates recovered, 38.5% were multi-drug resistant. This resistance was noted for critically essential antimicrobials (according to the WHO) such as rifampicin (96%), ampicillin (35%), cefotaxime (9%), cefepime (6%), and ciprofloxacin (6%). Moreover, there was high resistance to key antimicrobials for veterinary medicine such as tetracycline (39%), sulfamethoxazole (33%), and trimethoprim (30%). It is essential to spread awareness about the judicious use of antibiotics and take preventive measures to reduce disease burden. Full article
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11 pages, 949 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues in Pork in Kenya and the Potential of Using Gross Pathological Lesions as a Risk-Based Approach to Predict Residues in Meat
by Nicholas Bor, Alessandro Seguino, Derrick Noah Sentamu, Dorcas Chepyatich, James M. Akoko, Patrick Muinde and Lian F. Thomas
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030492 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
The human population is growing and urbanising. These factors are driving the demand for animal-sourced proteins. The rising demand is favouring livestock intensification, a process that frequently relies on antibiotics for growth promotion, treatment and prevention of diseases. Antibiotic use in livestock production [...] Read more.
The human population is growing and urbanising. These factors are driving the demand for animal-sourced proteins. The rising demand is favouring livestock intensification, a process that frequently relies on antibiotics for growth promotion, treatment and prevention of diseases. Antibiotic use in livestock production requires strict adherence to the recommended withdrawal periods. In Kenya, the risk of residues in meat is particularly high due to lack of legislation requiring testing for antibiotic residues in meat destined for the local market. We examined pig carcasses for gross pathological lesions and collected pork samples for antibiotic residue testing. Our aim was to determine if a risk-based approach to residue surveillance may be adopted by looking for an association between lesions and presence of residues. In total, 387 pork samples were tested for antibiotic residues using the Premi®Test micro-inhibition kit. The prevalence of antibiotic residues was 41.26% (95% CI, 34.53–48.45%). A logistic regression model found no significant associations between gross pathological lesions and the presence of antibiotic residues. We recommend that the regulating authorities strongly consider routine testing of carcasses for antibiotic residues to protect meat consumers. Future studies should research on farming practices contributing to the high prevalence of residues. Full article
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9 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Composition Variation of Healthy Human Gut Microbiome in Correlation with Antibiotic Usage and Yogurt Consumption
by Shaofei Yan, Xiaofan Zhang, Xiaofang Jia, Jiguo Zhang, Xiaomin Han, Chang Su, Jianyun Zhao, Wanglong Gou, Jin Xu and Bing Zhang
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121827 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption are the major interventions for gut microbiota, yet their shared characteristics and disparities in healthy human gut microbiome remain unclear. This study aimed to decipher the composition changes among healthy humans, comparing antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption. The [...] Read more.
Antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption are the major interventions for gut microbiota, yet their shared characteristics and disparities in healthy human gut microbiome remain unclear. This study aimed to decipher the composition changes among healthy humans, comparing antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption. The relative bacterial abundances of 1113 fecal samples were collected from an ongoing, population-based longitudinal cohort study in China that covered lifestyle, diet, disease status and physical measurements, and biological indicators of participants were obtained by the sequencing of 16S rRNA. The samples were divided into three groups, which were antibiotic users (122), yogurt consumers (497) and controls (494), where data visualization, alpha diversity, beta diversity and LEfSe analysis were conducted. At the family level, the relative abundances of Streptococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae families in antibiotic users increased almost 50%, 70% and 200%, respectively, while yogurt consumption also increased relative abundances of Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae, but not Enterobacteriaceae. Alpha diversity analyses suggested that the microbiome of the antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption groups exhibited an alpha diversity lower than that of the control. LEfSe analysis showed that, at the family level, the number of biomarkers in the yogurt consumption and antibiotic usage group were respectively 5 and 7, lower than that of the control (13). This study demonstrated the importance in considering the potential assistance of yogurt consumption on ARG gene transfer from commensal bacteria to pathogens in the human gut, which may pose a risk for human health. Antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption share more identical changes on healthy human gut flora than disparities. Therefore, in order to understand the potential risks of antibiotic usage and yogurt consumption on antibiotic resistance transmission in human gut microbiota, further research needs to be undertaken. Full article
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10 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Genomic Characterization of mcr-1-Harboring Escherichia coli Isolates from Chicken and Pig Farms in Lima, Peru
by Dennis Carhuaricra, Carla G. Duran Gonzales, Carmen L. Rodríguez Cueva, Yennifer Ignacion León, Thalia Silvestre Espejo, Geraldine Marcelo Monge, Raúl H. Rosadio Alcántara, Nilton Lincopan, Luis Luna Espinoza and Lenin Maturrano Hernández
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121781 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
Resistance to colistin generated by the mcr-1 gene in Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern due to its efficient worldwide spread. Despite the fact that the Lima region has a third of the Peruvian population and more than half of the national pig and [...] Read more.
Resistance to colistin generated by the mcr-1 gene in Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern due to its efficient worldwide spread. Despite the fact that the Lima region has a third of the Peruvian population and more than half of the national pig and poultry production, there are no reports of the occurrence of the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli isolated from livestock. In the present work, we studied the occurrence of E. coli carrying the mcr-1 gene in chicken and pig farms in Lima between 2019 and 2020 and described the genomic context of the mcr-1 gene. We collected fecal samples from 15 farms in 4 provinces of Lima including the capital Lima Metropolitana and recovered 341 E. coli isolates. We found that 21.3% (42/197) and 12.5% (18/144) of the chicken and pig strains were mcr-1-positive by PCR, respectively. The whole genome sequencing of 14 mcr-1-positive isolates revealed diverse sequence types (e.g., ST48 and ST602) and the presence of other 38 genes that confer resistance to 10 different classes of antibiotics, including beta-lactamase blaCTX-M-55. The mcr-1 gene was located on diverse plasmids belonging to the IncI2 and IncHI1A:IncHI1B replicon types. A comparative analysis of the plasmids showed that they contained the mcr-1 gene within varied structures (mikBmcr1pap2, ISApl1mcr1pap2, and Tn6330). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in livestock in Peru, revealing its high occurrence in pig and chicken farms. The genetic diversity of mcr-1-positive strains suggests a complex local epidemiology calling for a coordinated surveillance under the One-Health approach that includes animals, retail meat, farmers, hospitals and the environment to effectively detect and limit the spread of colistin-resistant bacteria. Full article
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10 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Metabolism Profile of Mequindox in Sea Cucumbers In Vivo Using LC-HRMS
by Xin Mao, Xiaozhen Zhou, Jun He, Gongzhen Liu, Huihui Liu, Han Zhao, Pengjie Luo, Yongning Wu and Yanshen Li
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111599 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
In this work, the metabolism behavior of mequindox (MEQ) in sea cucumber in vivo was investigated using LC-HRMS. In total, nine metabolites were detected and identified as well as the precursor in sea cucumber tissues. The metabolic pathways of MEQ in sea cucumber [...] Read more.
In this work, the metabolism behavior of mequindox (MEQ) in sea cucumber in vivo was investigated using LC-HRMS. In total, nine metabolites were detected and identified as well as the precursor in sea cucumber tissues. The metabolic pathways of MEQ in sea cucumber mainly include hydrogenation reduction, deoxidation, carboxylation, deacetylation, and combinations thereof. The most predominant metabolites of MEQ in sea cucumber are 2-iso-BDMEQ and 2-iso-1-DMEQ, with deoxidation and carbonyl reduction as major metabolic pathways. In particular, this work first reported 3-methyl-2-quinoxalinecarboxylic acid (MQCA) as a metabolite of MEQ, and carboxylation is a major metabolic pathway of MEQ in sea cucumber. This work revealed that the metabolism of MEQ in marine animals is different from that in land animals. The metabolism results in this work could facilitate the accurate risk assessment of MEQ in sea cucumber and related marine foods. Full article
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10 pages, 1063 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Phorate on the Development of Hyperglycaemia in Mouse and Resistance Genes in Intestinal Microbiota
by Tingting Cao, Yajie Guo, Dan Wang, Zhiyang Liu, Suli Huang, Changfeng Peng, Shaolin Wang, Yang Wang, Qi Lu, Fan Xiao, Zhaoyi Liang, Sijia Zheng, Jianzhong Shen, Yongning Wu, Ziquan Lv and Yuebin Ke
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111584 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Phorate is a systemic, broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Although it is commonly used worldwide, phorate, like other pesticides, not only causes environmental pollution but also poses serious threats to human and animal health. Herein, we measured the blood glucose concentrations of high-fat-diet-fed mice exposed [...] Read more.
Phorate is a systemic, broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Although it is commonly used worldwide, phorate, like other pesticides, not only causes environmental pollution but also poses serious threats to human and animal health. Herein, we measured the blood glucose concentrations of high-fat-diet-fed mice exposed to various concentrations of phorate (0, 0.005, 0.05, or 0.5 mg/kg); we also assessed the blood glucose concentrations of high-fat-diet-fed mice exposed to phorate; we also assessed the distribution characteristics of the resistance genes in the intestinal microbiota of these mice. We found that 0.005 and 0.5 mg/kg of phorate induced obvious hyperglycaemia in the high-fat-diet-fed mice. Exposure to phorate markedly reduced the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the mouse intestine. The resistance genes vanRG, tetW/N/W, acrD, and evgS were significantly upregulated in the test group compared with the control group. Efflux pumping was the primary mechanism of drug resistance in the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, and Actinobacteria found in the mouse intestine. Our findings indicate that changes in the abundance of the intestinal microbiota are closely related to the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the intestinal tract and the metabolic health of the host. Full article
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11 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Fluoroquinolone Residues in Chicken and Pork in China
by Zhixin Fei, Shufeng Song, Xin Yang, Dingguo Jiang, Jie Gao and Dajin Yang
Antibiotics 2022, 11(10), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11101292 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones, have been exhaustively used in animal husbandry. However, very limited information on the occurrence and exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone residues in chicken and pork in China is available to date. Thus, a total of 1754 chicken samples and 1712 pork [...] Read more.
Antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones, have been exhaustively used in animal husbandry. However, very limited information on the occurrence and exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone residues in chicken and pork in China is available to date. Thus, a total of 1754 chicken samples and 1712 pork samples were collected from 25 provinces in China and tested by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) for residual determination of six common fluoroquinolones. The results revealed that the detection frequencies of fluoroquinolone residues were 3.99% and 1.69% in chicken and pork samples. The overall violation frequencies were 0.68% and 0.41% for chicken and pork. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were found to be the most predominant fluoroquinolones. The occurrence of these antibiotics in different sampling regions and market types was analyzed. The %ADI values of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were far less than 100, indicating the health risk associated with the exposure to these aforementioned fluoroquinolone residues via chicken and pork for Chinese children, adolescents, and adults was acceptable. The results provided useful references for Chinese consumers, and helped to appropriately use these antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry. Full article
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11 pages, 2246 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Novel IncHI1B Plasmid in MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae 200 from Swine in China
by Huixian Liang, Xinhui Li and He Yan
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091225 - 09 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a seriously threat to public health. The aim of this study was to better understand the genetic structure of its plasmids and chromosomes. The whole-genome sequence of K. pneumoniae 200 isolated from the liver of a swine with [...] Read more.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a seriously threat to public health. The aim of this study was to better understand the genetic structure of its plasmids and chromosomes. The whole-genome sequence of K. pneumoniae 200 isolated from the liver of a swine with diarrhea in China was determined using PacBio RS II and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The complete sequences of the chromosomal DNA and the plasmids were analyzed for the presence of resistance genes. The phylogenetic trees revealed that K. pneumoniae 200 displayed the closest relationship to a human-associated K. pneumoniae strain from Thailand. K. pneumoniae 200 contained two plasmids, pYhe2001 and pYhe2002, belonging to the incompatibility groups IncH-HI1B and IncF-FIA. The plasmid pYhe2001 was a novel plasmid containing four types of heavy metal resistance genes and a novel Tn6897 transposon flanked by two copies of IS26 at both ends. Mixed plasmids could be transferred from K. pneumoniae 200 to Escherichia coli DH5α through transformation together. This study reported the first time a novel plasmid pYhe2001 from swine origin K. pneumoniae 200, suggesting that the plasmids may act as reservoirs for various antimicrobial resistance genes and transport multiple resistance genes in K. pneumoniae of both animal and human origin. Full article
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13 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
Impact of Raised without Antibiotics Measures on Antimicrobial Resistance and Prevalence of Pathogens in Sow Barns
by Alvin C. Alvarado, Samuel M. Chekabab, Bernardo Z. Predicala and Darren R. Korber
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091221 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The growing concern over the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production as a result of extensive and inappropriate antibiotic use has prompted many swine farmers to raise their animals without antibiotics (RWA). In this study, the impact of implementing an RWA [...] Read more.
The growing concern over the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production as a result of extensive and inappropriate antibiotic use has prompted many swine farmers to raise their animals without antibiotics (RWA). In this study, the impact of implementing an RWA production approach in sow barns on actual on-farm antibiotic use, the emergence of AMR, and the abundance of pathogens was investigated. Over a 13-month period, fecal and nasopharynx samples were collected at 3-month intervals from sows raised in RWA barns and sows in conventional barns using antibiotics in accordance with the new regulations (non-RWA). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to determine the prevalence of AMR and the presence of pathogens in those samples. Records of all drug use from the 13-month longitudinal study indicated a significant reduction in antimicrobial usage in sows from RWA barns compared to conventional non-RWA barns. Antifolates were commonly administered to non-RWA sows, whereas β-lactams were widely used to treat sows in RWA barns. Metagenomic analyses demonstrated an increased abundance of pathogenic Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria in the nasopharynx microbiome of RWA sows relative to non-RWA sows. However, WGS analyses revealed that the nasal microbiome of sows raised under RWA production exhibited a significant increase in the frequency of resistance genes coding for β-lactams, MDR, and tetracycline. Full article
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12 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Fecal Carriage of Escherichia coli Harboring the tet(X4)-IncX1 Plasmid from a Tertiary Class-A Hospital in Beijing, China
by Weishuai Zhai, Yingxin Tian, Dongyan Shao, Muchen Zhang, Jiyun Li, Huangwei Song, Chengtao Sun, Yang Wang, Dejun Liu and Ying Zhang
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081068 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
The emergence of the mobile tigecycline-resistance gene, tet(X4), poses a significant threat to public health. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of the tet(X4)-positive Escherichia coli in humans, 1101 human stool samples were collected from a tertiary class-A hospital in [...] Read more.
The emergence of the mobile tigecycline-resistance gene, tet(X4), poses a significant threat to public health. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of the tet(X4)-positive Escherichia coli in humans, 1101 human stool samples were collected from a tertiary class-A hospital in Beijing, China, in 2019. Eight E. coli isolates that were positive for tet(X4) were identified from clinical departments of oncology (n = 3), hepatology (n = 2), nephrology (n = 1), urology (n = 1), and general surgery (n = 1). They exhibited resistance to multiple antibiotics, including tigecycline, but remained susceptible to meropenem and polymyxin B. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the clonal spread of four tet(X4)-positive E. coli from different periods of time or departments existed in this hospital, and three isolates were phylogenetically close to the tet(X4)-positive E. coli from animals and the environment. All tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates contained the IncX1-plasmid replicon. Three isolates successfully transferred their tigecycline resistance to the recipient strain, C600, demonstrating that the plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer constitutes another critical mechanism for transmitting tet(X4). Notably, all tet(X4)-bearing plasmids identified in this study had a high similarity to several plasmids recovered from animal-derived strains. Our findings revealed the importance of both the clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer in the spread of tet(X4) within human clinics and between different sources. Full article
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10 pages, 12931 KiB  
Article
Characterization of blaNDM-5-and blaCTX-M-199-Producing ST167 Escherichia coli Isolated from Shared Bikes
by Qiyan Chen, Zhiyu Zou, Chang Cai, Hui Li, Yang Wang, Lei Lei and Bing Shao
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081030 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Shared bikes as a public transport provide convenience for short-distance travel. Whilst they also act as a potential vector for antimicrobial resistant (AR) bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the understanding of the whole genome sequence of AR strains and ARGs-carrying plasmids [...] Read more.
Shared bikes as a public transport provide convenience for short-distance travel. Whilst they also act as a potential vector for antimicrobial resistant (AR) bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the understanding of the whole genome sequence of AR strains and ARGs-carrying plasmids collected from shared bikes is still lacking. Here, we used the HiSeq platform to sequence and analyze 24 Escherichia coli isolated from shared bikes around Metro Stations in Beijing. The isolates from shared bikes showed 14 STs and various genotypes. Two blaNDM-5 and blaCTX-M-199-producing ST167 E. coli have 16 resistance genes, four plasmid types and show >95% of similarities in core genomes compared with the ST167 E. coli strains from different origins. The blaNDM-5- or blaCTX-M-199-carrying plasmids sequencing by Nanopore were compared to plasmids with blaNDM-5- or blaCTX-M-199 originated from humans and animals. These two ST167 E. coli show high similarities in core genomes and the plasmid profiles with strains from hospital inpatients and farm animals. Our study indicated that ST167 E. coli is retained in diverse environments and carried with various plasmids. The analysis of strains such as ST167 can provide useful information for preventing or controlling the spread of AR bacteria between animals, humans and environments. Full article
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11 pages, 2263 KiB  
Article
Global Spread of MCR-Producing Salmonella enterica Isolates
by Zengfeng Zhang, Xiaorong Tian and Chunlei Shi
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11080998 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Colistin resistance in bacteria has become a significant threat to food safety and public health, and its development was mainly attributed to the plasmid-mediated mcr genes. This study aimed to determine the global prevalence and molecular characteristics of mcr-producing Salmonella enterica isolates. [...] Read more.
Colistin resistance in bacteria has become a significant threat to food safety and public health, and its development was mainly attributed to the plasmid-mediated mcr genes. This study aimed to determine the global prevalence and molecular characteristics of mcr-producing Salmonella enterica isolates. A total of 2279 mcr-producing Salmonella genomes were obtained from the public database, which were disseminated in 37 countries from five continents worldwide, including Asia, Europe, America, Australia, and Africa. Human samples (39.5%; 900/2279) were the predominant sources of mcr-producing Salmonella isolates, followed by foods (32.6%), animals (13.7%), and environment (4.4%). Furthermore, 80 Salmonella serotypes were identified, and Typhimurium and 1,4,[5],12:i:- were the predominant serotypes, accounting for 18.3% and 18.7%, respectively. Twenty mcr variants were identified, and the most common ones were mcr-9.1 (65.2%) and mcr-1.1 (24.4%). Carbapenems-resistance gene blaNDM-1 and tigecycline-resistance gene tet(X4) were identified in one isolate, respectively. Phylogenetic results indicated that mcr-producing Salmonella fell into nine lineages (Lineages I-IX), and Salmonella Typhimurium, 1,4,[5],12:i:- and 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from different countries were mixed in Lineages I, II and III, suggesting that international spread occurred. These findings underline further challenges for the spread of Salmonella-bearing mcr genes. Full article
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15 pages, 4457 KiB  
Article
Identification of Mobile Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-10 in Disinfectant and Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli from Disinfected Tableware
by Senlin Zhang, Honghu Sun, Guangjie Lao, Zhiwei Zhou, Zhuochong Liu, Jiong Cai and Qun Sun
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070883 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
The widespread escalation of bacterial resistance threatens the safety of the food chain. To investigate the resistance characteristics of E. coli strains isolated from disinfected tableware against both disinfectants and antibiotics, 311 disinfected tableware samples, including 54 chopsticks, 32 dinner plates, 61 [...] Read more.
The widespread escalation of bacterial resistance threatens the safety of the food chain. To investigate the resistance characteristics of E. coli strains isolated from disinfected tableware against both disinfectants and antibiotics, 311 disinfected tableware samples, including 54 chopsticks, 32 dinner plates, 61 bowls, 11 cups, and three spoons were collected in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China to screen for disinfectant- (benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride) and tigecycline-resistant isolates, which were then subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). The coliform-positive detection rate was 51.8% (161/311) and among 161 coliform-positive samples, eight E. coli strains were multidrug-resistant to benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, ampicillin, and tigecycline. Notably, a recently described mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-10 present on the novel IncFIB-type plasmid of E. coli EC2641 screened was able to successfully transform the resistance. Global phylogenetic analysis revealed E. coli EC2641 clustered together with two clinically disinfectant- and colistin-multidrug-resistant E. coli strains from the US. This is the first report of mcr-10-bearing E. coli detected in disinfected tableware, suggesting that continuous monitoring of resistance genes in the catering industry is essential to understand and respond to the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes from the environment and food to humans and clinics. Full article
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13 pages, 2119 KiB  
Article
Effects of Typical Antimicrobials on Growth Performance, Morphology and Antimicrobial Residues of Mung Bean Sprouts
by Jing Cao, Yajie Wang, Guanzhao Wang, Pingping Ren, Yongning Wu and Qinghua He
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060807 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Antimicrobials may be used to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms in the cultivation of mung bean sprouts, but the effects on mung bean sprouts are unclear. In the present study, the growth performance, morphology, antimicrobial effect and antimicrobial residues of mung bean sprouts [...] Read more.
Antimicrobials may be used to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms in the cultivation of mung bean sprouts, but the effects on mung bean sprouts are unclear. In the present study, the growth performance, morphology, antimicrobial effect and antimicrobial residues of mung bean sprouts cultivated in typical antimicrobial solutions were investigated. A screening of antimicrobial residues in thick-bud and rootless mung bean sprouts from local markets showed that the positive ratios of chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and furazolidone were 2.78%, 22.22%, and 13.89%, respectively. The cultivating experiment indicated that the production of mung bean sprouts in antimicrobial groups was significantly reduced over 96 h (p < 0.05). The bud and root length of mung bean sprouts in enrofloxacin, olaquindox, doxycycline and furazolidone groups were significantly shortened (p < 0.05), which cultivated thick-bud and rootless mung bean sprouts similar to the 6-benzyl-adenine group. Furthermore, linear regression analysis showed average optical density of 450 nm in circulating water and average production had no obvious correlation in mung bean sprouts (p > 0.05). Antimicrobial residues were found in both mung bean sprouts and circulating water. These novel findings reveal that the antimicrobials could cultivate thick-bud and rootless mung bean sprouts due to their toxicity. This study also proposed a new question regarding the abuse of antimicrobials in fast-growing vegetables, which could be a potential food safety issue. Full article
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6 pages, 487 KiB  
Brief Report
Synergistic Effects of Capric Acid and Colistin against Colistin-Susceptible and Colistin-Resistant Enterobacterales
by Yi-Yun Liu, Zong-Hua Qin, Hui-Ying Yue, Phillip J. Bergen, Li-Min Deng, Wan-Yun He, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Xian-Feng Peng and Jian-Hua Liu
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010036 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Colistin is a last-line antibiotic against Gram-negative pathogens. However, the emergence of colistin resistance has substantially reduced the clinical effectiveness of colistin. In this study, synergy between colistin and capric acid was examined against twenty-one Gram-negative bacterial isolates (four colistin-susceptible and seventeen colistin-resistant). [...] Read more.
Colistin is a last-line antibiotic against Gram-negative pathogens. However, the emergence of colistin resistance has substantially reduced the clinical effectiveness of colistin. In this study, synergy between colistin and capric acid was examined against twenty-one Gram-negative bacterial isolates (four colistin-susceptible and seventeen colistin-resistant). Checkerboard assays showed a synergistic effect against all colistin-resistant strains [(FICI, fractional inhibitory concentration index) = 0.02–0.38] and two colistin-susceptible strains. Time–kill assays confirmed the combination was synergistic. We suggest that the combination of colistin and capric acid is a promising therapeutic strategy against Gram-negative colistin-resistant strains. Full article
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