Epidemiology of Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 4639

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, Jackson, MS, USA
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; diagnostic stewardship; clinical outcomes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the advent of penicillin in the 1940s, we have been at war with microorganisms, each trying to outcompete the other for survival. As we have produced new antibiotics to combat increasing resistance, bacteria have also been developing new ways to evade these agents. A significant challenge for clinicians, especially when facing drug-resistant pathogens, is whether the isolated pathogen is colonizing or infecting the patient. The overtreatment of pathogens occurs due to this challenge, and leads to the development of further antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, it is imperative to benchmark infecting and colonizing pathogens, as well as their resistance mechanisms, which offers a starting point for determining appropriate antimicrobial use within health systems.

The aim of this Special Issue is to allow readers to understand the relationship between antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial use, and the epidemiology of pathogens around the world. Submissions of all types, including original research, brief reports, reviews, or short communications are welcome. In addition, the submission of resident or trainee research projects that focus on identifying antimicrobial resistance and local pathogen identification in hospitalized patients is also welcomed.

Dr. Jamie Wagner
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • pathogens
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • multidrug-resistance
  • benchmarking
  • colonization
  • infection
  • health-systems

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology, Clinical, and Microbiological Characteristics of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteremia in Qatar
by Hamad Abdel Hadi, Soha R. Dargham, Faiha Eltayeb, Mohamed O. K. Ali, Jinan Suliman, Shiema Abdalla M. Ahmed, Ali S. Omrani, Emad Bashir Ibrahim, Yuzhou Chen, Clement K. M. Tsui, Sini Skariah and Ali Sultan
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040320 - 31 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is a global healthcare threat with significant clinical and economic consequences peaking at secondary and tertiary care hospitals where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR GNB) lead to poor outcomes. A prospective study was conducted between January and December 2019 for all invasive [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is a global healthcare threat with significant clinical and economic consequences peaking at secondary and tertiary care hospitals where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR GNB) lead to poor outcomes. A prospective study was conducted between January and December 2019 for all invasive bloodstream infections (BSIs) secondary to MDR GNB in Qatar identified during routine microbiological service to examine their clinical, microbiological, and genomic characteristics. Out of 3238 episodes of GNB BSIs, the prevalence of MDR GNB was 13% (429/3238). The predominant MDR pathogens were Escherichia coli (62.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.4%), Salmonella species (6.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.3%), while out of 245 clinically evaluated patients, the majority were adult males, with the elderly constituting almost one-third of the cohort and with highest observed risk for prolonged hospital stays. The risk factors identified included multiple comorbidities, recent healthcare contact, previous antimicrobial therapy, and admission to critical care. The in-hospital mortality rate was recorded at 25.7%, associated with multiple comorbidities, admission to critical care, and the acquisition of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistant pathogens demonstrated high levels of antimicrobial resistance but noticeable susceptibility to amikacin and carbapenems. Genomic analysis revealed that Escherichia coli ST131 and Salmonella enterica ST1 were the predominant clones not observed with other pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance)
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11 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Bacteriuria in Paediatric Oncology Patients: Clinical Features, Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Pathogens at University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia over a 4-Year Period
by Nina Predavec, Antonio Perčinić, Zoran Herljević, Violeta Rezo Vranješ, Maja Pavlović, Zrinko Šalek, Tomislav Kuliš, Ernest Bilić and Ivana Mareković
Antibiotics 2024, 13(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13020118 - 25 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Bacteriuria in paediatric oncology patients have not been well studied. This retrospective study analysed clinical features, distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens cultured from urine in paediatric oncology patients over a 4-year period (2019–2022). A total of 143 episodes of bacteriuria were [...] Read more.
Bacteriuria in paediatric oncology patients have not been well studied. This retrospective study analysed clinical features, distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens cultured from urine in paediatric oncology patients over a 4-year period (2019–2022). A total of 143 episodes of bacteriuria were documented in 74 patients. Neutropenia was present in 17.5% (25/143), symptoms in 25.9% (37/143) and urinary catheter in 7.0% (10/143) episodes. Symptomatic bacteriuria episodes were statistically significantly more frequent in patients with neutropenia (p = 0.0232). The most common bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli (n = 49; 32.2%), Klebsiella spp. (n = 34; 22.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 22; 14.5%) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 21; 13.8%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing (ESBL) Enterobacterales were found in 11 episodes (11/143; 7.7%) with the highest proportion among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (n = 7/34; 20.6%). No carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. were found. The most important novelties are demonstrating P. aeruginosa as one of the prominent bacteriuria pathogens in this patient population, presence of ESBL isolates and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa later during hospitalization highlights the need for appropriate antimicrobial treatment. However, because of the small number of symptomatic patients, further studies are needed to clarify the importance of including urine culture in the diagnostic process in patients with febrile neutropenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance)
12 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology of Nocardia Species at a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Taiwan, 2012 to 2020: MLSA Phylogeny and Antimicrobial Susceptibility
by Shu-Fang Kuo, Fang-Ju Chen, I-Chia Lan, Chun-Chih Chien and Chen-Hsiang Lee
Antibiotics 2022, 11(10), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11101438 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia spp. are essential for guiding antibiotic treatment. We investigated the species distribution and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species collected in southern Taiwan from 2012 to 2020. A total of 77 Nocardia isolates were collected [...] Read more.
The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia spp. are essential for guiding antibiotic treatment. We investigated the species distribution and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species collected in southern Taiwan from 2012 to 2020. A total of 77 Nocardia isolates were collected and identified to the species level using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). The susceptibilities to 15 antibiotics for Nocardia isolates were determined by the broth microdilution method, and the MIC50 and MIC90 for each antibiotic against different species were analyzed. N. cyriacigeorgica was the leading isolate, accounting for 32.5% of all Nocardia isolates, and the prevalence of Nocardia isolates decreased in summer. All of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, and linezolid, whereas 90.9% were non-susceptible to cefepime and imipenem. The phylogenic tree by MLSA showed that the similarity between N. beijingensis and N. asiatica was as high as 99%, 73% between N. niigatensis and N. crassostreae, and 86% between N. cerradoensis and N. cyriacigeorgica. While trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, and linezolid remained fully active against all of the Nocardia isolates tested, 90.9% of the isolates were non-susceptible to cefepime and imipenem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance)
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